|Publication number||US3428258 A|
|Publication date||Feb 18, 1969|
|Filing date||Mar 23, 1966|
|Priority date||Mar 23, 1966|
|Publication number||US 3428258 A, US 3428258A, US-A-3428258, US3428258 A, US3428258A|
|Inventors||Duggan Robert B|
|Original Assignee||American Standard Inc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (8), Referenced by (8), Classifications (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Feb. 18, 1969 R. B. DUGGAN OPEN PORE FOAM FAUCET INSERT Filed March 23, 1966 INVENTOR Robert B. Duggan ATTORNEY United States Patent O 3,428,258 OPEN PORE FOAM FAUCET INSERT Robert B. Duggan, Louisville, Ky., assignor to American Standard Inc., New York, N .Y., a corporation of Delaware Continuation-impart of abandoned application Ser. No. 414,686, Nov. 30, 1964. This application Mar. 23, 1966, Ser. No. 543,459 U.S. Cl. Z39-590.3 Int. Cl. B05b 1/22; E03c 1/108 6 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE This application is a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 414,686, filed on Nov. 30, 1964, now abandoned.
This invention relates in general to a method and apparatus for controlling the fiow of fluid through a faucet, and more specifically to a method and apparatus for transforming the turbulent flow of water through a faucet into a smooth laminar fiow to define a silent, uninterrupted, non-splashing stream of water discharging therefrom.
Many objections have been raised as to the noise and splash generally created by a stream of water discharging from a faucet. Such noise and splash is attributed to the turbulence created in the flow of water. The turbulence thus created effects a distortion in the water pattern as it streams from the spout end of a faucet. Distortion of the water pattern in streaming from the faucet is also attributed to the entrappment of air as the water escapes therefrom.
It is therefore an object of this invention to provide a method and apparatus for transforming the turbulent flow of water through a faucet into a smooth laminar stream so that it discharges therefrom in a smooth, uniform, and well defined pattern in a relatively silent manner.
It is another object to provide an improved spout end construction. for afaucet that results in forming smooth clear symmetrical, uninterrupted and silent flowing stream as it discharges therefrom in a relatively simple and expedient manner.
Another object is to provide an improved spout end construction that is relatively simple to fabricate, relatively inexpensive to manufacture, and which is positive in operation. v
A feature of this invention resides in the provision of a means located in the spout end of a faucet, which is constructed to minimize the entrapment of air in the stream of water as it discharges from the spout end.
Another feature of this invention resides in utilizing an open pore materialror open cellular foam in the spout end of a faucet for transforming the turbulent flow of fluid therethrough into a smooth laminar flow to result in a silent, non-splashing ow of water therefrom.
Another feature of this invention resides in the provision of a method and apparatus utilizing an open pore or cellular material which is readily disposable and expend- 3,428,258 Patented Feb. 18, 1969 ICC able in the event it clogs up to effect a smooth, silent, non-splashing fiow of fluid passing therethrough.
Other features and advantages will become more readily apparent when considered in View of the drawings and specifications in which:
FIG. 1 illustrates a cross sectional View of the improved spout end `construction of the instant invention.
FIG. 2 is a sectional view taken along line 2-2 of FIG. 1. f
In accordance with this invention, the method utilized for transforming the turbulent flow of a fluid, as for example water through a faucet 10 or the like, into a smooth laminar flow to result in a welldefined, silent non-splashing stream pattern fiowing therefrom comprises the positioning in the spout end 11 of a faucet 10 a plug like member, or layers thereof, formed of an open pore or reticulated cellular foam material 12. For example, a polyurethane open-pore foam manufactured by the Scott Paper Company of Chester, Pa. has been discovered to be a most satisfactory material for accomplishing the desired results. Preferably, the plug 12 is formed or blanked from a sheet of open pore cellular material of the required thickness to a size approximating or conforming to the internal diameter Do or circumference of the spout end or nozzle. If desired, a pair of spaced screens or perforated member 13 and 14 may be used above and below the plug 12.
The open pore cellular foam material is to be distinguished from the open cell foam in that the open cell foam has a membrane that partially covers the cell faces or pores. This type of material has a relatively high pressure drop as compared to the open pore reticulated foam material and also acts as a filtering media, which is not desired in this invention. The example of open pore foam manufactured by the Scott Paper Company of Chester, Pa., cited above, is such a reticulated foam having 97% or more of void space and therefore a very low pressure drop through the foam. Also no 'further treatment of the foam material .12 is required. All that is necessary is that it be cut or blanked to shape and positioned within the dis-charge end 11 of a faucet 10.
Referring to the drawings, there is shown in FIG. 1 the spout 9 of the faucet 10 to which the nozzle or spout end 11 is secured. The nozzle 11 may be externally threaded at one end 16 thereof to form with the the threaded opening 18 of the faucet spout 9 a screw connection by which it may be secured thereto. The other end of the tubular member 11 is provided with an inturned flange 22 to define an orifice or discharge opening 24.
In accordance with this invention, a plug or layer of open pore or cellular foam materials 12 is disposed within the bore of the tubular member 11.
As best seen in FIGS. 1 and 2, the shape of the layer or plug 12 is defined by an outside diameter that closely conforms `or approximates the internal diameter Do of the tubular member 11. Accordingly, to retain the plug or layer 12 of open pore material within the bore of the tubular member 11, the layer of material 12 may be disposed between a pair of spaced screen or semirigid perforated members 13, 14. Alternatively, perforations may be provided in the end of the nozzle 11 instead of using the screen 13. Also the upper screen 14 may be omitted if desired. With the construction thus described, it has been discovered that turbulent liow of water through the faucet is transformed into a smooth laminar flow as the water passes through the layer of open pore material.
That the structure above described will result in laminar flow to form a silent, non-splashing flow will be evident since the type of fiow, whether turbulent or laminar, is a function of the Reynolds number Nr where:
N r:D Vp/ n wherein: D=diameter of opening V=velocity p=density n=viscosity Thus, given a water flow at a specified temperature Nr=KDV where K is a constant.
Since high Reynolds numbers are associated with turbulent flow and low Reynolds numbers with laminar fiow, it will be noted that assuming a given open porc foam structure wherein the open cell has a dimension Dc=1/50Do and a free area of the foam of 90%, the Reynolds number with no foam equals:
N,.=KDOV, and with foam N,=KDV/90% Substituting for D,3 in the latter equation:
Nr=K(D) /50.V/.9 Nr: 1/45KD0V or Nr (with foam)=1/45 Nr (without foam) From this example, it will be observed that open cell foam will materially reduce the Reynolds number, and therefore by proper selection of diameters and flow rates, the fiow can be changed from turbulent to laminar by the utilization of open cell foam.
The present range of pore size commercially available extends from to 100 p.p.i. (pores per lineal inch), however, it has been determined that there is little effect on the appearance of the discharging stream or fiow of water when pore sizes smaller than p.p.i. are used. This is to be considered the preferred pore size with a range of from 10 to 25 p.p.i. being the critical klimits in order to avoid excessive pressure drop and a filtering action of the material.
From the foregoing description, it will be readily apparent that the utilization of open pore cellular foam material in the spout end of a faucet greatly enhances the establishment of smooth, uninterrupted, flow of water as it discharges therefrom. The well defined uninterrupted stream pattern resulting thereby effects a noiseless and non-splashing stream which is considered to be superior to known present devices. With the structure described, it will be further noted that the layer of open pore foam material constitutes a relatively inexpensive means for transforming turbulent fiow into laminar fiow. Further, the foam material is rendered readily expendable in the event that it clogs up with impurities, which are filtered out as the water passes therethrough. The economics of the foam material render it readily expendable, and easily replaceable. Consequently, the foam material constitutes a very inexpensive and eiiicient means for transforming a turbulent flow of water into a smooth laminar fiow to result in the symmetrical uninterrupted stream pattern which is silent and non-splashing.
While the instant invention has been described with reference to a particular embodiment thereof, it will be readily appreciated and understood that variations and modifications may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.
What is claimed is:
1. For use in a faucet, a means for transforming the turbulent fiow of water through a faucet into a smooth, silent laminar ow t0 form a well defined stream discharging therefrom comprising.
(a) a nozzle connected to the discharge end of the faucet.
(b) and a layer of open pore foam disposed within said nozzle, said foam having a pore size within the range of from 10 to 25 pores per lineal inch, whereby the water flowing through said faucet is caused to fiow through said foam in discharging therefrom.
2. A structure as defined in claim 1 wherein said layer of open pore foam is co-extensive in area with the area of the said nozzle.
3. A structure as defined in claim 2 wherein means are disposed in said nozzle for retaining said layer of foam in position therein.
4. A structure as defined in claim 3 wherein said retaining means includes a perforated member disposed below said layer of open pore foam.
5. A method of transforming the turbulent fiow of water through a faucet into a silent, laminar flow to form a smooth, well defined stream as the water discharges therefrom comprising the steps of:
(a) positioning a layer of open cellular foam material having a pore size within the range of from 10 to 25 pores per lineal inch in the discharge end of the faucet so that the water fiowing therethrough is required to pass through said layer.
(b) and securing said layer in position within the discharge end of said faucet to resist dislodgement thereof by the pressure of water flowing therethrough.
6. A method forming a means for transforming the turbulent liow of water through a faucet into a silent laminar fiow to form a well defined uninterrupted stream as the water discharges therefrom comprising the steps of:
(a) forming a plug of open cellular foam from a sheet of cellular material having a pore size within the range of from 10 to 25 pores per lineal inch.
(b) conforming the O D. of the plug to the LD. of a spout end adapted to receive the same.
(c) positioning the conformed plug of open cellular foam in the spout end.
(d) and retaining said plug in position in said spout end.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 883,176 3/1908 Davis 239-552 X 924,497 6/ 1909 Perry et al. 1,495,713 5 1924 Phillips 239-552 2,511,420 6/ 1950 Thompson 239-343 2,680,010 6/1954 Dubay 239-343 X 2,715,045 8/ 1955 Thompson 239-343 2,796,297 6/ 1957 Klock 239-124 2,995,309 8/ 1961 Moen Z39-428.5
M. HENSON WOOD, JR., Primary Examiner. H. NA'ITER, Assistant Examiner.
U.S. Cl. X.R.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US883176 *||Oct 7, 1907||Mar 31, 1908||Frank S Davis||Faucet attachment.|
|US924497 *||Oct 19, 1908||Jun 8, 1909||Charles M Finch||Filter.|
|US1495713 *||Jul 31, 1922||May 27, 1924||Phillips Thomas W||Spigot attachment|
|US2511420 *||Dec 24, 1947||Jun 13, 1950||Kenneth C Thompson||Foam forming device|
|US2680010 *||Nov 10, 1950||Jun 1, 1954||Dubay Frank X||Foam dispensing device|
|US2715045 *||Oct 10, 1951||Aug 9, 1955||Thompson Kenneth C||Foam producing device|
|US2796297 *||May 14, 1956||Jun 18, 1957||Interstate Prec Products Corp||Sudser for vacuum cleaners|
|US2995309 *||Jun 20, 1958||Aug 8, 1961||Moen Alfred M||Aerator|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3629876 *||Nov 28, 1969||Dec 28, 1971||Haws Drinking Faucet Co||Eyewash fountain with integral nozzles|
|US3730440 *||Sep 20, 1971||May 1, 1973||American Standard Inc||Laminar-flow spout-end devices|
|US4149674 *||Dec 7, 1976||Apr 17, 1979||Tadashi Fukamizu||Decorative apparatus|
|US4657186 *||Oct 4, 1985||Apr 14, 1987||Shapiro Eugene B||Stream former|
|US4667882 *||Oct 15, 1981||May 26, 1987||West Point Pepperell, Inc.||Device for applying foam to textiles|
|US4917308 *||May 9, 1989||Apr 17, 1990||Manhardt Paul D||Flow rate limiting device for fuel dispensing nozzles|
|US5743311 *||Jul 15, 1994||Apr 28, 1998||Diversey Lever, Inc.||Liquid dispenser foam limiting element|
|US6484953||Feb 6, 2001||Nov 26, 2002||Kohler Co.||Water spout with removable laminar flow cartridge|
|U.S. Classification||239/590.3, 239/590.5|
|International Classification||E03C1/086, E03C1/02|