US 3421223 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 14, 1969, M. M. STARK v TOOTH MARKING METHOD AND MEANS Filed Feb. 6, 1967 ,4 TTOP/VEYS" United States Patent 3,421,223 TOOTH MARKING METHOD AND MEANS Marvin M. Stark, Los Altos Hills, Calif., assignonto Pascal Company, Inc., Seattle, Wash., a corporation of Washington Filed Feb. 6, 1967, Ser. No. 614,330
US. Cl. 32-19 Int. Cl. A61c 9/00 7 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Background of the invention This invention relates to a new and improved method and means for conducting dental articulation tests by which to determine the location of premature contact points between upper and lower teeth. As is well known such tests are part of the usual procedure of removing excess material from caps, crowns and fillings.
Heretofore such tests were performed by clamping a carbonized marking sheet between the teeth, or pressing the teeth into a relatively thick strip of wax or other impression-taking material. However, the results with these and similar prior methods of testing were not always readily interpreted or accurately definitive of the precise contact point locations sought to be determined.
A principal object of the present invention is to mark the premature contact points on occlusion with a higher degree of precision and unmistakable definition than with prior techniques.
Still another object is to provide a marking technique which is convenient and simple to use and which can be executed quickly and without inconvenience or discomfort to the patient or tedium to the dentist.
A specific object is to provide a tooth marking technique wherein the marking effects are confined to the contact points without smearing or blurring, and wherein traces of marking material may be easily removed so as to permit repeating the marking process immediately after each removal of tooth material in approaching the final contour desired.
Summary of invention In accordance with this invention substances of the nature to interact in visible manner upon intermixture are first applied to the occlusal surfaces of upper and lower teeth so that occlusion of the teeth thereafter causes visible marks to appear at the precise points of contact.
As a specific feature, the pad in one embodiment comprises a laminate including outer layers which are permeable to the respective interactive substances and a nonpermeable barrier layer interposed between the outer layers so as to prevent intermixture of the substances by transfer through the pad. Typically, the outer layers comprise woven fabric material such as silk or nylon cloth, and the interlayer comprises a nonpermeable membrane. In one embodiment the substances respectively comprise a pH indicator and an activator for the same. In another embodiment the substances comprise differently colored dyes which produce a third color when intermixed.
Description The above and other features, objects and advantages of the invention will become more fully evident from the following description thereof by reference to the accompauying drawings.
FIGURE 1 is a face view of a marking pad in accordance with one embodiment of the invention, with portions broken away to show the laminated construction of the FIGURE 2 is a perspective view illustrating the transfer pad being clamped between upper and lower teeth for applying the marking substances.
FIGURE 3 is a perspective view showing the upper and lower teeth separated with the pad removed and with the marking substances applied to the occlusive surfaces.
FIGURE 4 is a perspective view with the teeth occluded in the final step of marking the contact points.
FIGURE 5 is a view with the teeth separated once again so as to illustrate approximately the appearance of contact point markings.
FIGURE 6 is a face view of a transfer pad of modified configuration.
In FIGURE 1 the transfer pad P, of rectangular shape and laminar construction, comprises opposing outer layers 10 and 12 and an intervening barrier layer 14 separating the outer layers. The outer layers carry on their exposed faces the respective substances which are capable of interaction to produce a visible effect when intermixed. Preferably these outer layers are formed of a soft and flexible material permeable to and saturated with the interactive substances. Typically these outer layers are strips of silk, nylon or other woven fabric material. The barrier layer is impermeable to the interactive substances and typically is formed of a thin strip or membrane of nonporous substance such as polyvinyl chloride, aluminum foil, waxed paper, etc.
The pad is of such width and length as to cover the occlusive surfaces of the required number of upper and lower teeth to be marked in a single test. In FIGURE 6 a horseshoe-shaped pad P of similar laminar construction is depicted which is capable of marking the entire dental arch in a single articulation test. In this embodiment the pad is mounted in a wishbone-shaped holder H having a handle H1 by which the dentist may conveniently place it in the patients month.
There are a variety of combinations of mutually interactive substances which may be used on the pad surfaces for purposes of the invention. For example, the substance used on one pad surface may be an acid-base indicator such as phenophthalein, and that on the other surface sodium tetraborate or other suitable activator for the indicator. By placing the transfer pad laden with these substances between the teeth and causing the patient to bite against it, as in FIGURE 2, the teeth are impressed in the opposing pad surfaces. Under the applied pressure one set of occlusive surfaces, such as those of the upper teeth, receive a transfer coating of phenophthalein as in the areas shown at 16 in FIGURE 3, while the opposing surfaces receive a transfer coating of the activator substance sodium tetraborate as shown at 18. Then with the pad removed the patient is requested to occlude the teeth together in his normal bite, as in FIGURE 4, and thereupon to open his jaws so as to reveal the respective points of contact 16p and 18p at which intermixture of the indicator and activator substances leave visible deposits of activated indicator substance. The dentist is thus able to determine at a glance the existence and precise locations of any premature contact points enabling him to remove remaining excess tooth material.
In another example one of the pads outer layers is saturated with a colored dye substance such as tartrazine yellow and the other with a contrasting colored dye substance such as sodium indigo disulfonate blue. The coated areas 16 and 18 in FIGURE 3 would then be yellow and blue respectively. After occlusion with the pad removed the contact point marks 16p and 18p in FIGURE will be a distinct green color as a result of yellow and blue dye intermixture and will contrast visibly with the respective yellow or blue background tones on the tooth surfaces. Dyes of this nature may be obtained from National Aniline Division of Allied Chemical Corporation of New York, the yellow dye being identified as FD & C yellow No. 5 and the blue dye as FD & C blue No. 1. Other dye substances and color combinations may also be used.
It will be evident that the interactive marking substances with which the pad surfaces are laden may be either liquid or dry. If dry they may be moistened by the dentist before insertion of the pad into the patients mouth, or they may be moistened by contact with the moisture on the surfaces of the patients teeth. Usually the substances chosen should be of a nature permitting them to be easily rinsed from the teeth. In this way the articulation test may easily be repeated as necessary in order to determine whether the removal of tooth material has been suflicient to eliminate the premature points of contact marked by the substances.
It will be noted that the pad may be made as soft and thick as desired so as to provide the desired degree of impressability of the teeth in the pad surfaces and thereby spread the interaction marking substances over areas including all points of potential premature contact between the teeth. Since the pad is removed when the actual marking of the contact points occurs, thickness of the pad has no adverse effect on the degree of precision and definition with which the contact points are marked. Usually adequate area coverage of the tooth surfaces by the applied marking substances can be attained with the pads outer layers formed of thin cloth sheets. When the marking substances are stored on the surfaces in an essentially dry state or are such that they do not tend to migrate through the pad so as to interrnix prematurely, the pad could be made of a single sheet of material. Similarly depending upon the pad materials and marking substances used, the presence of a barrier layer may or may not be necessary to prevent premature intermixture of materials. The barrier layer instead of consisting of a separate sheet of said material laminated between outer layers may be in the form of a coating applied to one or both outer layers, such as an adhesive coating to bind the outer layers together.
These and other aspects of the invention will be evident to those skilled in the art having reference to the present disclosure of the invention in its preferred embodiments.
I claim as my invention:
1. Means for marking tooth contact points on occlusion, comprising an impressionable pad formed to be inserted and to be bitten between upper and lower teeth, opposite faces of said pad bearing respectively different substances adapted for transfer from the pad to the teeth surfaces impressed therein by pressure of contact therewith, said substances being of a nature to interact in visible manner upon intermixture thereof, whereby visible marks are formed on the teeth at their points of contact on occlusion with the pad removed.
2. The means defined in claim 1, wherein the pad comprises a laminate including outer layers which are permeable to the respective substances and a nonperrneable barrier layer interposed between the outer layers so as to prevent intermixture of the substances by transfer through the pad.
3. The means defined in claim 2, wherein the outer layers comprise woven fabric material.
4. The means defined in claim 1, wherein one substance comprises a pH indicator and the other substance comprises an activator therefor.
5. The means defined in claim 1, wherein the substances comprise ditferently colored dyes which produce a third color when intermixed.
6. The method of marking tooth contact points on occlusion comprising applying to the opposing surfaces of upper and lower teeth respective substances which produce a visible effect when intermixed, and thereupon occluding the teeth so as to produce visible marking effects at their points of contact.
7. The method defined in claim 6, wherein each substance is applied to the teeth by transfer from a carrier pad which is pressed against the teeth.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,183,624 12/1939 Schwartz 32l9 2,633,637 4/1953 Lucia 32-l9 2,752,681 7/1956 Jankelson 3219 3,126,631 3/1964 McCarthy et a1. 3219 ROBERT PESHOCK, Primary Examiner.