US 3420067 A
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SVENERIK BJERKING 3,420,067
Jan. 7,-- 1969 PRODUCTION OF FILES AND FILE STRUCTURES IN THE GROUND Filed Sept. 8, 1966 I Ora,
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United States Patent 3,420,067 PRODUCTION OF PILES AND PILE STRUCTURES IN THE GROUND Sven-Erik Bjerking, Gotgatan 3, Uppsala, Sweden Filed Sept. 8, 1966, Ser. No. 577,996 Claims priority, application Sweden, Sept. 13, 1965,
11,923/ 65 US. Cl. 6153.64 13 Claims Int. Cl. E0211 /38 ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE It is an object of the present invention to simplify methods of forming cast piles in the earth and providing less expensive apparatus for the formation of such piles. A further object of the present invention is to provide a method and means for driving pile-forming apparatus into the earth, providing reinforcing means for the piles and casting piles all in one continuous operation. A still further object of the present invention is to make it possible to control the position of the pile shoe both before and after the removal of the anvil pipe by utilizing reinforcing rods of finite lengths secured to the pile shoe and after having cast the piles utilizing the upper ends of the reinforcing rods as levelling means. Yet another object of the present invention is to provide a pile-forming apparatus in which the air entrapped in the anvil pipe may escape and in which the apparatus is independent of any casting material that may have penetrated upwards.
The above objectives are accomplished and the above advantages obtained by providing longitudinally-disposed flanges or fins around the periphery of a casting material supply pipe to center the supply pipe within an anvil pipe and provide an annular space of substantially constant width between the supply pipe and the anvil pipe. This annular space can accommodate elongated reinforcing rods which may be readily secured to a shoe before driving the shoe and the anvil pipe into the earth and such rods will remain in their predetermined position until the entire driving operation is completed. It has been found that by providing an annular space between the anvil pipe and the casting mass supply pipe and withdrawing the anvil pipe and the supply pipe simultaneously, a chamber for molding the casting mass will be formed betweenthe pile shoe and the lower end of the anvil pipe and the annular space between the supply pipe and the anvil pipe need not be sealed but may remain open for the escape of any trapped air.
The present invention will be more clearly understood by reference to the accompanying drawings, wherein: FIGURE 1 is a vertical cross-section of the pile-forming apparatus; FIGURE 2 is a horizontal cross-section taken along the line 22 of FIGURE 1; FIGURE 3 is a horizontal cross-section taken along the line 33 of FIGURE 1; and FIGURE 4 is a cross-section taken along the line 44 of FIGURE 1; FIGURE 5 is a cross-section similar to FIGURE 3 except that the device is in an unlatched condition; FIGURE 6 is a partial side elevation showing the latch position of the apparatus in the condition shown in FIGURE 5; FIGURE 7 is a right side, vertical cross- Cir "ice
section of the pile-forming apparatus of the present invention; FIGURE 8 is a right side view of the pile-forming apparatus of the present invention in exploded form; FIGURE 9 is a partial, vertical cross-section of the right side of one modification of the pile-forming apparatus of the present invention; FIGURE 10 is a horizontal crosssection taken along the line 10-10 of FIGURE 9; FIG- URE 11 shows a plurality of cast, interconnected piles formed in accordance with two variations of the present method; and FIGURE 12 is a cross-section of an individual cast pile formed in accordance with the method of the present invention.
In accordance with the drawings, the numeral 10 generically designates the pile-driving and casting material supply unit of the apparatus. The numeral 12 generically refers to the stamping or anvil unit of the apparatus of the present invention. The numeral 14 generically represents the pile shoe of the present invention.
The pile-driving and casting material supply unit includes a casting material hopper 16 into which the casting material is poured. Hopper 16 has its lower end tapered downwardly to terminate at its lower end in a throat or small cylindrical outlet 18. Outlet 18 is in open communication with casting material supply pipe 20. Longitudinally disposed about the outer periphery of supply pipe 20 are flanges or fins 22. Flanges or fins 22 are radially-disposed about supply pipe 20 and thus act as spacers for the supply pipe, as will be hereinafter pointed out. Surrounding at least a portion of hopper 16 and supply pipe 20 is pile-driving weight 24. Attached to the lower end of weight 24 is annular striking plate 26. Striking plate 26 acts against the anvil pipe 22 and prevents damage to weight 24. Surrounding weight 24 and protecting the weight as well as the upper end of the anvil pipe is protective skirt 27. Driving and supply unit 10 is lowered and raised by means of Wire cable 28. Wire cable 28 passes over pully 30 which is disposed in hopper 16 and journaled to weight 24 by means of shaft 32. Disposed in the lower end of protective skirt 27 are latching hooks or eyelets 34, whose purpose will be hereinafter described. The lower end of protective skirt 27 is split at points ninety degrees removed from latching eyelets 34 and projecting from the split sections of skirt 27 are outwardly projecting pairs of latching flanges 35 and 36, respectively. Flanges 35 and 36-, as well as 37, may be used to guide the driving unit. Latching flanges 35 and 36 have welded between them reinforcing plates 38 and 40, respectively. Passing through generallyrectangular holes in flanges 35 and 36 are arcuat e latches or curved bolts 42 and 44, respectively. Disposed below driving and supply unit 10 is stamping or anvil pipe 46. Anvil pipe 46 has an internal diameter sufliciently large to just clear fins 22 of supply pipe 20 so that supply pipe 20 will remain centered in anvil pipe 46 during the reciprocal movement of supply pipe 20 through anvil pipe 46 while driving unit is in operation to drive the anvil pipe 46 into the earth. Pins 22 therefore center supply pipe 20 in an anvil pipe 46 and also provide an annular space between supply pipe 20 and anvil pipe 46. Projecting outwardly from the sides of anvil pipe 46 are flanges 48 and 50, respectively. As shown in FIGURE 3, when it is desired to withdraw the anvil pipe and the supply pipe simultaneously from the earth during the step of casting the pile, the latches 42 and 44 are rotated into position through the holes in flanges 35 and 36 so that flanges 48 and 50 are supported atop latches 42 and 44. This will thus permit anvil pipe 46 to be withdrawn along with the driving and supply unit. FIGURE 5 shows latches 42 and 44 in the unlatched position where the driving unit and supply pipe 20 are free to move relative to anvil pipe 46. In this position, the latches 42 and 44 are supported in one of the holes of flanges 35 and 35 and in the hooks 34. Disposed beneath the anvil pipe 46 and in contact therewith is the pile shoe 14. Pile shoe 14 as a lower generally-pointed nose portion 52. Obviously, nose 52 can take any desired configuration depending upon the properties of the earth into which it is to be driven. Formed in the upper surface of shoe 14 is reinforcing mounting plate 54. Mounting plate 54 provides means for supporting metallic reinforcing rods 56. Reinforcing rods 56 may be bolted or otherwise attached to mounting plate 54 and protrude upwardly through the annular space between anvil pipe 46 and supply pipe 20. Accordingly, reinforcing rods 56 may be maintained in place throughout the process of driving shoe 14 and anvil pipe 46 into the earth and during the casting or molding of the pile about reinforcing rods 56. Formed longitudinally along opposing sides of anvil pipe 46 are converging flanges 58 and 60, respectively. Converging flanges 58 and 64} form, with the outer periphery of anvil pipe 46, generally-triangular spaces whose purpose will be hereinafter pointed out. FIGURE 7 of the drawings ShOWs a right hand crosssectional view of the apparatus of FIGURE 1 with the supply and driving unit as well as the anvil unit partially withdrawn from the earth and a pile 62 being formed in the molded space voided by the anvil pipe, between the shoe 14 and the anvil pipe 46. FIGURE 12 of the drawings shows a cross section of an individual pile 62 formed by the apparatus of FIGURE 7. It is to be noted that concrete mass 62 has outwardly projecting, generally triangular extensions or projections 64 and 66. Projections 64 and 66 provide a stabilizing means where a single pile 62 is formed in the earth and thus prevent the pile from rotating as there is often a tendency to do when weight is applied to the pile. Projections 64 and 66 also perform other functions as will be pointed out in more detail hereinafter.
In the operation of the apparatus of the present invention, the shoe 14 has reinforcing rods 56 of appropriate length attached thereto and set in position on the surface of the earth. Clay or plastic or another suitable material is preferably packed in the voids of flanges 58 and 60 to prevent earth and debris from entering the voids. The anvil unit 12 is then positioned on top of the shoe 14 and the driving and supply unit 10 is positioned atop the anvil pipe 46 with the latches 42 and 44 in an unlatched position as shown in FIGURES and 6. Anvil unit 12 and shoe 14 are then driven into the earth by repeatedly raising driving unit by means of cable 28 and then releasing it and allowing it to drop and plate 26 to contact the upper end of anvil pipe 46. This repeated raising and lowering of the driving unit drives anvil unit 12 and pile shoe 14 into the earth to the desired depth. After these units have reached their desired depth in the earth, latches 42 and 46 are slid into their latching positions, as shown in FIGURE 3, to latch the driving and supply unit 10 to the anvil unit 12. Then, simultaneously, concrete or other flowable casting material is poured into hopper 16 and the driving and supply unit and anvil unit are slowly withdrawn to form the cast mass of concrete or the like in the void space vacated by anvil unit 12 as it is withdrawn from the earth. As previously pointed out, the annular space between anvil pipe 46 and supply pipe 20 provides a passage for the escape of air which may be trapped in the anvil unit during the driving and casting operations as well as providing space for reinforcing rods 56 and the fins 22 provide a positive guide for the driving and supply unit within anvil pipe 46 during the driving operation. After the driving and supply unit 10 and anvil unit 12 have been completely withdrawn and the pile has set, it will take the form of the piling shown in FIGURE 12 with the reinforcing rods protruding from the upper end of the set pile. In this position the rods can of course be utilized as levelling means for other units to be attached to or formed on the piles. They can also be used as anchors for anchoring the pile to a floor or beam to be formed atop the pile.
FIGURES 9 and 10 show still another form of the 4 apparatus of the present invention. In FIGURES 9 and 10 an anchor plate or strip 68 is disposed between the converging flanges 60 of anvil pipe 46. The purpose of this anchor plate will be described in connection with FIG- URE 11.
FIGURE 11 shows two methods of forming interconnected cast piles in accordance with the present invention. In one method, a pile 70, having projections 72 and 74, is cast in exactly the same manner as was previously described. Thereafter, a second pile 76 is formed before pile 70 has set. In forming pile 76, flanges 58 or 60 of the anvil unit 12 are driven into projection 74 to thereby spread the projection and form an anchor between projection 74 and projection 78 of pile 76. In the other one of flanges 58 and 60 an anchor plate or strip 80' may be inserted. The anchor plate 80 may serve as an anchor connecting to adjacent, such as pile 76 and pile 84. This is done by permitting pile 76 to set with anchor strip 80 disposed therein in projection 82. Thereafter, the pile 84 is formed by placing an appropriate anchor plate 86 in one of flanges 58 and 60 and sliding the other one of flanges 58 and 60 over anchor 80 during the driving of the pile. Finally the anvil unit 12 is withdrawn as pile 84 is formed with projections 88 and 90.
Having described and specifically exemplified the present invention, it is to be understood that such description and examples are by way of illustration only and that one skilled in the art will readily recognize other modifications and variations. Accordingly, the present invention is to be limited only in accordance with the appended claims.
1. Apparatus for forming cast piles in the earth, comprising: driving weight means casting material hopper means formed as a part of said driving weight means; casting material supply pipe means secured to, extending downwardly from and moveable with said driving weight means; anvil pipe means having its upper end operatively associated with said driving weight means and surrounding at least the lower end of said supply pipe means; guide means, mounted about the exterior of said supply pipe means, adapted to guide said supply pipe means during longitudinal relative movement through said anvil pipe means; and pile shoe means, associated with and adjacent the lower end of said anvil pipe means, adapted to have attached thereto vertically-disposed reinforcing rods, whereby upon lowering and raising of said driving weight means, said hopper means and said supply pipe means drives said anvil pipe and pile shoe into the earth.
2. Apparatus in accordance with claim 1, wherein the guide means are radially projecting fins longitudinally disposed on the exterior of the supply pipe means.
3. Apparatus in accordance with claim 1, wherein the supply pipe means has an external diameter substantially less than the internal diameter of the anvil pipe means and the guide means are longitudinally disposed fins radially projecting from the exterior of said supply pipe means a distance just less than the width of the annular space between said supply pipe means and said anvil pipe means.
4. Apparatus in accordance with claim 1, wherein the supply pipe means has an outside diameter substantially less than the inside diameter of the anvil pipe means and the pile shoe means is adapted to vertically dispose the reinforcing rods in the annular space between said supply pipe means and said anvil pipe means.
5. Apparatus in accordance with claim 1, wherein latch means are provided on the driving weight means and the anvil pipe means which cooperate to latch said anvil pipe means .to said driving weight means for simultaneous movement of said driving weight means and said anvil pipe means.
6. Apparatus in accordance with claim 1, wherein at least the lower end of the anvil pipe means has at least one longitudinally-disposed projections formed on its outer periphery.
7. An apparatus in accordance with claim 6, wherein the projection is generally triangular in shape and hollow.
8. Apparatus in accordance with claim 6, wherein the projection has a slot therein and is adapted to receive and hold a binding strip while said anvil pipe means is driven into the earth and to release said binding strip when said anvil pipe means is withdrawn from the earth.
9. Apparatus in accordance with claim 8, wherein the flanges are generally triangular in shape and hollow with a slot formed at the outer-most juncture of the sides of the triangle.
10. A method of forming a cast piling in the earth, comprising: vertically mounting at least one reinforcing rod on a pile shoe; surrounding said renforcing rods with an anvil pipe; slidably disposing a casting material supply pipe within said anvil pipe; reciprocally moving a driving weight into and out of contact with said anvil pipe while simultaneously reciprocating said supply pipe in said anvil pipe to drive said shoe and said anvil pipe into the earth a predetermined distance; latching said supply pipe and said driving weight to said anvil pipe; withdrawing said anvil pipe from the earth while simultaneously supplying a fiowable casting material through said supply pipe and into the void in the earth left by the withdrawal of said anvil pipe.
11. A method in accordance with claim 10, wherein the exterior of the anvl pipe has at least one projection protruding from the exterior thereof to form at least one protrusion of cast material on the side of the finished piling.
12. A method in accordance with claim 11, wherein at least a portion of the anvil pipe is driven through the protrusion of the unset first piling and a second piling is formed in the same manner as the first piling.
13. A method in accordance with claim 10, wherein a binding strip is disposed in the projection of the anvil pipe prior to driving said anvil pipe into the earth; said binding strip is left in place in the earth during casting of said piling; and, thereafter, an anvil pipe is again driven into the earth with said binding strip passing through a projection in the side of said anvil pipe and a second piling is cast in substantially the same manner as the first piling.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 890,7 65 6/ 1908 Gilbreth 6153.64 1,858,204 5/ 1932 Frankignoul 6153 .64 2,146,645 2/ 1939 Newman 6l53.62
FOREIGN PATENTS 999,378 10/1951 France.
3 60,457 6/ 1938 Italy.
233,374 10/ 1944 Switzerland.
644,258 10/1950 Great Britain.
JACOB SHAPIRO, Primary Examiner.
US. Cl. X.R.