|Publication number||US3422819 A|
|Publication date||Jan 21, 1969|
|Filing date||Mar 30, 1966|
|Priority date||Mar 30, 1965|
|Publication number||US 3422819 A, US 3422819A, US-A-3422819, US3422819 A, US3422819A|
|Inventors||Davis Alfred C, Gaunt Eric F, Jones David Aubrey|
|Original Assignee||Imp Tobacco Co Ltd|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (9), Referenced by (45), Classifications (12)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Jan. 21, 1969 D. A. JONES ETAL. 3,422,819
CIGARETTES AND PAPER THEREFOR Filed March 30, 1966 United States Patent 7 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE This disclosure concerns treating paper for use in the manufacture of cigarettes by adding to the paper a nicotine salt in which the molecular ratio of acid to nicotine is at least 1:1. The cigarette made from such paper is thus nicotine enriched whereby the cigarette will retain its flavour even when the smoke is filtered to remove undesirable tars.
This invention relates to cigarettes, either all tobacco or cigarettes comprising a tobacco portion and a socalled filter portion, in both cases ensheathed in paper which is either normal and/or manufactured from tobacco.
During smoking, the burning of tobacco produces particulate matter which can be removed by passing the smoke through a filter. The particulate matter includes nicotine, volatile materials and a mixture of substantially non-volatile substances commonly but inaccurately designated collectively as tar.
The quantities of tar and nicotine in the smoke of an average cigarette during smoking are in the neighbourhood of 15 mg. and 1.5 mg. respectively. In other words it can be assumed that in an average cigarette the tar to nicotine production is in the ratio of about 10 to 1, but these figures are only examples as different tobacco may have very high or very low nicotine contents.
Nicotine in the smoke is thought to contribute substantially to the satisfaction traditionally associated with smoking and it is undesirable to remove it. It is thought that about 1.5 mg. of nicotine in an average cigarette is a desirable quantity.
It follows from the above considerations that if it is desired to remove tar from the smoke by means which also removes nicotine, and it is desired to maintain the desired quantity of about 1.5 mg. of nicotine in the smoke, then a greater proportion of nicotine to tar must be provided in the cigarette smoke before the tar is removed.
The tar content of the smoke can be reduced by employing a filter e.g. of cellulose acetate tow. Alternatively, it has been found that employing a highly permeable paper, or one rendered highly permeable e.g. by perforating also reduces the tar content of the smoke of plain or filter tip cigarettes.
It is an object of the present invention to increase the ratio of nicotine to tar in the smoke from a cigarette.
It is a further object of the present invention to provide a cigarette from which tar may be removed during smoking without reducing the nicotine produced below a desired minimum quantity.
Nicotine can be sprayed either in its pure condition, in dilute solution, or as a salt thereof onto the tobacco from which cigarettes are produced, but this is not altogether satisfactory because a very large quantity of nicotine must be added to provide the 1.5 mg. referred to above. It is believed this is due to the fact that the smoke that is drawn into the smokers mouth is that emanating Patented Jan. 21, 1969 "ice from the burning of tobacco around the periphery of the cigarette, while that arising from the more centrally dis posed tobacco passes from the burning end of the cigarette to the atmosphere during smouldering i.e. between puffs. Thus although a relatively large quantity of nicotine may be in the tobacco, a very small proportion passes to the smokers mouth.
To overcome these problems, tests have been effected comprising adding nicotine in pure condition or in dilute solution to cigarette paper. Although such tests have increased the nicotine/tar ratio initially, it has been found that the chalk in the paper used for cigarette manufacture reacts with the nicotine in such a way that the nicotine content of the paper decreases quite rapidly. This prevents practical utilization of the idea since cigarettes provided with this nicotine-treated paper have little effective additional nicotine content after storage and are therefore no different from conventional cigarettes when consumed.
It has now been discovered that loss of nicotine can be reduced considerably and to a most unexpected degree by adding the nicotine to the paper as a salt of nicotine. The term salt where used throughout this specification is intended to cover all mixtures of nicotine, an acid, and a suitable solvent e.g. water whatever the proportions. Thus the term is not to be construed in its strict chemical sense to mean a particular mixture of these constituents in predetermined proportions.
According therefore to one aspect of the present invention, a method of treating paper for use in the manufacture of cigarettes comprises adding to the paper a nicotine salt. In the case of unloaded papers it has been found that deterioration of the nicotine content is minimised if the acid/ nicotine molecular ratio is not less than 1:1. With chalk loaded papers, it has been found that deterioration can be minimised if the molecular ratio of acid/ nicotine is not less than 2: 1.
The upper limit of molecular ratio of acid/nicotine will be set by the absolute level of nicotine required, mechanical and processing diificulties and limitations occasioned by the physical properties of the paper to be treated.
The preferred acid of those tried has been found to be citric acid.
According to a further aspect of the present invention, there is provided a cigarette including a tobacco rod encased within a paper sleeve treated with a nicotine salt. The paper may be unloaded and may for example be reconstituted tobacco sheet. In this case it is preferably wrapped in a further paper which is chalk loaded. This outer wrapper may be perforated or highly permeable.
If the paper containing nicotine is loaded and is the outer wrapper of a cigarette, a mouthpiece is preferably provided in the form of a cork tip and/or a filter to prevent the smokers mouth contacting the paper containing the nicotine.
The paper is preferably immersed in a solution of the nicotine salt for example by passing it through a bath thereof, and subsequently dried, to deposit nicotine on the paper.
Typical examples of experiments in accordance with the present invention will now be described.
Example I A solution was prepared by dissolving 37 ml. nicotine and 97 gm. citric acid in water to give 250 ml. of solution i.e. molecular ratio acid/nicotine of approximately 2:1. Conventional chalk loaded cigarette paper was passed over a roller wetted with this solution at a predetermined speed such that 89% by weight of nicotine was contained in the dried paper.
Cigarettes were made up from the above described paper as were cigarettes made up from untreated paper containing the same blend of tobacco.
The two batches of cigarettes were tested for tar and nicotine yield in a smoking machine and there was found to be a 35% increase in nicotine in the treated cigarettes, i.e. providing cigarettes in which the tar to nicotine ratio was reduced to 8221 thus permitting a filter to be used, which removes both tar and nicotine, without reducing the nicotine content of the smoke below the desired 1.5 mg.
Example 11 A solution was prepared by dissolving 37 ml. nicotine and 48.5 gm. citric acid in water to give 250 ml. of solution, i.e. molecular ratio acid/nicotine of approximately 1:1. A web of unloaded cigarette paper was passed over a roller wetted with this solution at a predetermined speed such that 89% by weight of nicotine was contained in the dried paper.
Double wrapped cigarettes were made in which the outer wrapper was an untreated but perforated or porous conventional chalk loaded cigarette paper and the inner wrapper was treated as above. Cigarettes were also made from normal untreated paper containing the same blend of tobacco.
The two batches of cigarettes were tested for tar and nicotine yield in a smoking machine and there was found to be a 15% increase in nicotine and an 11% reduction in tar in the double wrapped cigarettes, this gave rise to a 23% reduction in the tar/nicotine ratio.
The outer, untreated paper, if perforated is preferably provided with two lines of pin holes extending the full length of the cigarette, each 90 from the overlap joint of the paper sleeve. However, any arrangement and size of perforations can be employed provided the desired intake of ambient air is obtained.
Methods of making up the double wrapped cigarettes of Example II are illustrated in FIGURES 1 and 2 of the accompanying drawings which show, alternative arrangements of cigarette-making machines.
Referring to FIGURE 1, a conventional paper 9 reeled on a bobbin 1 and is fed through a printing unit 3 with nicotine impregnated unloaded paper 13 from bobbin 2. The double web is fed to a tobacco rope 10 formed from a hopper 6 and conveyed on consecutive belts 7, 8 to a rod forming unit 4 where rope 10 is ensleeved within the double web 9, 13. The rod is cut off at into cigarettes and conveyed by conveyors 11 to a catcher band.
FIGURE 2 shows a similar arrangement but in this case 9 represents a combined web of conventional paper and nicotine impregnated tissue which has been pre-laminated.
An alternative method of adding the tissue is shown in FIGURE 3. The web of nicotine tissue 13 is passed through a crumpler and into hopper 6 where it is formed into a core of the tobacco rope Other salts of nicotine that may be used in applying nicotine to paper are the malate, tartrate, formate and phosphate. Solvents other than water which may be used include acetone, alcohol or mixtures thereof.
Instead of applying nicotine to the paper after manufacture, it may be added to the stock from which the paper is formed.
What we claim is:
1. A cigarette comprising a tobacco rod wrapped within a paper sleeve, said sleeve containing a nicotine salt, and means for preventing said sleeve coming into contact with a smokers lips.
2. A cigarette as claimed in claim 1 wherein said paper sleeve is unloaded, and wherein said means comprises an outer loaded paper sleeve covering said unloaded paper sleeve for preventing said unloaded paper sleeve coming into contact with a smokers lips.
3. A cigarette as claimed in claim 2 wherein said outer loaded paper sleeve is porous.
4. A cigarette as claimed in claim 1 wherein said paper sleeve comprises reconstituted tobacco sheet.
5. A cigarette as claimed in claim 1 wherein said paper sleeve is chalk loaded and is the outer paper wrapper for the cigarette and wherein said means comprises a mouthpiece.
6. A cigarette as claimed in claim 1 wherein said salt is a nicotine salt of at least one acid selected from the group consisting of citric, malic, tartaric, formic and phosphoric acid.
7. A cigarette as claimed in claim 1 wherein the acid/ nicotine ratio of said salt is at least 1:1.
OTHER REFERENCES A.P.C. application of J. M. Lande, Ser. No. 261,049, published May 11, 1943.
Rose et al. (ed) The Condensed 6th ed. New York, Rheinhold, 1961,
Chemical Dictionary, p. 798.
SAMUEL KOREN, Primdry Examiner. D. I. DONOHUE, Assistant Examiner.
U.S. Cl. X.R. 131-20, 11, 10
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|International Classification||A24B15/16, A24C5/46, A24C5/60, A24B15/00, A24D1/00, A24D1/02, A24C5/00|
|Cooperative Classification||D21H5/16, A24D1/02|
|European Classification||A24D1/02, D21H5/16|