|Publication number||US3433577 A|
|Publication date||Mar 18, 1969|
|Filing date||Aug 19, 1964|
|Priority date||Aug 19, 1964|
|Publication number||US 3433577 A, US 3433577A, US-A-3433577, US3433577 A, US3433577A|
|Inventors||Shick Philip E|
|Original Assignee||Owens Illinois Inc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (2), Referenced by (29), Classifications (11)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent 3,433,577 VAPOR PHASE CORROSION INHIBITION Philip E. Shick, Toledo, Ohio, assignor to Owens-Illinois, Inc., a corporation of Ohio No Drawing. Filed Aug. 19, 1964, Ser. No. 391,077 US. Cl. 2l2.5 9 Claims int. Cl. 865d 85/00; C23f 15/00 ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A method of protecting metal articles of manufacture from atmospheric corrosion which comprises packaging the articles in a packaging material which has been treated with a vapor phase corrosion inhibitor composition consisting essentially of sodium nitrite and sodium phosphate.
The present invention relates to improvements in vapor phase corrosion inhibition and more particularly, to vapor phase corrosion inhibiting compositions for use in connection with packaging metal articles which are subject to attack by corrosive forces and for methods of using same. The present invention also relates to packaging materials having applied thereto the vapor phase corrosion inhibitor compositions referred to above.
Corrosion and its causes have been the subject of much study in previous years. It is known, for example, that iron rusts in the atmosphere because of a chemical interaction that takes place between the iron, and the moisture and oxygen in the air. Since it is difficult and extremely impractical to remove oxygen from the atmosphere in which metal articles are packaged, corrosion is often a problem during the storage, handling and transportation of objects formed of a corrodible material. Previous methods have been developed to combat this corrosion such as applying a coating on the surfaces of corrodible materials. As can be appreciated, such methods are cumbersome and require excessive amounts of labor and time to apply the coatings and often cannot adequately or completely cover the surfaces in order to protect the metal article. For example, oil and grease coatings have been applied directly to the metal surfaces, and waterproof wraps or packages have also been employed. However, because of hte aforementioned difliculties these methods have not been entirely satisfactory.
A highly successful system of preventing the corrosion of packaged metal articles has been developed in recent years known as vapor phase corrosion inhibition. This method functions to prevent corrosion of metal objects by the moisture and oxygen present in the atmosphere in contact with the metal articles. By obviating the necessity of removing the moisture and oxygen from the atmosphere surrounding the packaged materials, or directly coating the metal surfaces with a protective coating, the vapor phase corrosion inhibitors represent an extremely practical, economical and advantageous solution to the problem of preventing corrosion. Functioning by slowing releasing vapors that contact the surfaces of the metals, the vapor phase corrosion inhibitors serve to envelope the metal articles in a non-corrosive atmosphere and retard the moisture and oxygen present in the atmosphere from attacking the metal surfaces.
Customarily, the vapor phase corrosion inhibitor compositions are applied to paper, wrapping materials, liners, and sheets for corrugated boxes or other inert, solid carriers employed as packaging means in which the metal article is packaged. Other materials such as wood fibers and chips, and other porous packaging materials can be utilized in a similar manner. One advantage of this system of protecting metal articles from corrosion resides p CC in the fact that it is not necessary to apply or coat the compounds themselves onto all of the surfaces of the metal articles so wrapped in order to obtain effective protection. The vapor phase corrosion inhibitor composition volatilizes extremely slowly to release agents into the atmosphere which effectively permeate the air surrounding the metal article within the package and thus functions to prevent corrosion. However, prior known vapor phase corrosion inhibition methods and compositions have had associated therewith certain drawbacks and disadvantages. For example, certain compounds previously used for this purpose were lacking in effectiveness and others were too costly for packaging low cost items.
It is accordingly an object of the present invention to provide improved vapor phase corrosion inhibition of metal articles which avoids the disadvantages of prior methods and compositions.
It is a further object of the present invention to provide -a method for protecting metal articles by vapor phase corrosion inhibition that eliminates the difiiculties of prior known methods.
It is a further object of the present invention to provide a composition for vapor phase corrosion inhibition that is relatively inexpensive and it is particularly effective in reducing the corrosive action of moisture and air on metal articles of manufacture.
It is a further object of the present invention to provide -a packaging material that will inhibit corrosion of metallic articles in the immediate vicinity thereof.
In obtaining the above objects, one feature of the present invention resides in a method for protecting metal articles of manufacture from atmosphere corrosion caused by moisture and air by having present in the immediate vicinity of the metal articles sodium nitrite as a vapor phase corrosion inhibitor.
Another feature of the present invention resides in a vapor phase corrosion inhibitor composition consisting essentially of sodium nitrite and sodium phosphate.
Another feature of the present invention resides in a packaging material impregnated with sodium nitrite as a vapor phase corrosion inhibitor.
The above and other objects, features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from the following detailed description thereof.
According to the present invention a composition consisting essentially of sodium nitrite and sodium phosphate has been found to be particularly valuable for purposes of vapor phase corrosion inhibition. Briefly described, the invention is carried out by applying a solution of sodium nitrite and sodium phosphate to the packaging material used for packaging metal articles of manufacture. Heretofore, both sodium nitrite and sodium phosphate have been considered to be essentially non-volatile and, therefore, presumed to be ineffective for purposes of vapor phase corrosion inhibition.
Although consisting essentially of sodium nitrite and sodium phosphate, the vapor phase corrosion inhibitor composition of the present invention may contain minor amounts of other ingredients that do not adversely alfect the effectiveness of the compositions. The composition can be applied in the form of a solution, dispersion, paste and the like to wrapping materials such as paper, cardboard, fiber-board, wood, fabrics, fibers, inorganic and organic wrapping and packaging materials in any shape or form by coating, impregnating or any other manner of application.
The present invention is particularly effective when the relative proportions of the materials are in the ratio of 3 parts of sodium nitrite to 1 part of sodium tribasic phosphate. It is to be understood, however, that the proportions can range from about 5% to sodium phosphate, the remainder being sodium nitrite.
Any suitable solvent can be employed for mixing with the inorganic salts to form the treating composition and water and alcohol-water mixture are generally preferred.
The following examples are illustrative but not limiting of the present invention.
EXAMPLE I An essentially saturated solution containing approximately 3 parts of sodium nitrite and 1 part of sodium phosphate was applied to a single face liner of a corrugated board to give a total addition of approximately 2 lbs. of solid per 1000 square feet of board. The solution completely impregnated the surface of the board and imparted a brownish color in appearance compared to the untreated kraft paper. The board was thereafter dried by use of a pre-heater. The treated board was then fabricated into corrugated boxes which may be used without further treatment for the packaging of metallic articles which are susceptible to attack by corrosive forces in the atmosphere.
EXAMPLE II This test was conducted to determine and compare the effectiveness of the vapor phase corrosion inhibitor composition of the present invention with various prior known materials.
In these tests the metal cans employed were No. 303 cans of Del Monte corn. The cans were packed one dozen to a box and 2 boxes were used to test each coating material.
Prior to the tests the cans were individually inspected for rust and the labels were slit and fastened with rubber bands to permit easy inspection. Moreover, the metal surfaces of several cans in each box were scratched, both on the lids and under the labels in order to induce rusting.
The average test cycle consisted of a 6 hr. period exposed to standard conditions, namely 73 F. at 50% relative humidity followed by a 2 hr. period under cold room conditions at F., followed by a 16 hr. period at 90 F. and 85% relative humidity. The test was carried through nine cycles without the cold room conditions and four cycles with cold room conditions.
The over-all average based on the test cycle including the cold room conditions was determined at the termination of the test shown in the table below. Coatings which provided the best protection are first on the list. Others are in the order of decreasing protection. The scale of grading ran from A to D with A indicating no rust and D indicating severe rust patches.
TABLE 1.RESULTS OF CAN TEST In the above table, the Blank coating represents those cans which were packaged in containers which did not have any treatment. The test results clearly show that the vapor phase inhibitor composition of the present invention is superior to other coatings.
The proportions of the inhibiting composition adding to the packaging material can vary over a considerable range as for example, 1.2 lbs. to about 3 lbs. per thousand sq. ft. of packaging material, although more can also be used. Generally at least about 0.5 lb. per thousand sq. ft. should be employed. The exact proportions and amounts employed is not a critical feature of this invention.
It has been ascertained that the temperature of the surroundings will affect the performance of the vapor phase corrosion inhibitor compositions of the present invention. Generally, tests have shown that the compositions of the present invention are effective over a range of temperatures from below freezing to 95 F. and higher.
The temperature and moisture content may have an important influence on both the stability and life of the coating composition and to the tendency of the protected item to corrode.
Although the foregoing description emphasizes the preferred embodiment of the present invention, i.e., the combination of sodium nitrite and sodium phosphate, it is understood that packaging materials such as cartons wherein the entire internal surfaces thereof are treated with sodium nitrite have been found to give sufiicient protection to corrodible substances packaged therein to meet standard requirements. In addition, other alkaline inorganic salts may also be employed in place of the sodium phosphate, such as sodium carbonate, sodium borate and the like.
Various materials can be packaged in the treated packaging materials produced according to the present invention including metal containers, piping, fittings, and innumerable other items.
What is claimed is:
1. A method of protecting metal articles of manufacture from atmospheric corrosion caused by moisture and air which comprises packaging said metal articles in the presence of an inert carrier having applied thereto, in an amount effective to protect against corrosion, a non-volatile corrosion inhibitor composition consisting essentially of sodium nitrite and sodium phosphate which forms a protective vapor atmosphere in contact with the metal articles.
2. A method of protecting metal articles of manufacture from atmospheric corrosion caused by moisture and air which comprises packaging said metal articles with an inert carrier having applied thereto, in an amount effective to protect against corrosion, a non-volatile corrosion inhibitor composition consisting essentially of about 5% to about 75% sodium phosphate and about 25 to about sodium nitrite, to form a protective vapor atmosphere in contact with the metal articles.
3. A packaging material for inhibiting corrosion of metallic articles of manufacture packaged therein comprising an inert, solid carrier having applied thereto, in a quantity effective to protect against corrosion, a nonvolatile corrosion inhibitor composition consisting essentially of sodium nitrite and sodium phosphate, to form a protective vapor atmosphere in contact with the metallic articles.
4. A packaging material for inhibiting corrosion of metallic articles of manufacture packaged therein comprising an inert porous solid carrier impregnated with, in a quantity effective to protect against corrosion, a nonvolatile corrosion inhibitor composition consisting essentially of sodium nitrite and sodium phosphate, to form a protective vapor atmosphere in contact with the metallic articles.
5. A packaging material as defined in claim 4 wherein the composition consists essentially of from about 5% to 75% sodium phosphate and about 25% to about 95% sodium nitrite.
6. A packaging material for inhibiting corrosion of metallic articles of manufacture packaged therein comprising an inert porous solid carrier having applied thereto a non-volatile corrosion inhibitor composition consisting essentially of sodium nitrite and sodium phosphate, the amount of non-volatile corrosion inhibitor composi tion being at least about 0.5 pound per thousand square feet of packaging material and which forms a protective vapor atmosphere in contact with the metallic articles.
7. A vapor phase corrosion inhibiting composition for inhibiting corrosive attack on metal articles of manufacture by elements in the atmosphere which vapor phase inhibiting composition is adapted for application to packaging material utilized in the packaging of the metal article of manufacture and which consists essentially of sodium nitrite and sodium phosphate.
8. A vapor phase corrosion inhibitor composition for inhibiting corrosive attack on metal articles of manufac- 5 6 ture caused by moisture and air, consisting essentially of OTHER REFERENCES about 5% to about 75% sodium phosphate and about 25% to about 95% sodium nitrite. Speller, F. N., CorrosionCauses and Prevention.
9. In the method of making packaging material for McGraw-Hill, New York, 1935, TA46757 (Scientific Liuse in packaging metal articles that are susceptible to cor- 5 b 361, T051011 wherein the Packaging mater i211 has pp Uhlig, H. H., Corrosion and Corrosion Control. Wiley thereto a non-volatile corrosion inhibiting composition & Sons New York 1963 TA 462 U4 (S i ifi Lifor inhibiting corrosive attack on the metal articles packbrary), (Rece'ived by Library in April 1963) aged therein, the improvement which comprises impregnating said packaging material with a composition con- 10 MORRIS O. WOLK, Primary Examiner. sisting essentially of sodium nitrite and sodium phosphate.
BARRY S. RICHMAN, Assistant Examiner.
References Cited FOREIGN PATENTS 131,971 3/1949 Australia. 15 2 2- 7; 1 117-152 647,200 12/1950 Great Britain.
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|GB647200A *||Title not available|
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|U.S. Classification||422/8, 422/9, 106/14.5, 252/387|
|International Classification||B65D81/26, C23F11/02, C23F11/00|
|Cooperative Classification||C23F11/02, B65D81/26|
|European Classification||B65D81/26, C23F11/02|