US 3422588 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
1969 H. STEWART, JR
INTERLOCKING BUILDING BLOCK Filed Jan. 18, 1967 gym lisfiewwrz Jr.
ATTORNEYS United States Patent 3,422,588 INTERLOCKING BUILDING BLOCK John H. Stewart, Jr., Canton, Ohio, assignor to Stark Ceramics, line, Canton, Ohio, a corporation of Ohio Filed Jan. 18, 1967, Ser. No. 610,141 US. Cl. 52-285 8 Claims Int. Cl. B04c 1/10; E04b 2/18; E04!) 2/44 ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A building block having top and bottom faces, a pair of transversely spaced, parallel, longitudinally disposed ribs of triangular cross section on the top face, and a pair of correspondingly spaced, longitudinally disposed straight sided grooves in the bottom face.
Each groove is of a width equal to an intermediate portion of the corresponding rib and of a height substantially the same as the height of the rib.
There are longitudinally disposed apertures in each end of the block. Conical spacing members have straight stems snugly fitting in the apertures in one end of the block, the enlarged conical heads thereby being partially received in the apertures in the other end of a similar block when laid up in a wall, for spacing the blocks apart horizontally.
The invention relates to interlocking building blocks which may be molded, extruded or otherwise formed of clay, concrete or other suitable material.
A primary object of the invention is to provide building blocks of the character referred to having cooperating horizontal ribs and grooves for properly centering the blocks in a wall.
Another object of the invention is to provide a building block of this character having these ribs and grooves of such a character that they will also properly space the blocks apart vertically in the wall.
A further object of the invention is to provide such a building block having these ribs and grooves of such size and shape that they will compensate for surplus mortar between courses of the blocks when laid up in a wall.
A still further object of the invention is to provide a building block of the character referred to having tapered ribs on its upper surface and straight grooves cooperating therewith on its lower surface, the grooves being of a width equal to an intermediate portion of the ribs.
Another object of the invention is to provide such a building block having apertures in one end for receiving the stems of conical spacing members for spacing the blocks apart horizontally in a wall.
A further object of the invention is to provide a corner block constructed in accordance with the invention.
The above objects together with others which will be apparent from the drawings and following description, or which may be later referred to, may be attained by constructing the improved interlocking building block in the manner hereinafter described in detail and illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a building block embodying the invention;
FIG. 2 is a transverse vertical sectional view, on a larger scale, of a building block such as show-n in FIG. 1, and a portion of a next lower block in a wall, showing the manner in which the straight grooves in the bottom of the block cooperate with the tapered ribs on top of the next lower block to center the blocks laterally and space the blocks vertically apart in a wall;
FIG. 3 is a perspective view of a slightly modified form of the building block to which the invention pertains,
3,422,588 Patented Jan. 21, 1969 showing one of the conical spacing members attached to one end thereof;
FIG. 4 is a fragmentary, sectional elevation of adjacent end portions of two of the blocks shown in FIG. 3, showing the manner in which they are spaced apart in a course by means of the conical spacing members;
FIG. 5 is an elevation, on an enlarged scale, of one of the conical spacing members;
FIG. 6 is a perspective view of a corner block embodying the invention;
FIG. 7 is a perspective view of a corner block and a portion of a stringer block abutting the same at a corner of a wall, showing one of. the spacing members used for the corner blocks;
FIG. 8 is a fragmentary, vertical, sectional view of cooperating portions of two corner blocks spaced apart by a corner spacing member;
FIG. 9 is a fragmentary, vertical sectional view of the lower portion of a block such as shown in FIG. 3 and the upper portion of the next lower block in a wall;
FIG. 10 is a perspective view of the top, one end and one side of another modified form of the block;
FIG. 11 is a bottom plan view, on a smaller scale, of the block shown in FIG. 10; and
FIG. 12 is a fragmentary sectional view, as on the line 1212, FIG. 11, showing cooperating rib and groove portions of two blocks as shown in FIGS. 10 and 11.
Referring first to the embodiment of the building block illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 2, the block is indicated generally at 1, and comprises the parallel side faces 2-2, end faces 3-3, top 4 and bottom 5.
A centrally located, longitudinally disposed, dovetail groove 6 may be formed in the top surface 4 of the block, and a similar groove 7 may be formed in the bottom surface 5 thereof, to increase the horizontal mortar spaces between courses of blocks as well as to provide keys for locking courses of blocks together in a wall.
Longitudinally disposed, upwardly tapered ribs 8 are formed on the top 4 of the block, on opposite sides of the dovetail groove 6. Cooperating, straight-sided grooves 9 are formed in the bottom 5 of the block, on either side of the dovetail groove 7 therein.
The straight-sided grooves 9 are of a width equal to the width of an intermediate portion of the upwardly tapered ribs 8, so that when one of the blocks 1 is placed upon a similar block, as shown in FIG. 2., the grooves 9 in the bottom of the one block will receive the upper portion only of the ribs 8 on the top of the other block so as to not only center or line up the blocks laterally in a wall, but also provide for uniform horizontal mortar spaces between courses of blocks in the wall.
vIt will also be seen that when mortar is placed in the horizontal mortar spaces between upper and lower blocks, as shown in FIG. 2, surplus mortar may be received in the grooves 9, as indicated at 10, so as to permit each ice block to seat properly upon the block below with no interference by mortar therebetween.
For the purpose of providing additional keys to receive mortar, the underside of each block may be provided with a longitudinally disposed, dove-tail groove 11 between each straight-sided groove 9 and the adjacent side 2 of the block. l
Small apertures 12 are formed in at least one end of each block for a purpose to be later described. These apertures may be punched in the block while it is in the green state, or may be drilled therein after the block has been hardened, or in cases where the block is extruded, these holes may be cored entirely through the block.
In order to lighten the weight of the block, as well as to provide air spaces in a wall built of the blocks, horizontally disposed cored openings .13 are formed therein. It will be seen that a block such as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 may easily be formed of clay and extruded through a die in conventional manner. The ribs 8 on top of the block would of course extend the entire length of the block when extruded, but parts of the ribs could be removed by a wire or the like in conventional manner before the block is dried. This provides a larger mortar space than if the continuous ribs were to remain on the block.
In FIGS. 3 and 4 is shown a somewhat similar block which may also be easily extruded of clay in conventional manner. This block is indicated generally at 1a, and has the side faces 2a, ends 3a, top 4a and bottom 5a.
A spaced parallel pair of upwardly tapered ribs 8a are formed upon the top of the block, similar in cross section to the ribs 8 in FIGS. 1 and 2. These ribs may extend the entire length of the bloc-k as shown, or portions of them may be cut away as in FIG. 1.
In the underside of the block are formed the spaced, parallel, straight-sided grooves 9a, corresponding in position to the ribs 8a. The grooves 9a are of a width corresponding to an intermediate portion of the ribs 8a.
As shown in FIG. 9, the ribs 8a and grooves 9a, of the blocks 10, cooperate in the same manner as the upwardly tapered ribs 8 and straight-sided grooves 9 of the blocks 1, so as to not only line the blocks up laterally in a wall, but also to provide a uniform horizontal mortar space between courses of blocks in the wall. 1
Small apertures 12a, similar to the apertures 12 in the block 1, are formed in one end of each block 1a to receive the stems 14- of the conical spacing members 15. These spacing members may be extrusion molded from any suitable plastic material. As shown in FIG. 4, the apex of each conical spacing member 15 contacts the end 3a of the next adjacent block in the course, holding the blocks properly separated to provide the desired vertical mortar space therebetween.
For the purpose of reducing the weight of the block, as well as providing air spaces in a wall built of the blocks, cored openings 13a may be located longitudinally through each block 1a.
In FIGS. 6, 7 and 8 is shown a corner block which may be used with stringer blocks as shown at 1 or 1a. This corner block is indicated generally at 1b, and has the parallel sides 2b, ends 3b, top 4b and bottom 5b.
A spaced parallel pair of upwardly tapered ribs 81;, similarly in cross-sectional size and shape to the ribs 8 and 8a, and similarly spaced, are formed upon the top of the block 1b, and cooperate with the straight-sided grooves 9 or 9a in stringer blocks 1 or In, in the manner above described.
Straight-sided grooves 9b are formed in the bottom of the corner blocks 1b and cooperate with the upwardly tapered ribs '8 or 8a on the stringer blocks 1 or In, in the manner above described.
As shown in FIGS. 6 and 7, the ribs 8b extend from one end of the block 11) to a point spaced from the other end thereof, and a substantially square, vertical cored opening 16 is formed in said other end of the block. Other vertical openings 17 and 18 are cored in the remaining portion of the block.
In laying the corner blocks 1b up in a wall, the ribs 8b on the top thereof will be received in the grooves 9 or 9a in the bottoms of the blocks 1 or In respectively. A plastic spacer member 19, having a lower reduced circular portion 20 and an upper conical portion 21 is inserted between corner blocks as best shown in FIG. 8.
As shown in FIGS. 7 and 8, the lower reduced portion 20 of the plastic spacing member 19 is inserted into the upper end of the square opening 16 in each corner block. Then when the next upper corner block is placed in position, a portion of the conical upper portion 21 of said spacing member will be received in the lower end of the square opening 16 therein, spacing the corner 4 blocks the proper distance apart vertically, as shown in FIG. 8.
It Will be seen that this spacing member 19 not only properly spaces the corner blocks apart vertically, but that it also substantially covers the upper end of the cored square opening 16, so as to prevent the same from becoming filled with mortar during the building of a wall.
The blocks shown in FIGS. 1 to 9 are best adapted for building partition walls and the like. In FIGS. 10 to 12 is shown a modification of the invention best adapted for building outside walls. This block may be of the usual dimensions of a cement or cinder block, that is, substantially 8" x 8" x 16". This block is indicated generally at 10 and has the rectangular, parallel side faces 20, end faces 30, top 40 and bottom 50. Ribs 8c of triangular cross section, similar to the ribs 8, 8a and 8b above described, are provided upon the top surface 4c. These ribs are loated in two spaced pairs, one at each end portion of the block. 1
Straight-sided grooves 9c are formed in the bottom surface 50 of the block to receive the ribs 8c, as shown in FIG. 12. Similar transverse grooves 9d may be formed in the bottom of the block to receive one pair of the ribs 8c when the block is used as a corner block.
For the purpose of reducing the weight of the block, as well as for providing air spaces therein, vertical cored openings 22 may be formed therein. A transverse vertical slot 23 may also be formed in the block 10 for the purpose of easily breaking the same in half when necessary. Slots may be formed in one end of the block to receive the stems of plastic spacing members 15 in the manner above described with reference to apertures 12, 12a and 12b of the blocks of FIGS. 1 and 3.
It should be pointed out that the straight-sided grooves in the bottom of the blocks are deep enough to allow for sizing, as by grinding the bottom of the block, without interfering with the aligning feature above described. These grooves should also be deep enough to permit cutting the block to a smaller size in height.
From the above it will be obvious that an improved building block is provided having rib and groove means 'for properly spacing the blocks apart vertically, as well as properly aligning the blocks laterally in a wall.
'It will also be seen that the conical plastic spacing members inserted into apertures in one end of each block will properly space the blocks apart horizontally in a wall and that the plastic spacing members 19 provide not only means for properly spacing the corner blocks apart vertically, but also for covering the corner openings 16 therein and preventing mortar from spilling into the same.
Furthermore, it will be obvious that a corner block embodying the invention is provided for use with stretcher blocks of the character described, and also that the block shown in FIGS. 10 to 12 inclusive may be used either as a stretcher block or as a corner block.
In the foregoing description certain terms have been used for brevity, clearness and understanding, but no un necessary limitations are to be implied therefrom beyond the requirements of the prior art, because such words are used for descriptive purposes herein and are intended to be broadly construed.
Moreover, the embodiments of the improved construction illustrated and described herein are by way of example, and the scope of the present invention is not limited to the exact details of construction.
Having now described the invention or discovery, the construction, the operation, and use of preferred embodiments thereof, and the advantageous new and useful results obtained thereby; the new and useful construction, and reasonable mechanical equivalents thereof obvious to those skilled in the art, are set forth in the appended claims.
1. A substantially rectangular shaped building block, said block including a pair of opposite fiat sides, top and bottom longitudinal faces and a pair of opposite transverse faces, transversely spaced, parallel, longitudinally disposed ribs of triangular cross section on the top longitudinal face, and correspondingly transversely spaced, parallel, longitudinally disposed straight-sided grooves in the bottom longitudinal face, each groove being of a width equal to the width of an intermediate portion of the corresponding triangular rib and of the same height as said rib, so that when the block is placed upon the top of a similar block the upper portions only of the ribs of the lower block will be received in the grooves of the upper block, and the bottom longitudinal face of the upper block will be spaced above the top longitudinal face of the lower block.
2. A building block as defined in claim 1, in which the grooves are of such depth that the upper portions of the ribs of a similar block will be received only partially therein, so as to provide spaces for surplus mortar in said grooves.
3. A building block as defined in claim 1, in which said ribs are coextensive with said top longitudinal face.
4. A building block as defined in claim 1, in which said ribs terminate short of each end of said top longitudinal face.
5. A building block as defined in claim 1, in which there is a centrally located longitudinally disposed dovetail groove in said top longitudinal face and a similar dovetail groove in said bottom longitudinal face.
6. A building block as defined in claim 1, in which there are longitudinally disposed straight apertures in each end of the block, and conical plastic spacing members having straight stems snugly fitting in said apertures in one end of the block, said conical spacing members being of larger diameter than said apertures, whereby only a portion of each conical spacing member may be received in the corresponding straight aperture in the other end of a similar block.
7. A building block as defined in claim 1 especially designed for a corner block, in which the ribs extend from one end of the block to a point spaced from the other end, and in which there is a vertical cored straight sided opening in said other end of the block, and a plastic spacing member having a reduced lower portion adapted to be received in the upper end of said opening, and a larger diameter tapered upper portion adapted to be only partially received in the lower end of the opening of a similar corner block for spacing said blocks vertically from each other.
8. A building block as defined in claim 4, in which the ribs are located in spaced pairs near opposite ends of the block, and in which there are at least one pair of transversely disposed grooves in said bottom longitudinal surface adapted to receive one spaced pair of the ribs of a similar block, whereby the block may be used as a corner block as well as a stretcher.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 746,628 12/1903 Field et a1. 52-606 1,325,079 12/1919 Coggan 52-595 1,365,162 1/1921 Ferguson 52-595 1,939,528 12/1933 Swift 52-595 2,008,244 7/ 1935 Crooks 52-595 2,885,822 5/1959 Onanian 46-24 2,940,760 6/ 1960 Brinkman 46-24 3,205,611 9/1965 Onanian 46-25 FOREIGN PATENTS 459,452 1/ 1937 Great Britain. 24,764 10/ 1912 Great Britain. 756,895 10/1933 France. 1,106,254 7/ 1955 France.
HENRY C. SUTHERLAND, Primary Examiner.
JAMES L. RIDGILL, JR., Assistant Examiner.
U.S. Cl. X.R.