US 3421348 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sheet of 2 Jan- 14, 1969 H. HALLMANN MAGNETICALLY OERATING LOCK Filed July 12, 1967 INVENTOR: HERMANN HAM/VAN f' fu Jan. 14, 1969 H. |1ALLMA|-1NI MAGNETICALLY OPERATING LOCK Sheet Filed July 12, 1967 INVENTOR: gagna/sw HAM fl/IW 7717A. ibis@ United States Patent O ABSTRACT F THE DISCLOSURE A key cylinder (86) retains a magnetic body (82) which isrotatable in the key housing (83) and an adjacent longitudinally slideable coupling element (84), retairied in a 'specific angular position; upon insertion of akey (80) having zones of magnetization, the body.
(82') is rotated to a position at which magnetic poles repel the slideable element to cause engagement of the keyl cylinder and a locking element for rotation of key and locking element jointly; upon withdrawal of key,
the coupling element (84) is attracted by the body (82) andI slides out of engagement so that the disengaged key cylinder can rotate freely.
. The present invention relates to a magnetically operating lock, and is a further development on the type of lock disclosed in co-pending application Ser. No. 569,212 assigned to the assignee of the present invention.
In the aforementioned prior application, a magnetically .operating lock is disclosed in which a key cylinder is -freely rotatable within a key housing. The key cylinder retains magnetic elements which, upon proper alignment caused by insertion of a magnetic key, permit axial movement of either the key cylinder, the magnetic elements, or parts thereof and thus permit engagement of the key cylinder with a locking element, to effect locking, or unlocking action upon insertion of the proper key. It has been found that the longitudinal movement of the key, that is pressing the key inwardly into the lock in order to eifectvlocking (or unlocking) action, is undesirable. The present invention provides a lock structure in which such axial movement of the key is unnecessary.
Subject matter of the invention Briey, in accordance with the present invention, a
`moveable key cylinder is retained in a housing, which further holds a locking element. The locking element is associated with, for example, by being fastened to or `integral with,4 a coupling cylinder. A coupling element,
which is longitudinally slideable Within the housing, can
move between positions of engagement and disengagement with the coupling cylinder. The coupling element, inl turn, is restrained against rotation with respect to the key' cylinder. Thus, when the coupling element is in engaged position, rotation of the key cylinder by means of a matching engagement nose, or projection with the key will cause rotation of the locking element; when the coupling element is in disengaged position, the key and fvvith it the key cylinder can rotate freely Without any movement being transmitted, to the locking element.
The position of engagement or disengagement of the 1 coupling element is controlled by a body of magnetic material within the lock, which isrrotatable and which Aisalgned in a certain angular position in accordance with the match of polarity of magnetic elements within the body of magnetic material, and zones of magnetization formed on the key. The body of magnetic material further contains magnets which cooperate with magnets in the coupling elements to move the coupling element 3,421,348 Patented Ja'n. 14, 1969 Cice axially, that is between engaged and disengaged position. The coupling element is restrained against rotation, whereas the body of magnetic material is not so restrained; the coupling will be inuenced in its longitudinal motion between engaged and disengaged position by the magnetic elements, or zones of magnetization impressed thereon and on the body of magnetic material. When unlike poles are opposite each other, there will be attraction; when like poles are opposite each otherthere will be repulsion, and thus longitudinal movement.
Insertion of a key rotates the body of magnetic mate` rial into a position in which the poles at end faces of the body will be opposite like poles of the coupling element, thus causing repulsion and movement into engaged position. As the key is removed, the body of magnetic material will be free to rotate, which will bring unlike poles at the end faces opposite each other, causing attraction of the body of magnetic material and the coupling element and thus disengagement of the key cylinderv with the locking element, permitting the key cylinder to turn freely without any etfect on the locking action itself.
The arrangement of magnetization on the key and on the body of magnetic material may take various forms, so that a large number of key combinations are possible. Further, the arrangement of magnets, and the degree of rotation between the body of magnetic material and the coupling element can be varied so that locks otherwise of the same general appearance may have different locking actions and may respond only to their very own keys.
Master keys can readily be constructed which affect the movement of the coupling element by acting on the magnets therein.
The structure, organization and operation of the invention will now be described more specically with reference to the accompanying drawings wherein:
FIGURE 1 is a longitudinal cross-sectional view through a lock in accordance with the present invention, illustrating a key inserted therein which is the wrong key for the particular lock;
FIGURE 2 is a perspective view, partly exploded, illustrating the body of magnetic material and the coupling element in attracting position;
FIGURE 3 is a view similar to FIGURE 2, in which the body of magnetic material has already rotated and thed coupling element is engaging the coupling cylinder; an
FIGURE 4 illustrates a master key, and schematically, its zones of magnetization.
Referring now to the drawings:
The lock in accordance with the present invention is retained Within a housing 83 which surrounds a key cylinder 86 which 'has an outer mantle 86e` and an inner tubular portion 86e. The inner tubular portion 86e is formed to accept a key 80, having zones of magnetization impressed thereon as schematically indicated by the poles S and N. The key cylinder 86 is rotatable within the housing 83. Located within the housing, and beyond the key cylinder 86, is a coupling cylinder St7, which has a locking element L secured thereto, which locking element may engage a lock bolt, or latch in a manner well known in the art.
Key cylinder 86 further includes a front wall or portion 86a, formed with a notch 86h to receive a cooperating nose or projection a of the key 80. The mantle of key cylinder 86 is formed, towards its inner end, with axially extended slots or notches 86d.
The space between the mantle 86C and the central or tubular portion 86e of the key cylinder retains a body of magnetic material 82, likewise in cylindrical shape, and moveable, that is rotatable over the central tubular portion 86e. Located just behind the body of magnetic material 82 is a coupling element 84, which is slideable longitudinally, that is axially with respect to the key. The coupling element 84 is retained within a spider 88, which has arms located within slots or notches 86d of the key cylinder, thus being restrained against rotation and restraining the coupling element 84 likewise against rotation. The spider 88 is formed with projecting portions 88h, which tit into matching recesses 89 formed in coupling cylinder 87.
The body of magnetic material 56 is provided with magnetic elements, or consists of a magnetic material itself which is for-med with zones of magnetization having predetermined positions of lthe magnetic poles. The poles within the body of magnetic material 56 are arranged to be along the central bore thereof, to match poles 81b of zones of magnetization of a key. They are arranged in such a way to attract each other. Thus, the cylindrical body of magnetic material 82 will rotate when a key is inserted in a predetermined position, as governed by the matching position of projection 80a and recess 86h, to a certain predetermined angular position with respect to the key cylinder 86. In addition to the zones of magnetization, or the magnetic elements within the body of magnetic material 82, further magnetic elements are formed or arranged thereon and facing a surface transverse to the central bore, as -best seen at 82a, 82b and 84e, 84d in FIGURES 2 and 3. In unlocked, quiescent position, that is, with the key removed (or the wrong key inserted) the further magnetic elements 82a, 82b, and 84C, 84d, are in a position of attraction as seen in FIGURES l and 2. In this position, projections 88b of the spider are removed from the recesses 89 in the coupling cylinder 87, and the key cylinder 86 can thus rotate freely within the housing 83 without in any way affecting motion of the coupling cylinder 87, or the locking latch L.
The further magnetic element-s 82a, 82b on the body of magnetic material 82 are arranged in angular positions separated by an angle a, which may be, fOr example, 15. If this body of magnetic material is rotated over the angle a, like poles which repel each other, that is, poles 82a and 84d will be placed opposite each other, causing repulsion of the coupling element 84, with it of the spider 88 and thus engagement of the key cylinder 86 by means f notches or grooves 86d, arms 88a of the spider and projections 88b of the spider with recesses 89 of the coupling cylinder 87. This position illustrated in FIG- UR-E 3. The latching element L can now be rotated by the key, by engagement of the projection or nose 80a of the key with the notch 86b of the key cylinder.
If the key is removed, then the key magnets will no 'longer hold the body of magnetic material 82 in its angular position. The magnetic field, previously causing repulsion of the coupling element 84 will tend to rotate the body of magnetic material 82 so that poles which attract each other will match, that is 82a to match 84e and 82b to match 84d (FIG. 2). This again causes attraction of the coupling element, and disengagement of projection 88b of the spider 88 with the matching recess 89 of the coupling cylinder.
The degree of rotation of the body of magnetic material 82 is preferably limited by a projection 82C moveable in a circumferential notch or groove 86g formed in the key cylinder 86 (see FIG. 3). The rotation of the body of magnetic material is preferably slightly less than the angular distance of the further magnetic elements 82a, 82b. The coupling element 84 may likewise be formed with a circumferential notch or groove 84e to cooperate with a projection 88e formed on the spider 88 and to completely prevent, or limit rotary movement of the coupling cylinder 84, if desired.
A form of maser key is illustrated in FIG. 4. Such a key 81, is formed with zones of magnetization, or with magnetic elements 81C at its inner end; the magnetic ield acts directly on the coupling clement 84 to rotate the coupling element 84 in a direction opposite to the arrow (FIGURE 2), so that its magnets will be in the position of repulsion wit-h respect to the body of magnetic material 82 and thus slide the coupling longitudinally V'to effect engagement between the key cylinder and the coupling cylinder. The grooves or notches 86d formed in the key cylinder can be wide enough to permit limited rotation, for example, for the angular distance between adjacent notches 89 and projections 88h of the spider, the distance of which may be less than the angular distance of rotation between adjacent magnetic elements 82a, 82b, and 84C, 84d respectively. Alternatively, the Zones of magnetization, or magnetic elements on the key may be so arranged to act directly on further zones of magnetization, or on magnets arranged on the coupling element 84 to cause direct longitudinal movement of the coupling element upon insertion of a proper key.
Both the body of magnetic material 82 and the coupling elements 84 may be a unitary section of material, having zones of magnetization impressed thereon; alternatively, it may consist of a plurality of parallel discs, or superimposed concentric rings, having notches and projections which have to match, and which are brought into matching engagement upon the rotation, due to predetermined zones of magnetic material matching each other to cause attraction, or repulsion, in accordance with a predetermined coding of the lock combination. The aforementioned earlier application illustrates various other embodiments of obtaining cooperation between zones of magnetization on a key and cooperating coupling elements and bodies of magnetic material.
Various structural changes and modifications, as determined by the requirements of particular applications or uses may be made without departing from the inventive concept. Particular reference is made to the embodiment disclosed in the aforementioned application regarding other structural embodiments of the lock to which the present invention is applicable.
1. Magnetically operating lock for use with a key having zones of magnetization oriented in a predetermined pattern comprising:
a housing (83);
a locking element (L);
a movable key cylinder (86) located in said housing to receive a key therein;
a coupling cylinder (87) associated with said locking element (L);
a body of magnetic material (82) having predetermined patterns of magnetization thereon to provide a plurality of magnetic elements, said body of magnetic material being formed with a bore of sufiicient size to receive the key therein, said magnetic elements and said zones of magnetization on said key being arranged to provide for rotation of said body upon the insertion of said key into said lock; said body having an end face transverse to said bore and being formed with further magnetic elements having a pole at said end face;
a coupling element (84) being located opposite said end face, slideable longitudinally of said key Ibetween positions of engagement and disengagement with said coupling cylinder (87), and formed with magnetic elements facing said further magnetic elements on said body of magnetic material (82);
cooperating engaging means formed on said coupling cylinder (87 and said coupling element (84); and means (88a, 8617) engaging said coupling element (84) and said key cylinder (86) for common movement, whereby, when the body is rotated by alignment of the zones of magnetization of the key (80) and the magnetic elements on said body (82) into a position in which the further magnetic elements on the body (82) are opposite poles of the coupling element (84), the coupling element will be axially moved into engaged position.
2. Lock as claimed in claim 1 wherein said key cylinder (86), said coupling cylinder (87), said body of magnetic material (82) and said coupling element (84) are aligned longitudinally of the key; only said coupling element (84) being longitudinally moveable.
3. Lock as claimed in claim 1 wherein the key cylinder (86) includes a front section, said front section and said key ybeing formed with matching engagement means to provide for common rotation of said key and said key cylinder.
4. Lock as claimed in claim 1 wherein said key cylinder (86) further includes a central tubular section forming a bearing to retain said body of magnetic material (82) and said coupling element (84) moveable thereon.
5. Lock as claimed in claim 4 wherein said body of magnetic material (82) is mounted to be rotatable over said tubular section by a predetermined angle (a) but not longitudinally slideable; and said coupling element is mounted to be longitudinally moveable, but not rotatable.
6. Lock as claimed in claim 5 wherein the degree of rotation is slightly less than the angular distance between adjacent further magnetic elements.
7. Lock as claimed in claim 1 in combination with a key, said key `being magnetized to have zones of magnetization directly inuencing the magnetic elements on said coupling element (84) to locate said coupling element to slide into engaged position, whereby engagement of said coupling element Will be independent of the position of said body of magnetic material (82) and said key will function as a master key.
8. Lock as claimed in claim 1, said key cylinder being formed as a hollow cylinder having an outer mantle (86C) and said means engaging said coupling element and said key cylinder for common movement include a guide way (86d) formed in said mantle; and a longitudinally slideable spider (88) engaging said coupling element (84) and having slideable portions (88a) located in said guide Way (86d) and engagement means (88h) engaging matching means (89) on said coupling cylinder (87).
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 468,807 2/ 1892 Kintner 70e-276 2,177,996 10/1939 Raymond 70--3 86 MARVIN A. CHAMPION, Primary Examiner.
ROBERT L. WOLFE, Assistant Examiner.
U.S. Cl. X.R.