|Publication number||US3427767 A|
|Publication date||Feb 18, 1969|
|Filing date||Jul 21, 1965|
|Priority date||Jul 21, 1965|
|Publication number||US 3427767 A, US 3427767A, US-A-3427767, US3427767 A, US3427767A|
|Inventors||Schaefer Ernest R|
|Original Assignee||Schaefer Ernest R|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (14), Classifications (14)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
1969 E R. SCHAEFER "BUILDING STRUCTURE Sheet Filed July 21, 1965 FIG. 5
INVENIOR ERNEST R. SCHAEFER .ATZQQE H E. R. SCHAEFER 3,427,767 BUILDING STRUCTURE Feb. 18, 1969 Sheet Filed July 21, 1965 INVENTOI? ERNEST R. SCHAEFER ATTORNEY Feb. 18, 1969 E. R. SUCHAEFER 3,427,767
BUILDING STRUCTURE File July 21, 1965 Sheet 3 of 4 INVENIOI? ERNEST R. SCHAEFER Wm M 5m ATTORNEY Feb. 18, 1969 E. R. S'CHAEFER 3,427,767
BUILDING STRUCTURE Filed July 21, 1965 Sheet 4 of 4 lNl/ENI'OA ERNEST R. SCHAEFER A TIORNEY Mam/Mm United States Patent '0 3,427,767 BUILDING STRUCTURE Ernest R. Schaefer, 40 Country Corners Road, Wayland, Mass. 01778 Filed July 21, 1965, Ser. No. 473,769 US. CI. 52-18 8 Claims Int. Cl. E04b 7/12, l /34; E04c 2/38 ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE This invention relates to building structures and more particularly to buildings of the frameless type wherein the panels forming the building provide the supporting structure and the surface covering.
Conventional 'building structures are generally expensive in terms of the volume enclosed per dollar of material and erection costs. There exists a need for a building structure which is physically equal to or superior to a conventional building but which in its completed form is less expensive. Since a large fraction of the cost ofa conventional building is expended on first erecting a supporting frame on which a non-load-supporting covering or skin is then applied, it is to be expected that significant economies will be effected if as in this invention the skin and the supporting frame are provided as an integral unit. This integral unit is provided in the unique design of the panel of the invention which when assembled with other like panels provides a frameless building structure of high strength and low cost.
It is, therefore, a primary object of this invention;to provide a building structure which is fabricated from panels fastened together to form a self-supporting structure without utilizing additional supporting framework.
It is a further object of this .invention toprovide a building structure which not only requires no supporting framework when completed but further requires no supporting framework while under construction.
It is a further object of this invention to provide a building panel which is fabricated from a standard rectangular form of sheet material stock with :a minimum scrap material resulting from the fabrication.
It is a further object of this invention to provide a building panel having high resistance to bending and twisting stresses to which it is subjected.
It is a further object of this invention to provide a building panel which provides the maximum area of coverage'from an originally rectangular sheet of material while providing a panel which has high strength and behaves as a structurally stiff member even though fabricated from relatively thin sheet material.
Another object of this invention is to provide a'building which may be constructed of relatively low strength material such as plastic without requiring a supporting metal frame.
Another object of this invention is to produce a building constructed of sandard modular panels, easily produced and assembled with a small amount of relatively unskilled labor.
It is a feature of this invention to provide at least in one embodiment of the invention a building panel which can be stacked one upon another of like panels to 3,427,767 Patented Feb. 18, 1969 provide a compact package of panels to facilitate transporting.
Another object of the invention is to provide a building which consists of a plurality of generally identical panels that may be quickly assembled to form the structure and quickly disassembled to dismantle the same.
It is a further feature of this invention that the building panels may be assembled to form an arch while the arch so formed is lying on a fiat horizontal work surface. Said arch being sufficiently strong to be stable when lifted to a vertical position and left standing without external support. Said arch also being capable of being moved into position adjacent another arch for connection thereto in the assembly of a building.
These and other objects and features of the invention are accomplished in a preferred embodiment of the invention by providing a building panel of rectangular outline having a flat surface from which a ridge protrudes. The ridge extends in the longitudinal direction of the panel and is centrally disposed in the lateral or transverse dimension of the panel. The ridge is of substantial height relative the width of the panel at least at one end of the panel. The transverse expanse or width of the ridge, measured at its base in the plane of flat surface is substantially greater, at the end of the panel where the ridge height is greatest, than the width at the other end of the panel. The substantial height of the ridge together with is width variation along the length of the panel is a contributing factor to the unusual strength achieved in the panel. Accordingly, the height of the ridge has been increased greatly over normal corrugation heights since thereby the strength is greatly increased. The combination of the ridge and the planar or flat surface results'in a panel having substantial area of coverage together with high strength. Flanges along the periphery of the panel contribute to the structural strength of the panel and facilitate connection to other like panels. Furthermore, this unique panel construction is accomplished with minimum waste of the rectangular sheet stock of material from which the panel is fabricated by utilizing that'portion of the sheet stock not used in said ridge to provide a planar portion of substantial lateral extent.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will become more apparent from the following detailed description taken in conjunction with the appended drawings wherein:
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a preferred embodiment of the panel of this invention.
FIG. 2 is a prepared flat sheet of material from which the panel of FIG. 1 is to be formed.
FIG. 3 is a top view of a completed panel.
FIG. 4 is a side view of the panel of FIG. 1.
FIGS. 5 and 6 are end views of the panel of FIG. 1.
FIG. 7 is a cross sectional view of the region where two panels are fastened together at their corresponding ends.
' FIG. 8 is a perspective view of the region where two panels are fastened together.
FIG. 9 is a perspective view of a building structure whose roof and side walls are constructed of the panels of FIG. 1.
FIGS. 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 are perspective views of other embodiments of the panel of this invention.
FIGS. 15 and 17 are-cross sectional views of panels connected to each other with up-turned flanges.
FIG. 16 is a perspective view of a bolted-on type of end fiange.
FIG. 18 is a perspective view of panels assembled to form a column.
A preferred embodiment of the building panel 10 of this invention is shown in FIG. 1. The panel 10 has a ridge 18 extending longitudinally along the length of the panel and centrally disposed in the lateral or width dimension of the panel. The ridge 18 of FIG. 1 is triangular in cross section having a height of substantial dimension compared to the width of the panel and a width which varies substantially along the length of the panel 10. The remaining surface of the panel is composed of substantially planar surfaces 24, 25 which are contiguous to the base of the width of the triangular ridge 18 at bends 23, 22, respectively. In the preferred embodiment, the panel 10 is fabricated from an initially parallel sided sheet of flat material to yield a panel 10 constrained to have constant width throughout its length. This constraint causes the ridge 18 to be composed of two non-planar surfaces thereby contributing to the unusual strength and structural rigidity of the completed panel 10. Flanges 11, 14 at the edges of the panel ends 12, 13 and flanges 19 at the panel side edges 34, 35 provide a means for attaching panels 10 to one another. The flanges also add to the structural strength of the panel especially when connected to each other by welding or by being fastened to a common rigid member.
The panel 10 may be fabricated from a rectangular sheet of metal, such as steel or aluminum, or other suitable material such as acrylic type plastic, with a minimum of scrap material resulting from the fabrication. A fiat sheet 15 of metal is cut and notched along its periphery as shown in FIG. 2 from an originally rectangular sheet. The dashed lines 8 of FIG. 2 rep-resent those lines along which bends are made to provide the finished panel 10 of FIG. 1. A bend along the ridge line joining end points 16, 17, centrally located in the width dimension of the sheet 15, establishes the peak 9 of the ridge 18 of the panel. Two additional bends, each in a direction opposite from the ridge bend, one bend 23 along the line joining points 20, 21 and another bend 22 along the line joining points 28, 29 complete the fabrication of the main surface of the panel. Bends along the remaining lines 8 of FIG. 2 provide the end flanges 11, 14 and side flanges 19. In the completed panel 10 the side flanges 19 are transverse to the plane of the planar surfaces 24, while end flanges 11, 14 are substantially in the plane the end edges of the ridge 18 form.
The panel 10 of FIG. 1 is shown in top projection in FIG. 3 to illustrate the retention of parallel sides 34,
in the finished panel where the material from which the panel was fabricated was initially rectangular as in FIG. 2. The outermost points 12, 13 of ridge peak 9 are seen to extend beyond the planar portions 24, 25. However, it is apparent that the panel 10 of FIG. 1 can have end points 12, 13 terminating short of the ends of the planar portions 24, 25 if a panel of this configuration is desired.
The side view of the panel 10 in FIG. 4 shows the planar end edges of the ridge 18 and the location of the flanges 11, 14 in this ridge plane. The angles 31, 32 that the ridge plane forms with the plane of surfaces 24, 25 are shown to be acute angles. As stated above, it is apparent that the angles may be different than that shown in FIG. 4, even being obtuse angles, with the particular choice of angles being determined by the design of a particular span and the number of panels in the span. As an example, a four panel span or arch 91, 92 such as shown in FIG. 9 provides an esthetically pleasing and structurally strong building when the angles 31, 32 are both 62.5 degrees.
The end views of the panel 10 in FIGS. 5, 6 show in detail the end flanges 11, 14 and the ridge angles 51, 52. The angle 51 at end 13 of panel 10 is not equal to angle 52 atthe other end 12 of the panel where the panel is fabricated from an initially rectangular sheet 15 with the constraint that the finished panel 10 is of uniform width as are the side flanges 19. If the panel 10 is fabricated from sheet metal by means of a brake, the brake must be adjusted to provide these unequal angles at the ends of the panel and to cause the ridge a g e to y continuously therebetween. This brake adjustment is easily made by a skilled craftsman. The unequal angles 51, 52 cause the surfaces 26, 27 of the ridge 18 to be non-planar surfaces. The extent of curvature in surfaces 26, 27 is illustrated by considering the dimensions of a typical panel. A typical panel 10 has a total width of thirty-six inches of which the ridge 18 occupies twenty-five inches at panel end 12 and eight inches at end 13. The approximate height of ridge peak 9 at end 12 is seven inches while at end 13 it is four and one-half inches in height. For these dimensions the angle 52 is 120 degrees whereas the angle 51 is degrees. For a panel whose length measured between end points 12, 13 is approximately seven and one-half feet, the difference in angles 51, 52 although large results in only a gradual curvature of ridge surfaces 26, 27. Nonetheless, this curvature provides a stiffening effect in the ridge surfaces which contributes to overall strength and structural stiffness of the panel 10.
The difference in the ridge angles 51, 52 is illustrated in FIGS. 5, 6 together with the relatively (not to scale) large size of the ridge 18, especially at end 12, compared to the width of the panel and also in absolute magnitude. End flanges 11, 14 contain bolt holes 60 which provide a convenient means for fastening corresponding ends 12 or 13 of two panels to form a portion of a span 91, 92 as in FIG. 9. The flanges 11, 14, and 19 are shown as bent tabs fabricated of the sheet metal layout of FIG. 2. Considerable strength is added to the panel 10 if these flanges are mechanically attached to a neighboring flange. This attachment may be made by welding the end of each flange to an adjacent flange or alternately by bolting the flanges to a reinforcing plate 82 as illustrated in FIGS. 7, 8.
Alternatively, the panel 10 may be fabricated initially without providing end flanges 11, 14. In this event, end caps having the shape of reinforcing plate 82 are subsequently Welded to the edges of the panel 10 at ends 12, 13. Still another form of end flanges 11, 14 is shown in FIG. 16. This form of flange is provided with bolt holes 60 for securing one panel to another and also with bolt holes 61 by which the flange of FIG. 16 is bolted to the surface of panel 10 through holes (not shown) corresponding to bolt holes 61. A panel without end flanges is desirable because their absence permits stacking of the panels to provide a compact package of panels to facilitate transportation to an erection site; at which place the end flanges may be welded or bolted to the ends of the panel to provide a complete panel ready for assembly to other panels. In another embodiment only one end of a panel need the welded or bolted-on type of end flanges since the permanently attached end flanges 14 will nestle together when the panels are stacked. Stacking is facilitated when the side flanges 19 are slightly splayed. For material thicknesses of to A; inch, this splay angle is only a few degrees.
The panel 10 in the embodiment previously described has been fabricated subject to the condition that a panel with parallel side edges 34, 35 and side flanges 19 of constant width was provided from sheet stock of constant width. This necessarily resulted in the fabrication of a panel whose ridge angles 51, 52 were unequal. Where the additional strength of a panel having unequal ridge angles may be sacrificed for whatever economy in fabrication that might be obtained by making the ridge angles equal, the equal ridge angle embodiment of the panel of this invention is available. Where the ridge angles at ends 12, 13 are equal and the panel 10 has the configuration of FIG. 3 with its side edges 35, 34 parallel to each other, the side flanges 19 will vary in width along the length of the panel 10 if the panel 10 has been fabricated from sheet stock which was originally rectangular.
That the difference in the flange 19 width at the two ends of the panel 10 is not substantial at least in a typical panel can be seen by considering a panel where the ridge 18 at its largest end 12 has the same dimensions as the panel described earlier. The height of the ridge 18 at end 13 will be allowed to have the same height as the panel described earlier, namely four and one-half inches. Under these conditions for a panel having a width of thirtysix inches fabricated from forty-eight inch stock width, the flange 19 width at end 12 remains four inches wide whereas its width at end 13 is four and eight-tenths inches. It is apparent that the difference in flange 19 width is not of a magnitude which is esthetically objectionable to the extent that it should be trimmed-an extra operation which would increase the cost of the panel. The decrease in the strength of the panel having equal angles 51, 52 as compared with the panel having unequal angles, where fabrication convenience is a predominant consideration, may be acceptable since the panel 10 would still retain many of its strength characteristics even though in diminished amount.
FIG. 7 shows in cross sectional detail the manner in which two panels 10 are joined at their corresponding ends 12 (or 13). A gasket or tape 81 is placed between ends 12 to provide a watertight seal. The gasket 81 may be of any material suitable for this purpose. If desired, gasket 81 may be omitted, and instead the inadvertent gap existing between the ends of assembled panels 10 be sealed after assembly with caulking compound. Bolts 83, inserted through the holes 60 in the end flanges 11 (or 14), clamp the gasket 81 between the end flanges to provide a seal. Reinforcing plates 82 are preferably used to strengthen the panel 10 by tying the end flanges 11, 14 together by the same bolts 83 as shown in FIGS. 7, 8. The plates 82 also distribute the high stress concentration which occurs in the vicinity of bolts 83. The reinforcing plate 82 should preferably extend as close to the surface of the panel 10 as possible, as shown in FIG. 8, since maximum strength of the juncture of the panels is obtained thereby.
The panels 10 of FIG. 1 are assembled as in FIG. 9 to provide a building structure. The panels 10 forming wall panels 92 and roof panels 91 are joined at their ends 12, 13 as in FIG. 7. The ridges 18 of the roof panels 91 being aligned with the ridges 18 of the wall panels 92 to form a continuous ridge in an arch of end-connected panels 91, 92.. Arches 91, 92 and 91', 92 are fastened together by their side flanges 19 to form the building structure of FIG. 9. As at the juncture of the panel end flanges, a weatherproofining gasket is preferably placed between the side flanges 19 before they are bolted together. The assembled arches are supported by a foundation 90 of conventional type. Panels 93 of any standard construction constitute the end walls of the building.
The arches 91, 92 and 91', 92' of FIG. 9 differ to the extent that the corresponding panels of the two arches are reversed in direction. However, a building could be constructed entirely of arches of either type 91, 92 or 91', 92'. In this event, the building would have its weakest point at the juncture of the smaller ridge end 13 of the panels 10 forming the arch. A stronger building results where as in FIG. 9 the arches of the type 91, 92 alternate with arches of the 91', 92' type.
An arch 91, 92 of the building of FIG. 9 may be assembled from the panels 10 while the panels are resting on a fiat platform such as platform 90. The assembled arch may then be hoisted to an erect position on the platform 90 and positioned thereon in its desired location. The erected arch is sufliciently stable to be left standing without external support while another arch is similarly positioned alongside it so that the arches may be fastened to each other by their side flanges 19. This process of erection is continued for each successive arch until the structure of FIG. 9 is completed. This method of construction is practical where the weight of the assembled arch is less than that which will cause localized deformation of the arch by stress concentrations during the lifting process. If stress concentration is a problem, a cradle to distribute stress is readily provided. It has been found that an arch having a span of nineteen feet, a peak height of ten feet, a width of three feet, and a weight of approximately three hundred pounds when fabricated from four four by eight foot cold rolled steel sheets of one-sixteenth inch thickness may be assembled on a platform and lifted to a vertical standing position by only two men without any need for temporary strengthening of the arch during its erection. A structure built from the above arches such as the structure shown in FIG. 9 should according to calculations withstand wind loads of mph. and a snow load of 30 lbs. per sq. ft. If aluminum is used instead of steel, the material thickness should be increased to inch thickness for the same load capability. It is understood that other materials such as plastic may be used where their strength characteristics are acceptable and where their use is desired for their radiation transmission characteristics such -as light transmission for illumination or for use in hot-house enclosures.
An extreme form of the pannel 10 of this invention is shown in FIG. 10. At one end 12 of the panel the large triangular ridge 18 is caused to extend from one side 35 of the panel to the other side 36, whereas the smaller triangular ridge at end 13 has essentially no base width. It is found that this extreme form of panel has surprisingly good twist resistance about its longitudinal axis together with a high moment of inertia about its transverse axis which results in good bending resistance. However, the broad expanse of surface 26, 27 of ridge 18 near the large 12 end of the panel is susceptible to elastic instability which evidences itself by surface wrinkling and oil canning if the thickness of the panel material is not suflicient. The same problem occurs in the large surface area of the planar sections 24, 25 at the other end 13 of the panel 10. In order to obtain the best balance of overall strength of the panel with the minimum thickness of material in the panel, the panel will generally assume a less extreme form than that of FIG. 10. The panel design of FIG. 1 is thought to achieve a good balance of strength considerations in the panel. It is seen that any panel design that might be desired can be obtained by taking sections through the panel 10 of FIG. 10 as at sections 70, 71 which establish the size of the triangular section at each end of the panel. The distance between the sections 70 and 71 is caused to be equal to the length of the panel desired.
It is believed that the panel design of FIG. 1, where the total width of surfaces 25 and 26 at end 12 is approximately one-third to one-fourth of the total width of the completed panel 10 (excluding the side flanges 19) and is approximately two-thirds to three-fourths the total width at the other end 13 is a design that will provide a panel which has the combination of good t-wist resistance about its longitudinal axis, high strength for load applied transverse to the plane of the surfaces 24, 25 of the panel, and small susceptibility to elastic instability. In addition, the design range above provides a panel which has good balance of structural strength to area of coverage.
The dimensions of a typical panel 10 of the form shown in FIG. 1 which is believed to provide a panel satisfying the criteria outlined above is one where the total width of the panel 10 between edges 34, 35 is three feet, the length of the surface 24, 25 is seven feet, the distance between end points 12, 13 is seven and one-half feet, all flanges are four inches wide, the ridge 18 height and width at end 12 is seven and twenty-five inches respectively, the ridge 18 height and width at end 13 is four and one-half and eight inches respectively. These panel dimensions are for the case where the original material from which the panel was fabricated was a A inch thickness, four by eight foot rectangular sheet of cold rolled steel.
The panel design of FIG. 1 is particularly adapted to fabrication from sheet metal since the bends at the ridge peak 9 and base bends 22, 23 are straight lines capable of being fabricated on a sheet metal brake. The panel 10 of FIG. 1 may also be fabricated from a plastic material, for example an acrylic plastic. Conventional drape molding of a plastic sheet which has been precut as in FIG. 2
7 may be used to form the panel 10 of FIG. 1. The mold used in the drape molding process is of the same shape as the panel of FIG. 1. The mold should be a split mold in order to allow its removal from the encompasing plastic panel with its reentrant end flanges 11, 14.
Another form of panel 10 shown in FIG. 11 has its raised or ridge portion 18 of a rounded or oval shape instead of the triangular shape of FIG. 1. The oval ridge 18 is believed to be advantageous by providing a broader area in the ridge over which bending torques are distributed as compared to the sharply pointed peak 9 of the triangular ridge. The oval ridge 18 is somewhat more difiicult to fabricate of sheet metal than the triangular ridge but on the other hand is more amenable to the drape molding technique used for plastics. It will be appreciated that a more moderate bend 22, 23 may be desirable than that shown in FIG. 11 for drape molding.
The panel of FIG. 12 is another embodiment of the panel of this invention. This panel is basically the same as that of FIG. 11 with the addition of longitudinally ex- 2 tending grooves 301, 302 to provide additional strength in the ridge portion 18 of the panel 10. These grooves 301, 302 may be uniform in size but additional strength is obtained if the groove is larger at the larger end 12 of the ridge 18 than at the other end 13 in approximate relation to the size of ridge 18 at end 12 to its size at end 13. The triangular grooves of FIG. 12 may instead be smooth curves. Of course the longitudinally extending grooves 301, 302 may be used in any shaped ridge 18.
As mentioned previously, the panel 10- of FIG. 1 having straight line bends at ridge peak 9 and bends 22, 23 is particularly suited for fabrication from sheet metal since it may be formed on a metal brake. However, conventional methods of fabrication with plastic materials allows the bends to be other than straight lines. FIG. 13 shows a panel 10 where the bends 22, 23 are not straight lines but rather are bowed outward in the plane of the surfaces 24, 25. This form of panel is preferred where it is desired to maintain the moment of inertia of the center region of the panel at a higher value than could be obtained in the straight bend of FIG. 1. At the same time, the panel twist resistance from the generally diagonally disposed curved bends is retained although slightly reduced from that obtained with straight bends.
Another embodiment of the panel of this invention is the split ridge form of panel 10 shown in FIG. 14. The panel of FIG. 14 has its ridge 18 divided longitudinally along its ridge peak 9 into two half ridges 160, 161. This form of panel 10 is equivalent in performance to the embodiment of FIG. 1 as may be seen by observing that an assembly of the panels of FIG. 14 will produce a structure as in FIG. 9 which in gross is identical with that obtained with the panels of FIG. 1. The arches at the ends of the structure of FIG. 9 will differ but this is not significant from a strength consideration. The surface 162 of FIG.
14 corresponds to the combined surfaces 24, 25-of the panel 10 of FIG. 1. The panel of FIG. 14 would appear to suffer the disadvantage of requiring one more bend in its fabrication than is required by the panel of FIG. 1.
The panels which have been considered have had their flanges extending in the downward direction in the sense of being opposite in direction from the direction of projection of the ridge 18. However, panels having their side flanges 19 extending in an upward direction may be desirable since as may be observed in the sectional views of an assembly of panels in FIGS. 15, 17 the crevice 172 between the side flanges 19 is farther removed from the lowermost portion of the panels where rain will accumulate. In addition, a covering channel 170 may be used to provide a further deterrent to the entry of water into crevice 172. It is preferred that channels 170 extend over the entire length of an arch or span either as a continuous member or as a series of partially overlapping channel lengths. The bolts 171 shown in FIGS. 15, 17 may be the same bolts which fasten together the side flanges 19 of adjacent arches or they may be considered to be smaller, more widely spaced bolts whose only function is to secure the channels to the flanges 19. An adhesive or clip fastener might be used instead for the latter purpose, especially where bolt holes 171 are objectionable. Although side flanges 19 might advantageously be caused to project upwards, the end flanges 11, 14 would normally project downwardly to facilitate the shedding of water from the structure. One exception might be those end flanges which occur at the peak of the structure.
Although the panels described thus far have been considered to have upwardly extending ridges, it is apparent that the same inventive concepts will be incorporated in a panel in which the ridge is downwardly extending to form a trough.
The embodiments of the panel have been described as being formed by bending or otherwise forming a continuous sheet of initially flat material into the shape of the finished panel 10. However, the ridge surfaces 26, 27, the planar surfaces 24, 25, and the flanges 11, 14, 19 may be individual pieces of material each cut to the shape of their corresponding portions as shown in FIG. 2. The individual portions may be flexibly connected to each other to form a completed assembly as in FIG. 2. The flexible connection may be any suitable material capable of being firmly attached to the individual portions while remaining flexible along the bend lines 8. Fiberglass cloth is one such suitable material, with an epoxy compound being used to attach the fiber glass to the material of the panel. The region of the fiber glass at the bend line is free of epoxy to allow its flexure. Of course, once the panel is formed the epoxy may be placed on the bend lines to provide a stronger and watertight panel.
If the panel so formed has end flanges 11, 14, a rigid end plate 82 as in FIGS. 7, 8 is fastened to the end flanges to determine the shape of the panel before the bends are caused to be made rigid. If the panel is not provided with end flanges 19, the end plate of FIG. 16 should be used for the same purpose. The flexibly attached panel is thought to be especially desirable for applications where minimum shipping volume is a prime consideration since it is essentially flat in its unassembled form. However, this form of panel will be unquestionably weaker than a corresponding panel fabricated from a continuous sheet.
The panel of this invention has been described as finding utilization in the side walls and roofs of buildings. However, the panel is also capable of supporting substantial axial loads. An assembly of panels connected to form a girder for resisting end loading is shown in FIG. 18. The vertical panels 10' are connected to each other by their side flanges 19. This provides a hollow girder of high moment of inertia. Each panel 10 is attached at its end to the end of a panel 10". The end angles 31, 32 of the panels 10, 10 may be such that the panels 10" diverge as in FIG. 18. The unattached ends 181, 182 of panels 10 may be attached to the ends of similar panels or to the underside of the roof panels 91 of the building of FIG. 9. Since the panels 10, 10" are to support primarily longitudinally directed or axial loads, the design of such panels diflers to a certain degree from the design of panels where surface area of coverage provided by the panel as well as its strength is a consideration. Where the panel is used as a girder, the height of the ridge 18 is increased at the expense of the total width of the panel since coverage is not needed.
There has been described in the foregoing specification a variety of embodiments of the panel of this invention. There has also been described the unique building structure and girder which can be constructed from such panels. It should be obvious to those skilled in the art that the objects of this invention have been fully met by the unique panel herein described.
Numerous modifications will readily occur to those skilled in the art after a consideration of the foregoing specifications and drawings, it is not intended to limit the invention to the precise embodiments shown and desaid ridge base width being greater in the central porscribed but rather to limit the invention only as defined tion of said non-planar surface than would be obin the following claims. tained by a linear variation of width between said What is claimed is: 1. A building panel comprising ridge ends. 8. A building structure comprising,
a non-planar surface having a ridge portion and a 5 a plurality of panels, each panel comprising a nonplanar portion, planar surface having a ridge portion and a planar said ridge extending the length of said surface, portion, said ridge being connected at its base to said planar said ridge extending the length of said surface,
portion to project outwardly from said planar porsaid ridge being connected at its base to said planar tion to form the non-planarity of said non-planar portion to project outwardly from said planar porsurface, tion to form the non-planarity of said non-planar said ridge being substantially higher and wider at its surface,
base at one end of said surface than at the other, said ridge being substantially higher and wider at its said ridge base width at its widest end being greater base at one end of said surface than at the other, than one-half the maximum width of said surface, said ridge base width at its widest end being greater said ridge base width at the other end of said surface than one-half the maximum width of said surface, being less than one-half the maximum width of said said ridge base width at the other end of said surface surface. being less than one-half the maximum width of said 2. The building panel of claim 1 comprising in addition surface, said ridge portion being V shaped with the angle insaid panels having end flanges which lie in a plane eluded within said V being constant along its length, forming an angle with respect to the plane of said said ridge height at its highest end being .at least oneplanar portion,
sixth the maximum width of said panel. at least one panel of said plurality being connected to 3. The building panel of claim 1 comprising in addition at least one other panel by their end flanges, aid ridge portion being V shaped with the angle inthe abutting ends of panels so connected having the cluded within said V continuously changing along same ridge dimensions in lateral alignment, the length of said ridge, the angle being greatest at a number of panels so connected by their end fianges the widest end of said ridge, the changing angle formingafirst arch, causing the V shaped ridge portion to have non- 0 a second arch corresponding to said first arch and differplanar sides, ing therefrom by reversing the direction of corresaid ridge height at its highest end being at least onesponding panels,
sixth the width of said panel. said first and second arches having laterally disposed 4. The building panel of claim 3 comprising in addition flanges, the width of said panel being substantially uniform, aplurality of said first and second arches, the included angle within said V changing so that the said first and second arches being interleaved and conwidth of said non-planar surface measured along said nected to each other by their lateral flanges to form surface is substantially constant and greater than the a building structure. width of said panel. 5. A building panel as in claim 1 comprising in addition, ef ces ted said ridge being centrally disposed the Width di- UNITED STATES PATENTS niensron of said non planar surface to provide a 2,989,154 6/1961 Colby 52 731X p anar portion on each side of said rldge. 6. A building panel as in claim 1 comprising in addition, 3045783 7/1962 Damels 52 73-1 X said planar portion being centrally disposed laterally in 3,171,517 3/1965 Howell 52 86 the nomplanar Surface, 3,136,524 6/ 1965 Spalth said ridge portion being split along the peak of said FOREIGN PATENTS ridge to provide two half-ridge portions, 221254 4/1959 Australia each half-ridge having a base edge connected to oppositely disposed edges of said planar portion,
each half-ridge having a flange running along its peak,
said flange extending in a direction substantially transverse to said planar portion.
7. A building panel as in claim 1 comprising in addition,
ALFRED C. PERHAM, Primary Examiner.
,US. Cl. X.R.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2989154 *||Mar 17, 1955||Jun 20, 1961||Nat Steel Corp||Building construction|
|US3045783 *||Jun 18, 1959||Jul 24, 1962||Kerrigan Iron Works Company||Standard for traffic signals, street lights and the like|
|US3171517 *||May 1, 1961||Mar 2, 1965||Lifetime Metal Building Co||Metal buildings and building elements|
|US3186524 *||Apr 11, 1961||Jun 1, 1965||Spaeth Jr Otto Lucien||Panelized building construction|
|AU221254B *||Title not available|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3712006 *||Apr 5, 1971||Jan 23, 1973||Bea K||Foldable building construction of roof and wall sections|
|US3755975 *||May 4, 1970||Sep 4, 1973||Herzer J||Pre-fabricated shell structure|
|US3798852 *||Dec 27, 1971||Mar 26, 1974||Nicoll F||Building formed of precut, foldable site erected paper board panels|
|US3800485 *||Jul 1, 1971||Apr 2, 1974||Panokraft Corp Ltd||Building roof structure|
|US3807105 *||Dec 8, 1971||Apr 30, 1974||Rudkin Wiley Corp||Modular building units|
|US3883999 *||Dec 14, 1973||May 20, 1975||Nicoll Jr Frank S||Building formed of precut, foldable site erected paper board|
|US3893277 *||Aug 9, 1973||Jul 8, 1975||Constant Albert||Building panels|
|US4720956 *||Jan 24, 1986||Jan 26, 1988||Per Wiklund||Plate profile|
|US4776139 *||Feb 26, 1987||Oct 11, 1988||Lockwood David N||Building panels|
|US7743582 *||Oct 4, 2004||Jun 29, 2010||Davor Petricio Yaksic||Conical roof construction|
|US8672583||Jun 7, 2010||Mar 18, 2014||Stormtech Llc||Corrugated stormwater chamber having sub-corrugations|
|US20090272043 *||Nov 5, 2009||Arthur Louis Zwern||Foldable building structures|
|US20100275547 *||May 21, 2007||Nov 4, 2010||Yoshio Kamata||Fromwork panel|
|WO2009137526A2 *||May 5, 2009||Nov 12, 2009||Arthur Louis Zwern||Foldable building structures|
|U.S. Classification||52/18, D25/162, 52/537, 52/73, D25/17, 52/91.3, 52/630|
|International Classification||E04B1/02, E04B1/08, E04C2/32|
|Cooperative Classification||E04B1/08, E04C2/32|
|European Classification||E04C2/32, E04B1/08|