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Publication numberUS3429085 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateFeb 25, 1969
Filing dateJul 6, 1967
Priority dateJul 6, 1967
Publication numberUS 3429085 A, US 3429085A, US-A-3429085, US3429085 A, US3429085A
InventorsStillman Albert H Jr
Original AssigneePal Pools Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Swimming pool
US 3429085 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Feb. 25, 1969 A. H. STILLMAN, .IR 3,429,085

- s wlMMING PooL y Filed July 6, 1967 jrg. .57


TTORNB Y United States Patent O 3,429,085 SWIMMING POOL Albert H. Stillman, Jr., Nesconset, N.Y., assigner to Pal Pools, Inc., Suffolk County, N.Y. Filed July 6, 1967, Ser. No. 651,577 U.S. Cl. 52-169 Int. Cl. E02d 27/32; E04c 2/24; B29h 7/20 4 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A swimming pool formed in the ground in which the sides of the excavated ground provide a form against which a foam, such as urethane foam, may be sprayed, the foam constituting the wall of the pool. The foam may be sprayed in a first less dense layer and then in a second more dense layer. The foam may be covered with a liner such as a vinyl liner.

Background of the invention Summary of the invention It is an object of the present invention to provide a swimming pool which is easily and inexpensively fabricated and easily and inexpensively maintained.

It is another object of the present invention to provide a swimming pool which may be fabricated in virtually any shape or configuration on ine continuous piece including extensions for steps, edging and the like.

It is a further object of the present invention to provide a swimming pool which, although durable, is nonetheless subject to extremely simple and durable repair. Repair may be any of several procedures, including respraying of an affected area, patching of an affected area through the use of adhesive secured patches, heat secured patches or solvent secured patches, or the like.

It is a still further object of the present invention to provide a thermally insulative swimming pool.

It is another further object `of the present invention to provide a swimming pool having a not insubstantial degree of resiliency which provides a substantial safety feature.

Basically, but not by way of limitation, the present invention comprises the spraying against the sides of an excavated hole in the ground of a rigid or semi-rigid foam such as urethane foam. The foam may be sprayed in layers with the inner layers (those farthest from the ground) being of a higher density then the outer layers (those adjacent the ground). A liner, such as a vinyl plastic liner, may be applied to complete the inner surface of the pool.

Brief description of the drawing In the drawing:

FIGURE 1 is a pictorial representation of the swimming pool of the present invention shown with water therein.

FIGURE 2 is a cross-sectional view as taken across line 2-2 of FIGURE 1, but without the water.

FIGURE 3 is an enlarged fragmentary cross-sectional view of the wall of the swimming pool.


Description of the preferred embodiment The swim-ming pool 10 of the present invention comprises an earth supported wall 12.

Wall 12 comprises a bottom or outer layer 14, an upper or inner layer 16 and a surface covering 18. Outer layer 14 and inner layer 16 may both be made or formed of the same or similar material. Surface covering 18 is preferably a smooth waterproof material, such as vinyl, which could be renewable or replaceable.

Outer layer 14 is preferably a relatively lighter density urethane foam and inner layer 16 is preferably a relatively higher density urethane foam, the term urethane being intended to include the polyurethanes.

Swimming pool 10 of the present invention is fabricated in the following manner:

An excavation in the size and shape desired for the pool is created. The first or outer layer 14 is sprayed to a substantially uniform thickness against the side of the excavation. The spray is continued up over the edge of the excavation to form a suitable edging. Then the second or inner layer 16 is sprayed against outer layer 14 to a uniform thickness. The rst or outer layer 14 cures in contact with the earth and the second or inner layer 16 cures in contact with outer layer 14.

The result is a continuous one-piece pool wall 12 of great integrity and strength. The earth defining the side of the excavation acts as a form for the sprayed foam. rlf, in accordance with standard outdoor pool practice, water is left in the pool during freezing and below freezing conditions, little if any damage will result to wall 12 as a result of frost heaves or co-eflicients of thermal expansion. Among the reasons for these outstanding features is the fact that the outer layer 14 binds the surface of the adjacent earth and also is the fact of the resiliency of the foam material utilized.

It has been determined that a functionally superior pool results from spraying a higher density inner layer 16 than outer layer 14. It is conceivable that the actual spraying of the foam material may proceed in a continuous process from the outer portions adjacent the earth with foam of lesser density to the inner layer with foam of greater density.

lResistance to wear and a smoother more water resistant and dirt resistant pool surface may be obtained by lining the pool with a vinyl liner, either sprayed, painted, laid in film or sheet form, or the like. A polyester resin rnay also be used.

The limitations upon the depth and shape of the excavation and pool depends to a great extent upon the nature and composition of the ground. It may be necessary in soils to lower clay content, for example, to bias inwardly a deeper wall of the excavation. Such a construction is shown on the right side of FIGURE 2 wherein at the deep end of the pool the end wall extends vertically downward for a distance and then, to prevent co1- lapse of the excavation, curves or biases inwardly.

Swimming pool 10, when constructed in accordance with the foregoing, embodies numerous advantages and features which are not attainable with conventional methods or materials. For example, wall 12 is resilient. There is far less likelihood of physical injury to a user of the pool whether through design, such as divin-g, or from dereliction, such as horseplay, there is substantial and abrupt contact with the wall of the pool.

Although pool 10 has great structural integrity, being without seams or other Iweak portions, it will of course require repair from time to time. Repair may be accomplished in the simplest of manners. For example, should a surface crack appear in wall 12 repair may be effected by the use of a sol-vent for the foam utilized. Should a larger fissure occur, repair rnay be effected by the use of a patch or by simple respraying of the affected area. Surface covering 18 is easily renewed by recoatin-g. Other repairs are as easily accomplished.

While the foregoing is illustrative of a preferred embodiment of this invention, it is clear that other embodiments and modifications may be had. For example, it may be desirable to place an intermediate member adjacent the sides of the excavation and to spray the foam against the member. While the foam may thereby be prevented from binding the soil during curing, the advantages may be realized. The intermediate member concievably could be vapor or moisture barrier. The intermediate member conceivably could be used for local reinforcement, as to provide attachment points for accessory apparatus, or for lgeneral reinforcement, as to provide for unusual conditions. The intermediate member conceivably could be fluid, such as an oil spray or an adhesive coating. Also for example, the fOa-m utilized depends upon choice and circumstances. A polyurethane foam, or the use of a plurality of foams is not without contemplation.

What is claimed is:

1. An in-ground swimming pool, comprising:

(a) an earthen form, said earthen form excavated to a desired configuration; and (b) a foam wall member, said foam wall member being contiguous with said earthen form, said foam wall member comprising:

(i) an outer foam layer; and (ii) an inner foam layer.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3/1957 Strand 52-35 5/1959 Brownell 52-l69 OTHER REFERENCES Frank W. Stubbs, Handbook of Heavy Construction, -rst edition, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1959.

Pressure Concrete Publication, Newark, NJ., 1947, p. 44.

Cement Gun Company Publication, 1947, p. 41.

FRANK L. ABBOTT, Primary Examiner.

JAMES L. RLDGILL, IR., Assistant Examiner.

U.S. Cl. X.=R.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2784417 *Oct 14, 1954Mar 12, 1957Strand Carl ALight-weight bathtub structure
US2887759 *Jun 28, 1955May 26, 1959Jr Carl A BrownellMethod of constructing swimming pools
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3581692 *Jan 31, 1969Jun 1, 1971Domenico MortellitoAmphibious structure
US3631545 *Jul 6, 1970Jan 4, 1972Penn Aquatic Ind IncSwimming pool and method of constructing same
US3644941 *Dec 3, 1970Feb 29, 1972Kuss & Co R LSwimming pool liner
US3667237 *Aug 5, 1970Jun 6, 1972Upjohn CoNovel constructions and methods
US3735427 *Jul 21, 1971May 29, 1973W AncewiczSemi-portable swimming pool
US3755063 *Mar 9, 1970Aug 28, 1973Xox CorpThermoformable laminated structures
US3755981 *Jan 24, 1972Sep 4, 1973Cascade Ind IncSwimming pool stairs
US3816234 *Mar 22, 1971Jun 11, 1974Burden WImpact absorbing laminate and articles fabricated therefrom
US3894131 *May 18, 1972Jul 8, 1975Minnesota Mining & MfgPoly(urethane-urea) sealants and sealing underground structures therewith
US3895146 *Jul 6, 1972Jul 15, 1975Hitachi Shipbuilding Eng CoMethod and structure for thermally insulating low temperature liquid storage tanks
US3904721 *Nov 11, 1974Sep 9, 1975Franklin Mfg CoMethod of assembling a refrigeration cabinet
US3986781 *Jul 25, 1975Oct 19, 1976Atlantic Richfield CompanyStructure for protecting and insulating frozen substrates and method for producing such structures
US3997924 *Oct 6, 1975Dec 21, 1976Jewett Harold ASwimming pool with auxiliary fracturable floor for breaking fall of diver in unduly rapid descent
US4027442 *Feb 18, 1976Jun 7, 1977Kdi Sylvan Pools, Inc.Method of constructing swimming pools
US4030147 *Jul 14, 1976Jun 21, 1977Jewett Harold APool diver safety and research apparatus
US4032608 *Aug 22, 1975Jun 28, 1977Kaiser Aluminum & Chemical CorporationCryogenic liquid containment method
US4044184 *Sep 12, 1975Aug 23, 1977Mitsubishi Chemical Industries Ltd.Cryogenic insulating structure
US4190697 *Jan 15, 1979Feb 26, 1980Milsco Manufacturing CompanyMultidensity foam article and method of preparation
US4227361 *Mar 16, 1979Oct 14, 1980Bradley Enterprises, Inc.Method of constructing a swimming pool
US4263759 *Mar 15, 1979Apr 28, 1981Bradley Enterprises, Inc.Swimming pool construction and method of making the same
US4474632 *Sep 28, 1981Oct 2, 1984Spees Charles LMethod of forming a composite foam insulated jacket for a railroad tank car
US4755411 *Apr 22, 1987Jul 5, 1988Milsco LimitedCushion having flexible outer membrane and multi-density resilient foam member therein
US4907386 *Jul 8, 1988Mar 13, 1990Paul EkrothShield for building foundation
US5106229 *Oct 9, 1990Apr 21, 1992Blackwell William AIn ground, rigid pools/structures; located in expansive clay soil
US5192162 *Nov 8, 1991Mar 9, 1993Mckinnon GordonPool apparatus and method of making
US5239710 *Feb 23, 1990Aug 31, 1993Jack SwinburnSpa pool
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US8028353Jul 13, 2006Oct 4, 2011Mitek Holdings, Inc.Foam interlining device for swimming pools
WO1990010131A1 *Feb 23, 1990Sep 7, 1990Swinburn Enid Mary ElizabethSpa pool
WO2015006586A1 *Jul 10, 2014Jan 15, 2015Solana JosephFlame-applied resin powder coating for swimming pool and recreational surfaces
U.S. Classification52/169.7, D25/2, 52/309.8, 52/169.14, 428/218, 428/316.6, 4/504, 264/46.4, 4/506, 4/496
International ClassificationE04H4/00
Cooperative ClassificationE04H4/00
European ClassificationE04H4/00