US 3419724 A
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Dec. 31, 1968 J. E. BAYHA 3,419,724
RADIATION SENSITIVE CURRENCY ACCEPTOR WITH ESCROW Filed Jan. 28, 1966 SOLENOID SOLENOID llO IOZ |8 A T SOLENOID H6 ll4 I3 4 MOTOR 96 SENSING CIRCUIT SUPPLY RELAY CIR FIG. I
$420 LIGHT SERVO 420 |32 FOR 424 VOLTAGE LEVEL V ADJUSTMENT I20 I24 I26 I ORE; I *1 RATIO Q8 0 N SENSOR YES NUMERAL ANALYSIS ACCEPT TEST TEST CIRCUIT I34 NO IREJECTI I I I36 REJECT l 3 3 AMPLIFIER v FIG. 2
JACK E. BAYHA ATTORNEYS United States Patent 3,419,724 RADIATION SENSITIVE CURRENCY ACCEPTOR WITH ESCROW Jack E. Bayha, Chesterland, Ohio, assignor to Trans- Marine Corporation, Chesterland, Ohio, a corporation of Ohio Filed Jan. 28, 1966, Ser. No. 523,699 7 Claims. (Cl. 250-219) This invention relates to an apparatus for authentication and acceptance of documents, wherein a plurality of documents may be involved, and more particularly wherein it is necessary to receive and identify two or more like pieces of paper species and validate them, returning all should any fail the tests for genuineness.
In the past it has been possible to establish the genuineness of single documents, secure them and initiate a vend or other service impulse. Where a plurality of documents or currencies are involved the need for escrow, or ability to return all documents, should one be judged invalid, results in extremely complex devices. Heretofore, only involved mechanical systems of questioned reliability have been able to perform the function of escrow.
The general object of the present invention is to validate a plurality of documents, with full escrow function without the need of any involved devices or technique.
The specific object of this invention is to authenticate two documents at the same time, rejecting back to the submitter both, should either be invalid. This is in effect a true performance of escrow, since the first bill is in effect held until the second is ascertained valid, with the invalidity of either bill returning both submitted bills. When both bills are in fact determined genuine, both are secured and the service of a vend pulse generated.
The aforesaid and other objects of the invention are achieved by providing in a circuit for authentication of paper securities the combination of means to carry two securities of the same denomination into a testing area with the securities stacked one on top of the other, but in the same relation to each other, means to project light onto the top surface of the top security, reference photocell means to detect the amount of light passing through a particular area on the bottom side of the bottom security, first circuit means connected to the reference photocell to produce an output voltage dependent upon the amount of light detected by the reference photocell, a plurality of test photocells operatively supplied with the output voltage from the circuit means to view other areas on the bottom of the second security to be tested, a separate second oircuit to sense whether the light detected by the test photocells falls within predetermined levels :as determined by the first circuit means to provide a signal when the paper security tested is authentic, and means to payout and receive both securities where an authentic signal is received from the second circuit.
For a better understanding of the invention reference should now be had to the accompanying drawings, where- FIGURE 1 is a diagrammatic view partly in section showing the apparatus and control circuits of the invention; and
FIGURE 2 is a block diagram of the essential components in the sensing circuit of FIGURE 1.
The term paper money used hereinafter has reference to the article or articles to be identified by the testing apparatus of this invention, but this term is intended to include paper currency of all sizes, denominations, and countries of origin, in addition to bonds, documents, other paper, etc. However, the apparatus of the invention is primarily designed for the determination of genuineness of two similar documents of United States paper money.
3,419,724 Patented Dec. 31, 1968 Specifically, for the purposes of the invention this means two one dollar bills, two fives or two tens. In order to shorten the designation of the article being tested, as called for hereinafter, it will be designated in the drawings as a bill and will be so described in the specification.
With reference to the form of the invention illustrated in FIGURE 1 of the drawings, the numeral 10 indicates a bill changing apparatus supported by a frame 11, only a portion of which is indicated in the drawing. A substantially horizontal guide rail 14, secured to the frame 11, guides a bill slide 12 to :an in and an out position. To provide clearance for the movable bill slide 12, the dimension of the slide in the direction normal to its movement is slightly less than the height of the guide rail 14. The guide rail 14 is formed with a longitudinally extending groove 18. The slide 12 contains a bill chamber 20 adapted to receive a bill 22, or two bills with one stacked in alignment on top of the other. The bill chamber is formed by a bill support plate 24 and a bill cover 26 which :has an upwardly extending lip 28 that serves as a handle for the operator. The cover plate 26 has a forwardly extending ear 30 which receives a pivot pin 32 to mount the cover plate 26 on the slide 12. When the cover plate 26 is opened, the lower surface of the car 30 functions to position the bill 22 or bills, as the case may be, accurately in the bill chamber 20.
The support and cover plates have a plurality of spaced concentric bores 34 which extend through the plates in a direction normal to the movement of the slide. The plates contain at least one bore in two of the corner portions where the numeral designating the denomination of the bill will fall, the purpose of which will be more fully explained hereinafter. The large number of bores 34 provide the apparatus with inherent versatility since a large number of different portions of the bill can be comparatively tested to determine the authenticity thereof.
As shown in FIGURE 1, the slide 12 is in the in position. In this position, the bores 34 are in alignment with matching bores 36 in a plate 38. The plate 38 is secured to and spans the lower portion of the guide rail 14. A circuit board 40 positions a selected number of light sensitive photocells indicated generally by numeral 42, such as photodiodes or photoresistors, in the bores 36. The circuit board 40 preferably positions at least one cell, such :as 42a, in each corner bore, two cells, such as cell 42b, over the numerals in two of the corners of the bill, one reference cell, such as 420, and six cells, such as 42d, in selected bores over the surface of the bill. The number of cells, the electrical characteristics of the separate cells, and the relative locations can be varied in accordance With the unique requirements of the document being tested.
Specifically, the photocells 42b may be positioned to view the light passing through the numerals of the bill and, for example, may be particularly set to distinguish between the numerals l and 2. The numeral 2 on a United States two dollar bill is very clear and unobstructed so that a great deal of light passes therethrough, while the numeral 1 on a one dollar bill is lined and will not pass as much light. Therefore, the photocell associated with the numerals can readily distinguish between a 1, a 2, two 1s in stacked relation, or other denominations alone or in stacked relation. The signal received from these photocells 42b will be used to set the sensing circuitry, as more fully described hereinafter.
While the difference between the numerals in various bills can be distinguished by photocell viewing, it should be understood that many other areas on bills present distinguishing characteristics and these areas might be viewed by photocells 42b to determine the denomination of the bill being tested. In efiect this is merely the act of looking at a bill with a photodensitometric system for a portion of a second for its value such as first 1, then 2, then 5,
etc. A change in scan is effected by suitable time delay relays and the switching of common tuning potentiometers.
The denomination sensing by the photocells 42b is used to set the sensitivity on the randomly positioned photocells 42d over the remainder of the bill. For example, if it is desired to authenticate two one dollar bills in stacked relationship, one on top of the other, and in the same orientation, the photocells 42d must have approximately twice the sensitivity as is necessary with authentication of a single one dollar bill or a single two dollar bill. The authenticating signal from the numeral photocells 42b can be used to set this sensitivity depending on what it detects, since the detection of light passing through the numerals or other particular areas on a two, a one, two stacked one dollar bills, or other denominations alone or stacked is quite different and thus readily distinguishable. The technique of setting sensitivity by photocell sensing is taught in U.S. Patent No. 3,211,268, although it is not applied for the specific purpose of checking numerals.
Movement of the slide 12 to the in position trips a microswitch 44 to apply a power to lamps 46 supported in a housing 48, while at the same time supplying power to a transformer 50 of a power supply 52. The housing 48 is positioned above the slide and therefore directly over the bores of the plate 38. The light energy from the lamps 46 as reflected from the aligned housing passes through the bill or bills in the bill chamber 20, and then strikes the light sensitive photocells 42. The resulting electrical characteristics of the individual cells is a function of the intensity and color of the light thereon.
To protect against the inclusion of currencies other than two of the denomination desired, some sensing cells are used in areas which are free of printing in the denomination being authenticated, but imprinted in other denominations. This simply protects a machine designed to secure two one dollar bills from accepting a one and a five dollar bill, as it does a machine designed to accept two five dollar bills from accepting a one dollar bill and a five for example.
With the method of stacking two bills one over the other, the ability to authenticate by photodensitometric means is reinforced rather than reduced in efficiency as might be anticipated on initial examination, since the difference between black and white, the major sensory information, is increased in range by the stacking action. This secures against imitation of genuine species being presented despite the increased latitude of acceptance demanded by the registration problem, since a poorly registered one dollar bill looks more like a properly registered one than it does like any other bill when examined.
In order to remove the bill or bills from the bill chamber 20, a roller 54 driven by a motor 56 is provided and is journalled on the frame so that the upper portion of the roller is positioned adjacent but slightly below the leading portion of the bill 22. An idler roller 58, journalled on a lever 60 pivoted to the frame, is positioned above the leading edge of the bill slightly forward of the axis of the roller 54. A solenoid 62 connected to the free end of the lever 60 by a spring 64 moves the idler roller 58 into engagement with the leading or forward edges of the bill to pinch the bill between the rollers 54 and 58. The application of torque to the roller 54 by the motor 56 pulls the bill 22 or bills from the bill chamber into a bill chamber 66. The solenoid 62 is actuated through a line 72 from a plurality of relay circuits 74 and reciprocates the lever 60 to move the idler roller 58 into and out of an opening 68 in the bill slide 12.
In a similar manner a solenoid 76, controllable by a signal from the relay circuits 74 over a line 78, is adapted to position a plunger 80 slidably supported in the frame 11 to lock the slide 12 in the in position. An extensible flat coil spring 82, having one end thereof secured to the slide 12 and the coil portion thereof secured to the frame 11 functions to return the slide to the out position.
The control circuit power supply 52 is conductively connected to a switch by means of a conductor 92. The switch 90 is operated by movement of the bill slide 12 to the in position. Conductor means 94 connects the switch 90 with a sensing circuit 96. The sensing circuit 96 is connected to the light sensitive cells 42 and to the relay circuits 74 which is electrically coupled to the motor 56 by a conductor 98. The sensing circuit 96 measures the signals received from the cells 42 and provides an authentic or reject signal. Upon proper authentication, the circuit 96 sends a payout signal through a conductor 100 to the relay circuit 74. The payout signal energizes one of the relays in the circuit 74 to supply a power payout signal to a coin vending mechanism, indicated generally by the numeral 102, and more specifically to a payout solenoid 104 associated therewith.
The coin vending mechanism 102 contains a coin injection knife 106 which is moved in operative position by the solenoid 104 against the force of a pair of tension springs 108. Upon de-energization of the solenoid 104, the springs 108 function to inject the coins in front of the leading edge of the knife 106 to a vending trough accessible to the operator (not shown). Of course, the vending signal could be used to dispense a product other than money, or to provide a desired service.
In order to de-energize the solenoid and reset the relays in the relay circuit 74 upon actuation of the payout signal, a normally closed switch 110 may be opened by a linkage 112 when the solenoid is fully energized to thus effect the de-energization.
A thermal overload switch 114 may be positioned in the I coin solenoid circuit conductor 116 to break the circuit to the solenoid when the energization to the motor 56 exceeds a predetermined time. The switch contains a pair of bimetal contacts 118, and heater 119 associated with a drive circuit to the motor 56, all in the conventional manner for a thermal overload switch.
Operation of sensing circuit FIGURE 2 illustrates in block diagram the circuits and function carried out by the sensing circuit 96. First, a corner sensor test, as indicated by block 120, and driven by cells 42a, is conducted to test the corners of a bill placed for validation, to be sure that all corners are in place and of the proper consistency. See U.S. Patent No. 3,211,268 for further details on the corner sensing. A no signal may, for example, actuate a reject 122 if the corners do not meet the test, whereas if the corners are satisfactory, a yes signal will be sent to the next sequential step which is a numerical test 124. This test, as stated above senses the numerals or other distinguishing characteristics in at least two of the corners of the bills, by cells 42b, and detects whether the bills are in this instance, a two dollar bill, a one dollar bill, or two one dollar bills stacked one on top the other, as indicated by block 126, 128, 130, respectively. The proper denomination signal representing which bill or bills are present is sent to the circuit comprising the next sequential step which is a relay 131. The relay 131 differentiates between the voltage and/or current levels of the denomination signals 126, 128, or 130, and thus activates an amplifier 133. The amplifier 133 properly energizes a light servocircuit for voltage level adjustment, as indicated by block 132. This circuit upon receipt of the bill signal automatically adjusts the remainder of the sensing circuitry to look for the proper denomination. It utilizes the reference cell 42c to generate a satisfactory voltage level adjustment signal which is set for the particular denomination of the bill, as well as the particular characteristics of the bill, such as age, deterioration, dirtiness, etc. The voltage level provided by circuit 132 acts as a reference for a ratio analysis circuit 134 where the final test validation of the bill is 5 generally made by photocells 42d at random, such as bores 34 and 36, as shown in FIGURE 1, and set forth above. The output from the circuit 134 will provide either a no signal for a reject function 136 or a yes signal for an accepted function 138.
The features of the corner sensor test 120 are essentially conventional and merely measure the amount of light passed through the corner portions of the bill to determine that corner portions are present and that the bill is squarely and properly placed in the slide 12. The numeral test 124, also merely measuring light passage does distinguish between the different light passing characteristics on the numerals of a one, two stacked ones, and two dollar bills, and as such sets the adjustment circuit 132, through the relay 131 and amplifier 133, in accordance with the particular bill detected. When two one dollar bills are stacked in aligned relationship, the circuit 132 will be set by the denomination signal for about twice the sensitivity on the remaining photocell pickup to account for the lessened amount of light passed through and detected by the photocells 42. Naturally, it should be understood that the apparatus may be set to receive only a two dollar bill or two stacked one dollar bills, in which case denomination detection could be so limited. Or, of course, the apparatus could be set to receive only two stacked bills of the same denomination in which case no numeral or denomination test would be conducted.
A specific electrical circuitry which might be used for the circuits 132 and 134 is shown in a patentapplication entitled, Photoelectric Document Authenticating Apparatus With Age and Color Compensation, invented by James K. Phares, Ser. No. 405,666, filed Oct. 22, 1964 now Patent No. 3,360,653, and assigned to the same assignee as the instant application. It is however, the recognition of the fact that the particular denomination of bills can be detected by sensing the numerals in the corners, as well as conducting a simultaneous authenticating test on two one dollar bills in stacked relationship by increasing the sensitivity of light detection, thereby eliminating the normal escrow technique utilized heretofore, that represents the improved embodiment of the invention. This is accomplished by the use of the relay 131 to properly set the amplifier 133 so the circuits 132 and 134 look for authentication of the proper denomination.
What is claimed is:
1. In a circuit for authentication of paper securities the combination of:
means to carry two securities of the same denomination into a testing area with the securities stacked one on top of the other in like juxtaposition,
means to project light onto one surface of the stacked securities,
a plurality of test photocells to view the light passage through randomly selected areas on the other surface of the stacked securities to be tested,
a first circuit receiving the output voltage from the test photocells to sense whether the light detected by the test photocells falls within predetermined levels to provide a signal when the paper security tested is authentic, and
means to payout and receive both securities where an authentic signal is received from the circuit.
2. A circuit according to claim 1 which includes a reference photocell means to detect the amount of light passed through a particular area on the other surface of the stacked securities, and second circuit means connected to the reference photocell to produce an output voltage dependent upon the amount of light detected by the reference photocell where this output voltage sets the voltage detection levels in the first circuit.
3. A circuit according to claim 2 where the reference photocell and the test photocells are of about twice the light sensitivity necessary for testing a single security.
4. A circuit according to claim 3 which includes corner sensor photocells to detect if the corners of the securities are intact.
5. A circuit according to claim 2 which includes denomination detecting photocells to sense numerals in the corners of the securities and to automatically adjust both the first and second circuit means when the characteristics of the numerals in certain securities are detected by said denomination detecting photocells.
6. A circuit according to claim 2 where the means to carry two securities into the testing area also can carry only a single security, and which includes means to detect between individual single securities and two stacked securities, and means to set the first and second circuit means according to the detection between securities.
7. A circuit according to claim 5 where the means to detect between securities is a relay which is actuated by the difference in light passed through predetermined distinguishing areas on the securities, and an amplifier driven by the signal from the relay is provided to send a properly amplified signal to the first and second circuit means.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,580,270 12/1951 Badgley et al 250219 X 3,211,268 10/1965 Dills et al 194-4 3,360,653 12/1967 Phares 250219 WALTER STOLWEIN, Primary Examiner.
US. Cl. X.R. 88-14; l944