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Publication numberUS3431757 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 11, 1969
Filing dateAug 29, 1967
Priority dateSep 5, 1966
Publication numberUS 3431757 A, US 3431757A, US-A-3431757, US3431757 A, US3431757A
InventorsHori Hideo
Original AssigneeHori Hideo
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Multiple key lock having change key mechanism
US 3431757 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

March 11, 1969 HIDEIO HORI 3,431,757

MULTIPLE KEY LOCK HAVING CHANGE KEY MECHANISM Filed Aug. 29, 1967 .FZz-G. 2.

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QmMQW //v VEA/TOR United States Patent 3,431,757 MULTIPLE KEY LOCK HAVING CHANGE KEY MECHANISM Hideo Hori, 252 Shimbashi Minatoku, Tokyo, Japan Filed Aug. 29, 1967, Ser. No. 664,082 Claims priority, application Japan, Sept. 5, 1966, 41/ 58,221 US. Cl. 70-383 15 Claims Int. Cl. E05b 25/00, 19/04 ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A conventional pin-type, key operated lock having a blocking needle originally positioned in a cavity in the shell adjacent the rotatable core blocking certain inoperable pins, with the shell parts thereof inoperable in the shell and free of blocking a remaining operable pin. An original master key properly positions the operable pin and the core pin parts of the inoperable pins for r& tation of the core while a back key surface prevents the blocking needle from moving radially into the key slot during core rotation. A change key is functionally identical to the master key, except for a recess on its back surface receiving the blocking needle therein for removal from the core with the change key. This frees all of the pins for subsequent rotation of the core only by a properly formed final key.

Background of the invention This application corresponds to my earlier filed Japanese patent application No. 41/58,22l, filed Sept. 5, 1966.

This invention relates to a multiple key lock having a unique change key mechanism incorporated therein particularly adapted for use of the lock in an original form during the construction phase of a building and operable by a master key, after which, upon the completion of the building, the lock may be quickly altered by use of a change key so that it is only operable by a final owners key and no longer by either of the master key or change key. More particularly, this invention relates to a key operated lock of the foregoing type wherein certain of the pins thereof are retained inoperable by blocking means during the use of the master key, and the blocking means is automatically removed by and with the change key to free said inoperable pins so that thereafter the lock is only operable by a final owners key and never again by the master key or change key.

With the prior key operated locks normally used in the construction of large, multiunit buildings, it has been the usual practice to provide the locks for each unit operable by a different key, but at the same time, provide all of such locks operable by a single master key. In this manner, during construction of the building, entrance to any individual unit may be gained by the construction workmen by use of the master key. After the construction has been completed, a particular unit owner or renter having the proper individual key for his particular unit can only gain access to that unit and not the other units of the building.

There still remains the problem, however, that any of the unit locks of the building units may be opened by the single master key so that after occupancy, an individual unit owner or tenant always has the apprehension that someone having access to the master key may be in a position to gain access to his particular unit. This problem becomes even more serious when consideration is made of the large number of workmen required for the modern, large building construction, any one of which workmen may have access to and the opportunity to copy the master key for later surreptitious use.

One means of solving the foregoing problem is to provide each of the individual unit locks of the multiunit building suificiently different that a single master key could not be used for all units, either during construction or after completion of the building. In such event, it is necessary for the construction workmen to be supplied with a separate key for each individual building unit so as to result in an extremely large number of reillllled keys, particularly where the number of units is arge.

There have been prior attempts to solve the foregoing problem by providing special lock constructions wherein the pin arrangements thereof may be altered after the completion of the construction either by temporarily removing the lock cores and physically altering the pin arrangements thereof or, in some cases, by providing locks which may have the pin arrangements thereof altered by the use of forms of change keys. These latter forms of locks, prior to my present invention, have been quite complicated in required manipulation and complex in construction, resulting in relatively high cost for the provision thereof. Thus, the use thereof has not been extensive so that, for the main part, the problem still exists.

Objects and summary of the invention It is, therefore, an object of my invention to provide a multiple key lock having a unique change key mechanism wherein the cost of provision thereof over standard key operated locks is relatively minor, yet all of the individual unit locks of a multiunit building may be originally operable by a single master key, each lock being later alterable by a single change key for subsequent operation only by a final owners key and never again by the master key or change key. Thus, a single master key for all of the unit locks may be used by the construction workmen during the construction of the building. Upon completion of the building, by use of a single change key, all of the locks are quickly altered for operation only by particular final owners keys, providing absolute assurance to the final owner or tenant that the locks of a particular individual unit are not subject to operation by the previous master key.

It is a further object of my invention to provide a key operated lock of the foregoing character wherein, during the construction period, all of the pins of each lock for the various units, except for one or several common pins of each hook, are retained inoperable by a unique form of blocking means, said blocking means of all of said locks being later selectively removed merely by the simple use of a common change key, after which, the locks of any particular unit are operable only by a particular final owners key, said final key being different for each unit. The blocking means for each of the locks is preferably in the form of a needle-like member retained in a cavity of the lock shell and against the circumferential surface of the lock core, said needle-like member intersecting and blocking all of the lock pins intended to be retained inoperable during the construction period. Upon comple tion of the building, a common change key is inserted in each of the locks, with said change key being specially configured for receiving the needle-like member therein and into the core key slot for direct removal by the change key. Such releases the lock pins previously retained inoperable so that any particular lock is only operable thereafter by use of an appropriate final owners key.

Other objects and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the following specification and the accompanying drawing which is for the purpose of illustration only.

3 Brief description of the drawing FIG. 1 is a vertical, radial, sectional view looking in the direction of the arrows 1--1 in FIG. 2 and showing an embodiment of a key operated lock incorporating the principles of the present invention with the lock in form for operation by a master key and the lock core rotated slightly from normal relative to the lock shell;

FIG. 2 is a vertical, axial, sectional view looking in the direction of the arrows 22 in FIG. 1, with a portion of the rear shell cover removed to illustrate the assembly of the pin blocking means therein;

FIG. 3 is a view similar to FIG. 2, but with the blocking means removed and the lock ready for operation solely by the final owners key;

FIG. 4 is a forward end view of the lock of FIGS. 1 through 3;

FIG. 5 is a side elevational view of the master key for the lock of FIGS. 1 through 4;

FIG. 6 is a side elevational view of the change key for the lock of FIGS. 1 through 4; and

FIG. 7 is a side elevational view of the final owners key for the lock of FIGS. 1 through 4.

Description of the best embodiment contemplated Referring to the drawing, the embodiment of lock incorporating the principles of the present invention is generally of standard, key operated lock form, with the exception of the relatively slight modifications thereof for incorporating the unique improvements of the present invention. As shown, the lock includes a shell 10 rotatably mounting a cylindrical core 12 therein, said core having a usual key slot 14 extending the axial length thereof and opening axially forwardly of the core and shell for the insertion of keys therein to operate the lock. With the core 12 positioned with the key slot 14 extending vertically, said key slot opens downwardly or at .a back side 16 of the core and against the shell 10. Furthermore, the key slot 14 terminates within the core 12 upwardy short of a pin side 18 of the core, all as best seen in FIGS. 2 through 4.

A series of axially aligned and axially spaced pin openings 20 are formed radially through the core 12 between the upper end of the key slot 14 and the line of division between the core and shell 10, said core pin openings normally being radially aligned with corresponding pin openings 22 in the shell. For the purposes of the particular embodiment illustrated, the four forward most core and shell pin openings 20 and 22 have originally inoperable lower or core pin parts 24 and upper or shell pin parts 26 positioned therein, while the rearmost of the core and shell pin openings 20 and 22 has operable core pin part 28 and shell pin part 30 positioned therein. All of the core and shell pin parts 24 through 30 are resiliently urged radially toward the core 12 by pin springs 32 in the usual manner.

More particularly according to the principles of the present invention, the shell 10 is formed with an axially extending cavity or recess 34 from forward of the forward-' most of the shell and core in openings 20 and 22 to at least rearwardly of the rearmost of said pin openings, and preferably axially rearwardly through the shell for a purpose to be hereinafter described. The recess 34 is generally axially aligned with the axial alignment of the pin openings 22 and 24 so as to intersect said pin openings; as well as extend therebetween. Also, the recess 34 opens radially downwardly against the core 12, that is, against the outer surface of said core.

Blocking means in the form of a blocking needle 36 is inserted in the recess 34 intersecting or passing through the division line of the four forwardmost, inoperable core and shell pin parts 24 and 26, as shown in FIG. 2, so as to retain the shell pin parts 26 in the shell pin openings 22, while permitting the core pin parts 24 to drop radially into the core pin openings 20. Again, in the particular embodiment shown, the blocking needle 36 terminates rearwardly short of the single, rearmost operable core and shell pin parts 28 and so that said latter pin parts are normally functional. For convenience of illustration, in FIGS. 1 and 2, the core pin parts 24 are artifically retained upwardly to the upper extremity of the core pin openings 20, but in actuality, if not otherwise supported, these core pin parts 24 would normally drop radially downwardly to the extent permitted by the enlargement of the key slot 14.

It will be noted that the recess 34 in the shell 10 for the blocking needle 36 terminates axially forwardly short of the forward end of the shell, but opens axially rearwardly entirely through the shell, only ultimately rearwardly being closed by a cover 38. Thus, in original manufacture, and with the cover 38 removed, the core 12 is rotated slightly from normal relative to the shell 10 in the manner shown in FIG. 1. During such rotation, the various core pin parts 24 and 28 are positioned for being retained in the core 12, while the various shell pin parts 26 and 30 are positioned for being retained in the shell 10.

The blocking needle 36, of appropriate length, is then inserted forwardly into the shell recess 34, as illustrated in phantom lines in FIG. 2, until the forward end of said blocking needle engages the forward extremity of said shell recess. This exactly positions the blocking needle 36 with the inoperable shell pin parts 26 blocked radially upwardly within the shell pin openings 22, while being without effect on the single operable core and shell pin ports 28 and 32. A tapered end 40 on the blocking needle 36 facilitates the original positioning of the blocking needle within the shell recess 34 and at the division lines between the core and shell pin parts 24 and 26. The final mounting of the cover 38 then completes the original assembly of the lock.

For original operation of the lock with the certain pins thereof blocked inoperable, as described, a master key is provided, as shown in FIG. 5- and generally indicated at 42. As shown, the master key 42 is formed with a pin surface, generally indicated at 44, having an appropriate notch 46 properly positioning the single operable core and shell pin parts 28 and 30 for rotation of the core 12 relative to the shell 10, that is, positioning said pin parts with the division line therebetween exactly at the surface division between the shell and core. Also, the master key pin surface 44 is formed with an axially elongated appropriate notch 48 permitting the inoperable core pin parts 24 to remain totally within the core 12 so as not to interfere with said core rotation.

Thus, with the presence of the blocking needle 36, the core 12 will be rotatable by the master key 42. In all periods of such rotation, with the exception of when the key slot 14 opens exactly upwardly into the shell blocking pin recess 34, the outer surface of the core 12 will retain the blocking needle 36 within the shell recess 34. The master key 42 is formed with a continuous back surface 50 normally radially abutting the shell 10 through the key slot open back side 16 so that during positioning of this key slot open back side directly at the shell recess 34 and blocking needle 36, such continuous master key back surface 50 retains the blocking needle in its blocking position.

When it is desired to remove the blocking needle 36 and permit all of the pins of the lock to be operable, such is accomplished by a change key shown in FIG. 6 and generally indicated at 52. The change key 52 has a pin surface 54 thereof formed functionally identical to the master key 42 so that said pin surface may include the same notches 46 and 48 for operation in the identical manner. A back surface 56 of said change key 52 is, however, formed with an axially extending recess 58 opening radially toward the shell 10 and being axially rearwardly closed.

The recess 58 is properly axially positioned and of proper axial extent for reception of the blocking needle 36 radially therein and totally within the core 12, that is, the key slot 14 of said core, when the core 12 is rotated by the change key 52 180 from normal and with the key slot open back side 16 directly aligned underlying the blocking needle 36 and the shell recess 34. Obviously, during such positioning of the change key recess 58 relative to the blocking needle 36, the blocking needle will be forced radially into said change key recess by the radial pressure from the pin springs 32 against the inoperable shell pin parts 26. Furthermore, the blocking needle 36 will be removed totally from the core 12 by the removal of the change key 52 from the key slot 14 by virtue of the closed rearward end of the change key recess 58.

With the removal of the blocking needle 36 from the shell recess 34 and completely from the core 12, all of the four inoperable shell pin parts 26 are no longer blocked and free to function, making the core pin parts 24 also functional, so that now the lock can no longer be operated by either of the master key 42 or the change key 52, but rather only by a final owners key shown in FIG. 7 and generally indicated at 60. The final key 60 not only includes a pin surface 62 having the same appropriate notch 46 for the originally operable core and shell pin parts 28 and 30, but also has appropriate notches 64 through 70, the combination of all of said notches properly positioning all of the core and shell pin parts 24 through 30 for rotation of the core 12 relative to the shell for operation of the lock.

The final release position of all of the pins is shown in FIG. 3 and it is obvious that the final key 60 is functionally identical to the original master key 46, with the exception that said final key is provided with the additional appropriate notching for proper positioning of all of the lock pins in order to provide operation of said lock.

Where the concept of the lock construction of the present invention is used in a multiunit building, the locks of each separate building unit will have the single operable core and shell pin parts 28 and 30 identical to that shown, but with the originally inoperable core and shell pin parts 24 and 26 of varying and different radial lengths. Thus, during the original construction, all of said locks will be operable by the same master key 42 and at the completion of the construction, all of said locks can be operated to remove the blocking needles 36 with the same change key 52. In view of each units locks having the inoperable pins thereof of different lengths, however, different forms of final keys 60 will be required for each units locks, providing complete security for the unit owner or tenant.

In the particular lock construction illustrated, five separable lock pins are used and four of these lock pins are originally blocked. Obviously, any number of lock pins could be originally blocked with the remainder being operable, for instance, three lock pins could be blocked and two operable or any other combination desired, all clearly within the scope of the present invention.

Thus, according to the principles of the present invention, a unique key operated lock is provided which permits original use of a master key and subsequent use of a change key, after which the lock can be operated solely by a final owners key and can never again be operated by either the master or change key. Also, such is accomplished in a unique and relatively simple manner providing an economical lock construction. Still further, despite the foregoing advantages of the lock construction of the present invention, the same lends itself to economical mass production, so as to even further reduce the labor costs for the provision of the same.

I claim:

1. In a key operated lock of the type having a cylindrical core defining a plug rotatable in a shell, a key slot extending axially of said plug normally opening radially against said shell at a back side of said plug and terminating radially short of an opposite pin side of said plug, a

series of axially aligned pin openings in said plug extending radially from said slot through said plug pin side and normally being radially aligned with corresponding pin openings in said shell, and a series of pins in said pin openings resiliently urged toward said plug having shell parts and plug parts separable at a shear line and permitting rotation of said core when said pins are positioned by a key in said key slot with said shear lines at the division between said core and shell; the improvements comprising: a master key insertable in said key slot having a back surface abutting said shell through said key slot, said master key having an opposite pin surface appropriately notched to position certain operable pins with said shear line at said division and to position the remaining inoperable pins with said plug parts thereof free of interference with said division; a change key functionally identical to said master key with the exception of recess means in said back surface aligned with and between said inoperable pins; a final key functionally identical to said master key with the exception of said pin surface being appropriately notched to position all of said pins with said shear lines at said division; and axially extending blocking means originally positioned in corresponding cavity means of said shell and radially against said core at said division radially interfering with and between said pin openings of said inoperable pins retaining said shell parts of said inoperable pins in said shell, said blocking means originally permitting rotation of said core by said master key with said master key back surface retaining said blocking means in said shell when said key slot opening is at said blocking means, said change key recess means receiving said blocking means therein and within said core key slot when said recess means is positioned at said blocking means for removal of said blocking means from said core with said change key to permit subsequent rotation of said core only by said final key.

2. A key operated look as defined in claim 1 in which all of said inoperable pins are axially adjacent.

3. A key operated lock as defined in claim 1 in which all of said inoperable pins are axially adjacent; and in which said cavity means of said shell includes an axially extending slot opening radially against said core, said slot extending continuously axially through and between at least all of said pin openings of said inoperable pins.

4. A key operated lock as defined in claim 1 in which said shell cavity means includes an axially extending slot opening radially toward said core and projecting continuously through and between each of said pin openings, said slot opening axially rearwardly through said shell and terminating axially forwardly short of a shell forward end;

5. A key operated look as defined in claim 1 in which all of said inoperable pins are axially adjacent; in which said cavity means of said shell includes an axially extending slot opening radially against said core, said slot extending continuously axially through and between at least all of said pin openings of said inoperable pins; and in which said blocking means includes a continuous needle-like member.

6. A key operated lock as defined in claim 1 in which said shell cavity means includes an axially extending slot opening radially toward said core and projecting continuously through and between each of said pin openings, said slot opening axially rearwardly through said shell and terminating axially forwardly short of a shell forward end; in which all of said pin openings of said inoperable pins are axially adjacent; and in which said blocking means includes a continuous needle-like member.

7. A key operated lock as defined in claim 1 in which said change key recess means is radially closed at an axially rearward end thereof.

8. A key operated lock as defined in claim 1 in which all of said inoperable pins are axially adjacent; in which said cavity means of said shell includes an axially ex- 7 tending slot opening radially against said core, said slot extending continuously axially through and between at least all of said pin openings of said inoperable pins; and in which said change key recess means is an axially continuous recess radially closed at an axially rearward end thereof.

9. A key operated lock as defined in claim 1 in which all of said inoperable pins are axially adjacent; in which said cavity means of said shell includes an axially extending slot opening radially against said core, said slot extending continuously axially through and between at least all of said pin openings of said inoperable pins; in which said blocking means includes a continuous needlelike member; and in which said change key recess means is an axially continuous recess radially closed at an axial- 1y rearward end thereof.

10. In a key operated lock of the type having a. cylindrical core defining a plug rotatable in a shell, a key slot extending axially of said plug normally opening radially against said shell at a back side of said plug and terminating radially short of an opposite pin side of said plug, a series of axially aligned pin openings in said plug extending radially from said key slot through said plug pin side and normally being radially aligned with corresponding pin openings in said shell, and a series of pins in said pin openings resiliently urged toward said plug having shell parts and plug parts separable at a shear line and permitting rotation of said core when said pins are positioned by a key in said key slot with said shear lines at the division between said core and shell;

the improvements comprising: blocking means originally in said shell and against said core normally retained positioned by said core, said blocking means blocking certain inoperable pin openings with said pin shell parts within said shell and being free of blocking remaining operable pin openings; a master key having a pin surface with appropriate notch means positioning said pins of said operable pin openings and said plug parts of said inoperable pin openings for rotation of said core, said master key having a back surface at said key slot radial opening preventing displacement of said blocking means from said shell during rotative positioning of said core key slot opening at said blocking means; a change key having a pin surface with notch means functionally identical to said master key, said change key having recess means in a back surface extending radially into said core key slot receiving said blocking means therein and totally within said core when radially aligned with said blocking means, said recess means being formed for axial withdrawal of said blocking means through said key slot with said change key upon withdrawal of said change key from said core; and a final key having surfaces with appropriate notch means positioning all of said pins for rotation of said core after withdrawl of said blocking means by said change key.

11. A key operated lock as defined in claim 10 in which all of said inoperable pin openings are axially adjacent; and in which said blocking means is received in a shell continuously axially extending slot opening against said core, said blocking means slot projecting axially through and bet-ween at least all of said inoperable pin openings.

12. A key operated lock as defined in claim 10 in which all of said inoperable pin openings are axially adjacent and the forwardmost of said inoperable pin openings is the first pin opening at forward ends of said core and shell.

13. A key operated lock as defined in claim 10 in which all of said inoperable pin openings are axially adjacent; in which said blocking means is received in a continuously axially extending recess in said shell opening radially against said core, said shell recess projecting axially through and between all of said pin openings opening rearwardly through said shell and terminating which said blocking means includes a continuous, axially extending, needle-like member.

14. A key operated lock as defined in claim 10 in which all of said inoperable pin openings are axially adjacent; in which said blocking means is received in a shell continuously axially extending slot opening against said core, said blocking means slot projecting axially through and between at least all of said inoperable pin openings; in which said blocking means includes a continuous, axially extending, needle-like member; and in which said change key recess means is an axially extending, continuous recess radially closed at an axially rearward end thereof.

15. A key operated lock as defined in claim 10 in which all of said inoperable pin openings are axially adjacent; in which said blocking means is received in a shell continuously axially extending slot opening against said core, said blocking means slot projecting axially through and between at least all of said inoperable pin openings; in which said blocking means includes a continuous, axially extending, needle-like member; in which said change key recess means is an axially extending, continuous recess radially closed at an axially rearward end thereof; and in which the forwardmost of said inoperable pin openings is the forwardmost of all of said pin openings.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,754,673 7/1956 Schachinger 383 3,059,462 10/1962 Check 70384 3,099,151 7/1963 Schlage 70-383 3,276,233 10/1966 Russell et a1. 70-382 3,293,893 12/1966 Chesler 703 3,338,078 8/1967 Eberitch et a1 70382 X MARVIN A. CHAMPION, Primary Examiner.

P. TEITELBAUM, Assistant Examiner.

US. Cl. X.'R. 70406

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Classifications
U.S. Classification70/383, 70/406
International ClassificationE05B27/00
Cooperative ClassificationE05B27/005
European ClassificationE05B27/00K