US 3423774 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 28, 1969 v F. J. STREETMAN 3,423,774
PILLOW COVER Filed July 24, 1967 Sheet 0f2 FOY d. STREET/WAN INVENTOR.
ATTORNEY J 8-, 1969 F.J. STREETMAN 3,423,774
' PILLOW COVER Filed July 24. 1967 21 FOY a. srg gg ggmv BY ATTORNEY United States Patent Olhce 3,423,774 Patented Jan. 28, 1969 3,423,774 PILLOW COVER Foy J. Streetman, Fritch, Tern, assignor to Seagraves Industries, Ina, Seagraves, Tex., a corporation of Texas Filed July 24, 1967, Ser. No. 655,601 US. Cl. 339 Int. Cl. A47g 9/02 3 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Fields of the invention A special cover for a device to be placed under the head of a person in a supine position, the person being a lady with a coifiure of styled hair; and a head covering provided with structure and composition having also as its function to protect a coiffure of styled hair.
Description of the prior art While preparation of styled hair is a well developed art (e.g., Standard Text Book of Cosmetology, Milady Publishing Corp. 1959, reprinted 1964) the problem of maintaining the coilfure during sleep of a lady with such styled hair has remained a problem. This is notwithstanding the ready availability of knowledge of available materials (e.g., Man Made Fibres & Sons, New York, 1963; Applied Textiles by George E. Linton, Duell Sloan & Pearce, New York, 1961; Source Book of New Plastics, vol. 2, H. R. Simonds, Reinhold Publishing Corp., 1961 and Practice and Science of Modern Barbering by Milady Publishing Co., New York, 1959).
The problem of the prior art has been that during motion of styled hair on a conventional pillowcase during sleep the hair develops twists and tangles that detract from the intended beautifying effect of such coiffures.
SUMMARY This invention uses the physical and dimensional characteristics of certain multifilament satin weaves and the microscopic structure characteristics of certain cellulose acetate filaments in such weaves relative to and in cooperation with a silicone liquid to create a supporting surface exposed to and contacting human hair in a styled or coiffured form, which supporting surface, because of its chemical and dimensional relationships to hum-an hair, provides, for practical purpose, substantially no friction therebetween. This surface, in form of a pillowcase or pillow cover avoids development of tangles on the head of a person with coiffured or styled hair resting and/or sleeping on a pillowcase or pillow cover with such a surface. The advantage of this invention is not only in that it avoids development of tangles in the hair but provides the user with restful sleep due to comfortable support of the head during sleep.
. Insofar as this may be regarded as a chemical invention the utility of the invention is the provision of a surface on which human hair may rest with a minimum of friction. Thereby not only is the high denier filling effect satin acetate silicone surface useful as a pillowcase or pillow cover but also as a cover and protector for an erect per son with a coifiure of styled h-air requiring protection from disturbance by the wind.
by R. W. Moncrietf, John Wiley The gist or inventive concept, as below described in detail, is that the famed softness and smoothness of womens hair is found to be contradicted by the microscopic structure thereof. This invention develops and utilizes the above described supporting surface to avoid the difficulties created by such microscopically observable structure and thus avoids the problem of the prior art.
One object of this invention is to form a pillowcase or pillow cover for resting a ladys head provided with a coiffure, which pillowcase or pillow cover maintains table and desirable surface characteristics, notwithstanding laundering of such pillowcase or pillow cover.
Another object of this invention is to provide a hair covering for use by a woman whose hair is arranged in a decorative coiffure.
Other objects of this invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art of the study of the below specifications and drawings.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The drawings are referred to in this description and form a part of the description for purpose of illustrating the meaning of the words set out in the description, and like numbers therein refer to like parts throughout.
FIGURE 1 is an overall view of a user of the pillowcase of this invention;
FIGURE 2 is a perspective view at approximately one hundred power magnification of the zone 2A of FIGURE 1 with some strands of hair located thereon for purpose of illustration as occurs at zone 2B;
FIGURE 3 is a transverse cross-sectional view at section 3A-3A of FIGURE 2;
FIGURE 4 is a further enlarged sectional view along section zone 4A-4A and 4B4B of FIGURE 2 showing the longitudinal relationship of the scales on the hair to the size of filaments of the cloth, this view being shown at approximately 700 magnification;
FIGURE 5 is a sectional view enlarged to the same scale as in FIGURE 4 but taken along section 5A5A of FIGURE 2 to show the relations of the filling yarn filaments to a transverse section of one strand of hair;
FIGURE 6 is a front view of another coiifure protector;
FIGURE 7 is a side view of the embodiment of coiffure protector shown in FIGURE 6.
The pillowcase 14 formed and treated as below described is of particular value for use with hair that has been damaged or otherwise become excessively porous.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS The pillowcase 14 is 20 x 28 in size; about /2 cubic centimeter of silicone fluid is used to treat the upper surface 18 thereof.
In FIGURE 1 a woman 10, is shown with her head 12 resting on a pillowcase 14. Her hair 16 is in contact with the pillowcase 14 at zone 2B. The pillowcase is supported on a pillow cushion 15 therein.
The pillowcase 14 has a rectangular top cover portion 20 and a rectangular bottom cover portion 22. The top and the bottom cover portions are joined to each other at the left edge 24, front edge 25 and rear edge 26. The right end 27 of the pillowcase is open for insertion and removal of the case 14 from the cushion 15 as required for laundering as is conventional. The conventional plain seam is used at edges 24 and 25 on the interior of the pillowcase to keep the portions joined to each other. In the particular embodiment herein shown the cloth, 30, is a No. 500 pann satin with a denier bright acetate warp and a denier bright acetate filling. The cloth count is 200x58. The weave is a five (5) shaft filling effect weave with a base of 3. The cloth, 30, which is formed of filling yarns such as 32-37 and warp yarns as 3840, is shown in 3 FIGURES 2 and 3. No surface design is visible on the satin fabric cloth 30 because the yarns that are thrown to the top or outer surface 18 of portion 20 are greater in number and finer in count than the yarns used to form the underside as 19 of that cloth. This fabric 30 is a fillingfaced fabric also known as a sateen weave.
Each filling yarn as 33 is a multifilament yarn and is composed of separate continues filaments each about ,4, millimeter (120%) wide and millimeter (L -20%) thick. Each individual filament as 54, 55, 56, 57 has a maximum diameter of from about /3 to about /5 that of the usual adult Caucasian human hair diameter such as strands of hair shown as 44, 45, 46. The yarn is a secondary cellulose acetate rayon with an acetyl-hydroxyl ratio of about 23:7. The pillowcase 14 is, in the preferred embodiment, sprayed with a liquid silicone which adheres to the outer surface 18 of the acetate cloth as below described.
The particular silicone is a Dow-Corning 200 fluid. This is a clear water-white silicone fluid; it is a dimethyl siloxane polymer. This material is non-rancidifying and odorless as well as not greasy. It is insoluble in water as well as in paraffin oil. This material is soluble in acetone, dioxane as well as methylethyl ketone and methylene chloride as is also the cellulose acetate of which cloth 30 is made. This silicone material is sprayed or rubbed on to the cloth 30 and, as below described, is located in the crevices between the longitudinally elongated lobules of which the filaments are formed as well as between the separate filaments. Accordingly the silicone fluid is firmly though fluidly attached to cloth 30 and remains there.
The adult Caucasian human hair is about to millimeter in diameter. This is substantially thicker than the 6 millimeter diameter individual filaments as 54-57 of which each of the filling yarns of the cloth 30 are formed filaments per yarn) so as to permit the hair to move freely over the face of the cloth in some directions as below described.
The particular silicone liquid used is one having about 3.5 centistokes. This material has a boiling point range of 158 F. to 212 F. at 0.5 millimeter pressure. It has a flash point of about 250 F., a pour point of -148 F., the specific gravity is 0.900; it has a refractive index of about 1.394 and a surface tension at 77 F. of 19.2 dynes per centimeter.
This silicone liquid balls up on human hair (as does water on oil), even after that hair has been treated with a permanent; i.e., the silicone does not adhere thereto and is repellent thereto. Nevertheless the silicone does adhere to the surface of the acetate filaments. This provides a smooth peripheral hair-repellent surface on the acetate and provides for frictionless motion of the surfaces of the hair over the surfaces of the cloth in any direction, not just some.
Because of the formation of the yarn by a multiplicity of small filaments and wetted by the silicone, as seen along section 3A3A and in FIGURES 4 and 5 the outline or profile of each yarn relative to the hair is that of a generally ovoid rather than semicircular surface presented to the bottom of each hair where each hair contacts it. Accordingly each strand of hair and 44, 45, 46 in the overall, as shown in FIGURE 3, contacts a series of overlapping smoothly curved surfaces such as the top of yarns 33, 34, and 36. Because separate filaments of the high denier (100-300) filling yarns spread out on surface 18, each of such curved surfaces on the outer surface 18, is about three times as wide as high.
By the use of this pillowcase it is found that when women having their hair styled in coiffures sleep thereon that no hair tangles result. It appears that this is due to the absence of catching of the hair on any direction of movement over the surface of the pillowcase. The pillowcase may be washed and still preserve this capacity. If a multifilament yarn is not used as below described or a satin finish as below described and the relationship of size of filament to hair as below described is not used and also if the morphology of the fibres and a silicone is not used as herein described the hair does catch on the usual pillowcase or pillow cover. The explanation herein given of the particular compositions and action is for purposes of description of the action of the material and structures used so that the scope of equivalents as herein disclosed may not be limited by the particular examples.
A shaft of hair as 70 of FIGURE 4 is composed of a medulla 50, a cortex or middle layer as 51, and a cuticle 52. Cuticle 52 is composed of scale-like cells as 91-95 which project over the surface of the hair in an overlapping fashion and are all directed in the same direction on any one hair shaft. Hair shaft 71 is composed of a like medulla 50', cortex 51 and a cuticle 52'. Cuticle 52 has scale-like cells as 91-95' (the added to a referent number (as 50) indicates a structure (as 50) corresponding to the referent).
This scale-like surface of human hair, described in some literature as soft and smooth, actually is, as seen under a microscope, rough, and catches on fine fibres as available from cottons. The angle which the scal s of the cuticle make with the length of the hair shaft determines the porosity of the hair. Hair that is frequently dyed or bleached or styled becomes thicker and more porous and catches more readily. This is the reason, when a lady with styled hair sleeps on a usual cotton pillowcase, together with movement of the hair relative to the pillowcase, and catching of hair on the pillowcase, some strands of hair are bent, and/or twisted and tangles and coiffure disarray results.
The drawing of FIGURE 4, while a line drawing, is approximately to scale in regard to the showing of (a) the distance between scale ends as 93-92 relative to (b) the diameter (e.g., 0.08 mm.) of the shaft of hair as 70 and to (c) the diameter of the filaments (c.g., 0.02 mm.) such as 54, 55, 56, 57 relative to the hair shaft diameter. As shown in FIGURE 4 the individual filaments as 54, 55, 56, 57 of any one yarn as 31 are relatively flat, i.e., each with its greater diameter horizontal and its lesser diameter vertical or perpendicular to the direction of the horizontally elongated hair (horizontal and vertical as shown in the drawing). The cross-section sizes of the filaments as 54-57 used in pillowcase 14 are sufficiently large and the cross-sections thereof so shaped as to hold a liquid that is repellent to the hair on such filaments and between adjacent filaments so that the scales of the hair cuticle, even in the highly porous hair of people who regularly and frequently get permanent waves and/or dye, and/or bleach their hair, will not catch on the surface of the cloth 30. This is not only because the curvature of the periphery of the filaments as 54-57, as measured by the radius of curvature of each such filament, is usually greater than the distance to a cuticle scale edge (as 73) from the outer surface of the adjacent portion of the cuticle (as outer surface of scale 91) measured radially as shown by the distance of 60 of FIGURES 4 and 5 but also because the smooth hair repellent coating of silicone 59, which does not spread on the cuticle of surface, provides a minimum of friction between the scales that form the surface of the hair and the multifilament yarn forming cloth 30.
Normally, when acetate is manufactured it has, initially, a slight hydrocarbon oily layer thereon. This layer has a slippery feel to the hand until the normal use of the material results in a creation of creases to which secondary acetate is very non-resistant. Upon laundering the acetate, the oil is removed. Thereafter the pillowcase is dry and the movement of shafts of hair as 70' and 71 thereover results in catching of such hair shafts even on satin weaves, unless silicone is used as herein taught.
A satin weave is used because satin weave does not have a diagonal therein as does, for instance, twill weave. A continuous diagonal interferes with the lustre and smoothness that are one of the desired qualities of the satin weave herein. Satin weaves usually employ a minimum of five harnesses and in this application, a satin weave is one which does employ a minimum of five harnesses because a smaller number could result in forming a twill weave and a diagonal.
The silicone is retained on the particular filaments used, namely the secondary acetate, because, as shown in FIGURE 4, each single filament as 53 is formed of a series of lobes as 61, 62, 63, and 64 with radially extending fissures as 65, 66, and 67 therebetween open to the outer surface of the filament. The silicone does spread on the surface of the filament and also gathers and forms reservoirs as shown in the fissures; such reservoirs provide for a subsequent spreading of the liquid silicone over the surface of the filament. The silicone also forms accumulations as 87 and 87' between filaments in the filling yarn due to the wetting action of the silicone on its filaments. This layer of silicone forms a smooth and adherent and permanent glass-like coat 89' over the yarn outer surface. The fissures as 65, 66 and 67 on each yarn filament as 53 remain hydrophobic even after washing a pillowcase 1-4. Silicone as added to such a pillowcase after washing forms an anchor with the silicone remaining in the fissure and, thereby, forms a smooth peripheral coating such as 89 on the exterior of each filament of secondary acetate such as 53-57 (and 89' on 53' to 57). Thereby a smooth peripheral surface is formed on each of the lobular filaments because of the presence of the fissure provided on each such filament. The scales as 91-95 (and 91'95') slide on the surface formed by the silicone rather than on the surface of the filament directly.
For purpose of illustration, one portion of a shaft of hair, 70, is shown in FIGURE 4 with its length perpendicular to the length of the filling yarns, as 31, 32, 33, on the cloth 30. The cuticle scales as 91-95 of such portion 70 do not interfere with the movement of such a length of hair (70) in one direction, 78, parallel to the length of the portion 70 over and in contact with the cloth 30 because the scales provide a ratchet action that allows such, but, except for the structure and composition herein taught, motion in direction 77, opposite to 78, would produce bending of such strand. However, such does not occur on use of pillowcase 14 not only because the diameter of the filaments as 54-57 and the radius of curvature of the lobular portion of the filament surface are both substantially greater than the distance 60 between the lateral end or tip 73 of a cuticle scale as 93 and the exterior layer of cuticle as 91 located inwardly or centrally thereof but also because the crevices or fissures in the surface of and between the filaments are covered by the thin adherent coating or layer '89 of silicone liquid; this layer, 89, has a smooth outer surface and repels the surface of the cuticle scale in an elastic manner as well as with a minimum of frictional resistance to the passage of such cuticle scale edge to the filament in direction 77. Therefore, due to the size of the filaments and the coating of the surface thereof with silicone the cuticle scales do not catch on any portion of the filaments as 54-57 with the motion of hair portion 70 in the direction 77.
Movement of the portion of hair 70 over cloth 30 in direction 79, parallel to direction of filaments in yarn 31, is accomplished by contact of the hair cuticle with the layer of silicone 89 on the peripheral surface of the filaments as 54-57 and does not result in adherence of the hair to the filament of the yarn as the silicone does not wet the hair cuticle: this contact permits a smooth sliding action of hair as 70 over yarn as 31 with no substantial tendency of such movement to twist a hair portion as 70 about its axis parallel to its length.
Additionally for purpose of illustration, another portion of a shaft of hair 71 is shown in FIGURE 5 with its length parallel to the length of the filling yarns, as 33, of cloth 30. Such a length of hair 71 moves freely in direction 75 (parallel to 75) because the edge of the cuticle scales on shaft 71 point in the opposite direction. Such a length of hair 71 may with pillowcase 14 move freely in the direction 79' (opposite to 75) because the scales slide on the exterior silicone surface 89 of the layer of silicone fluid on the lobular acetate filament.
Additionally a length of hair as 71 may move in direction 77' (parallel to 77) or 78' (parallel to 78) without the hair becoming wedged or lodged in the interstices as 86, 87 or 88 between adjacent filaments as 53'57' because such interstitial spaces are small relative to the diameter of the shaft of the hair, i.e., the interstitial space are, at their widest only .005 to .001 mm., about 5 to 10 percent of the diameter of the hair, and always less than 15 percent of the hair diameter. Thereby any one strand of hair as 71 is not mechanically restrained by the dimensions of the filaments. Additionally, as the surface of the filaments is coated with a layer of silicone, as above discussed and such layer does not adhere to the cuticle scale, the scales are held away from and do not engage with the interstices between the filaments or the fissures within each lobular filament. If the diameter of the filaments 54, 55 and 56 were larged than about /3 of the diameter of the hair, the interstitial spaces between such filaments become sufiiciently large relative to the diameter of the hair, obstruction to the motion of the hair oriented as 71 relative to the filling yarn in direction 77' or 78 would result.
Normally all the hair in contact with a pillow does not lie in one direction as do the illustrative portions 71 or 70, but, as shown in FIGURE 3 each hair, as 44, lies with different portions thereof, as and 81, at an angle to each other as well as at a different angle to some linear feature of the pillowcase cloth. When, by motion of the head 12 of a mass of hair as 16 provided with a pillow support, one piece of hair, as 44, is moved in direction 79 or 77 and one element, as 80, of that hair 44 is obstructed while motion of another portion as 81 is not, there would be a twisting and bending of such hair, and loops would form and tangle with an adjacent length of hair, as 45, which would be sifhilarly but not identically twisted and looped. However, as provided by pillowcase 14, the friction between hair and support therefor is minimized and such twisting and tangling avoided notwithstanding the movement of such hair relative to the support therefor.
A bonnet 96 to protect a ladys coiffure using the principle above discussed may also be made. It is shown in FIGURES 6 and 7. Details of manufacture of pattern for such bonnet are shown in US. Patent 2,522,251 (except for fastening in the front) and Patent No. 1,766,749. The cloth used is a tri-acetate multifilamen-t satin with pleats therein as 97, 98, 99 to provide more styling and body. The interior surface of the bonnet is a filling effect satin identical to that used for surface 18 of pillowcase 14 except that cellulose tri-acetate is used because of its ability to maintain a pleat. After cutting the pattern and sewing the portions thereof together the finished article is sprayed with the silicone liquid as above described (about /2 cu. cm. per 3 square feet) to form a surface layer as 59 abovedescribed on the interior surface of the bonnet. The filament size used in the yarn is the same as in embodiment 14 (namely 0.02:.01 mm. diameter). As cellulose tri-acetate fiber has the same lobular characteristics in transverse cross-section as does thediacetate and silicones adherent thereto the cap 96 provides for protecting the coiffure of a lady from the wind while motion of the cover relative to the hair does not catch on the hair, even if very porous, and disturb the intended structure and effect of the styling of such hair. As with pillowcase 14, this is of particular value for use with highly porous hair.
A series of snap fasteners 100 are provided at the front of the bonnet to hold it in place beneath the chin of the wearer 11.
Although in accordance with the provision of the patent statutes, particular preferred embodiments of this invention have been described and the principles of the invention have been described in the best mode in which it is now contemplated applying such principles, it will be understood that the operations, constructions and compositions shown and described are merely illustrative and that my invention is not limited thereto and, accordingly, alterations and modifications which readily suggest themselves to persons skilled in the art without departing from the true spirit of the disclosure hereinabove are intended to be included in the scope of the annexed claims.
1. A pillow cover formed with a top cover portion and a bottom cover portion, said top and bottom cover portions being joined at edges thereof, said top cover portion being formed with a satin weave having on its top surface a filling effect, the filling yarn being a multifilament yarn with the filaments thereof having diameter of 02:01 mm. for use with hair of 3 to 5 times that diameter, the filaments forming said yarn in transverse crosssection being lobular and having longitudinal crevices opening to said top surface and wherein said filaments of the top surface are wetted by a hydrophobic and oleophobic silicone liquid and crevices in the top surface of said filaments are covered by said liquid,
2. Apparatus as in claim 1 wherein said filament is a cellulose diacetate with an acetyl-hydroxyl ratio of 23:7.
3. Apparatus as in claim 2 wherein the silicone liquid is a dirnethyl siloxane with a boiling point of between 158 F. to 212 F. at 0.5 mm. pressure, a flash point of about 250 F. and a viscosity at 77 F. of about 3.5 centistokes and a pour point of about 148 F., and a specific gravity of about 0.900, and /2 cubic centimeter of such liquid is applied to a range of between 3 and 4 square feet of area of said top cover.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,283,343 11/1966 Worcester 53 37 3,274,623 9/1966 McCarthy 5339 3,124,812 3/1964 Milton et a1. 5338 3,109,182 11/1963 Doak 5337 3,071,783 1/1963 Gamble 5337 2,956,291 10/1960 Hauptman 5337 2,845,637 8/1958 Stefano 5-339 2,779,033 1/1957 Fountain 5339 2,667,915 2/1954 Pfetfer et a1. 5337 1,542,561 6/1925 Laskin et a1. 5339 690,914 1/1902 Bentley 5337 OTHER REFERENCES Man Made Fibres (4th edition), Moncrielf, Wiley.
Textbook of Histology, Bremcr, Blakeston.
Standard Book of Cosmetology, Milady.
Performance of Lubricating Oils, Zuidema, Reinhold.
From Fiber to Fabric, Potter, Gregg.
A Concise Guide to Plastics, Second Edition (pp. 63, 64, 67), Simonds and Church, Reinhold Publishing Corp., New York, 1963.
Modern Science and Technology (pp. 216, 217), Colborn, D. Van Nostrand Co., Princeton, N.J., 1965.
Source Book of the New Plastics, vol. 2 (pp. 144, 145, 194-197, 284), Simonds, Reinhold Publishing Corp., New York, 1961.
Applied Textiles, Raw Materials to Finished Fabrics, Sixth Edition, reprinted 1965 (pp. 77-79, 312-314), Linton, Duell, Sloan and Pearce, New York, 1965.
BOBBY R. GAY, Primary Examiner.
A. CALVERT, Assistant Examiner.
U.S. Cl. X.R. 2202