US 3434478 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
M r h 5, 1969 B. LIEBOWITZ ETAL MOLDED GARMENT Sheet Filed April 1, 1966 nnvQ FIG. 4
March 25, 1969 Filed April 1. 1966 a. LIEBOWITZ ETAL 3,434,478
MOLDED GARMENT Sheet 2 012 INVENTOR A; 7 un/'1 11.11004 ud d 21" fa/1h? United States Patent Ofice 3,434,478 Patented Mar. 25, 1969 US. Cl. 128-463 12 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A fabric adapted to be molded to form a shaped, shaperetaining body, of which fabric garments or portions of wearing apparel may be formed such as brassieres, girdles and the like, comprises two sets of warp ends and one set of filler yarns, one of the sets of warp ends being composed of relatively soft highly flexible yarns arranged transverse to the filler yarns and forming a complete fabric therewith, and the other of the sets of warp ends being composed of substantially fully drawn thermoplastic monofilaments which while flexible are substantially stiffer than the yarns of the one set of warp ends.
The present invention relates to molded garments and portions thereof, for instance to brassieres, girdles and the like which include molded portions, and, in addition thereto, the present invention relates to a fabric used for producing such molded garments and the like, as well as to a process for making the molded garment or garment portion.
In practically all brassieres made up to now, the shape of the cup was obtained by cutting certain fabric parts to appropriate shape, and stitching these parts together so as to obtain the cup-like curved surfaces required in this case. Recently, several attempts were made to obtain these cup-like shapes by molding rather than by cutting and stitching suitably shaped parts together.
In these attempts, nylon yarns or yarns of more or less similar material were used, which were not fully drawn or prestretched, so that the yarns did not have their normal strength and elastic properties prior to the molding operation. It was assumed that the subsequent stretching which would be caused by deformation of the fabric during molding the same into cup-shape, would complete the stretching of the yarn and thereby would give to the nylon its full elastic properties. However, in whatever way it was attempted to carry out the molding operation described above, it failed to produce the necessary improvement in the tensile properties of the yarn and thus, these processes did not lead to success.
It should be noted that the process of the present invcntion is particularly advantageous in connection with making brassiere cups; however, the method is by no means limited thereto since it is frequently desirable to form shape-retaining fabric portions for other purposes, such as for instance girdles, or even for purposes which are not necessarily connected with producing a piece of wearing apparel.
The strength and stability of nylon and most other synthetic, particularly thermoplastic fibers, depends very greatly on the degree to which they were stretched during the drawing and finishing operations. In order to develop full strength and stability, nylon must be drawn out to a very considerable extent. As pointed out above, the prior art moldable nylon fabrics were woven not of fully drawn and stabilized yarns but rather of partially drawn yarns.
When the fabric was then clamped by its edges and drawn into a hot mold, the fibers were stretched and, while being formed into shape, were therefore correspondingly strengthened at the same time.
However, because of the particular shape of brassiere cups, it is evident that by proceeding in this manner, certain portions of the cup, for instance the apex thereof, would be stretched much more than the edges which might scarcely be stretched at all. Consequently, those areas of the cup which were not fully drawn during the molding operation continued to be composed of only partially stabilized nylon yarns.
The mechanical strength, stability, shrinkage, etc., of the edge portions of the cup differed greatly from those parts of the brassiere cup which were subjected to more intensive stretching during the molding operation. Furthermore, those areas which were highly stretched were also thinned out during the stretching process and the entire weave itself was stretched and distorted.
Consequently, the fabric at the apex of the brassiere cup would turn out to be thinner and of a more open weave. This whole combination of circumstances obviously is most undesirable. It is not surprising therefore that this type of moldable fabric has led to disappointing results and products of inferior quality.
It is, therefore, an object of the present invention to overcome the above-discussed difliculties and disadvantages.
It is a further object of the present invention to provide a molded garment or garment portion, for instance a brassiere, girdle or the like, which will possess the desired strength and resiliency but, nevertheless, will be shaperetaining.
It is still another object of the present invention to provide a method for producing such molded, shaperetaining bodies, consisting essentially of a fabric.
It is yet a further object of the present invention to provide a fabric which is adapted to be molded in such a manner as to be shape-retaining and not subject to the above-discussed disadvantages.
Other objects and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from a further reading of the description and of the appended claims.
With the above and other objects in view, the present invention contemplates in a fabric adapted to be molded and particularly adapted for use in garments such as brassieres, girdles and the like, in combination, two sets of warp ends and one set of filler yarns, one of the sets of warp ends being composed of relatively soft highly flexible yarns woven with the filler yarns and forming a complete fabric therewith, and the other of the sets of warp ends being composed of monofilament yarns which while flexible are substantially stiffer than the yarns of the one set of warp ends, the other set of warp ends consisting of substantially fully drawn thermoplastic monofilaments.
The present invention is also concerned with an article of wearing apparel which includes a shape-retaining molded portion consisting essentially of a fabric which comprises two sets of warp ends and one set of filler yarns, one of the sets of warp ends being composed of relatively soft highly flexible yarns woven with the filler yarns and forming a complete fabric therewith, and the other of the sets of warp ends being composed of monofilament yarns which while flexible are substantially stiffer than the yarns of the one set of warp ends, the other set of warp ends consisting of substantially fully drawn thermoplastic monofilaments.
Preferably, the other set of warp ends in the abovedcscribed fabric is parallel to the one set of warp ends therein, and preferably the other set of warp ends will consist of substantially fully drawn nylon monofilaments having a diameter of between about 10 and 20 mils and most preferably of about 12 mils.
It is also within the scope of the present invention to provide a method of producing a molded shape-retaining article of wearing apparel, comprising the step of subjecting to hot molding substantially without stretching a fabric consisting essentially of two sets of warp ends and one set of filler yarns, one of the sets of warp ends being composed of relatively soft highly flexible multiiilament yarns woven with the filler yarns and forming a complete fabric therewith, and the other of the sets of warp ends being composed of thermoplastic, substantially fully drawn monofilament yarns which while flexible are substantially stiffer than the yarns of the one set of the warp ends, so as to form of the fabric a molded shaped body which is shape-retaining due to the incorporation therein of the thermoplastic monofilaments which were in substantially fully drawn condition prior to the hot molding of the fabric.
Recognizing the defects which appear to be inherent in goods made of partially stabilized yarns, the present invention proposes that the warp ends are to be fully stabilized. In other Words, according to the present invention, monofilaments form one group of warp ends and these monofilaments are fully drawn or stretched and stabilized. For this reason, the fabric does not depend upon further stretching in a hot mold for its shaping and strength. To the contrary, if the fabric of the present invention is held rigidly by pins or otherwise and molded in such a manner that it is forced to stretch in order to conform to the shape of the mold, it will tend to tear before it stretches much further. If, however, in accordance with the present invention, the fabric is not pinned or rigidly clamped but only clamped lightly or held by spring hooks during the molding operation, then the fabric is capable of being molded without appreciable stretching since during the molding operation additional fabric from outside the mold will be drawn into the mold to the extent to which the deformation of the fabric in the mold requires. As a matter of fact, the fabric accommodates itself to the shape demanded by the mold by an appreciable amount of compression in the neighborhood of the periphery of a bra cup, for example, instead of stretching significantly in the neighborhood of the apex. This shift from stretching at the apex to compression at the periphery would not ordinarily be anticipated. This is an important aspect for making our fabric moldable despite the fact that its monofils are fully drawn and stabilized. The moldability of our fabric has been fully demonstrated by many experiments. Thus, the nylon monofilaments will be heated and because of their thermoplastic nature assume the shape of the mold without appreciable stretching. When the shaped fabric is cooled down, the molded shape is retained and at the same time this is achieved without thinning the individual fibers and also while maintaining the closeness of the weave uniformly (except for some compression in the neighborhood of the periphery) over the whole molded and shaped area such as the cup of a brassiere.
It is thus possible according to the present invention, due to using a thus stabilized fabric structure, to obtain a practically completely stable stiffening fabric which may be shaped or molded without thinning down the fiber and without noticeably distorting the weave or diminishing the strength and changing laundry shrinkage characteristics of fully stabilized fabrics, for instance nylon fabrics.
The novel features which are considered as characteristic for the invention are set forth in particular in the appended claims. The invention itself, however, both as to its construction and its method of operation, together with additional objects and advantages thereof, will be best understood from the following description of specifi embodiments when read in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIG. 1 is a diagrammatic illustration of the fabric of the invention;
FIG. 2 is a transverse section of the fabric of FIG. 1:
FIG. 3 shows in a transverse sectional view another embodiment of a fabric according to the present invention;
FIG. 4 is a schematic plan view of a mold with a fabric according to the present invention being molded therein;
FIG. 5 is a schematic elevational cross sectional view taken along line V-V of FIG. 4;
FIG. 6 is a plan view of a shape-retaining brassiere cup according to the present invention, looking towards the apex thereof; and
FIG. 7 is a cross sectional view taken along line VIIVII of FIG. 6.
Referring now to the drawing, particularly to FIG. 1, it will be seen that the fabric is formed of relatively stiff yarns W which are fully stretched monofilaments, such as thermoplastic monofilaments having a diameter of between about 10 and 20 mils, preferably nylon monofilaments having a diameter of about 12 mils. The set of relatively soft flexible yarns is indicated as W and the two sets of warp ends are woven with filler yarns F so as to form the fabric indicated in FIGS. 1 and 2. These filler yarns may be any of a large variety of conventional yarns. We have very successfully molded fabric made with ordinary nylon multifilament yarn as well as cotton yarn in the filler; the latter has the advantage of greater moisture absorptivity.
It will be noted that in the embodiment of FIGS. 1 and 2, the stiffer fully stretched monofllament yarns W are uniformly distributed among the softer, more flexible yarns W The yarns W preferably have substantially the same shrinkage properties as the yarns W Instead of uniformly distributing the stiffer substantially fully stretched or drawn monofilament yarns W these yarns may be distributed in groups, as indicated diagrammatically in FIG. 3.
Referring now to the molding process, particularly as illustrated in FIGS. 47, it will be seen in FIG. 4, that the fabric 21 is inserted between a female mold member 22 and a male mold member 23 (shown in FIG. 5). The outwardly extending portions of the fabric are held by friction clamps 24 which are sufficiently loose to permit the fabric to be drawn into the mold to the extent required for being shaped, thereby substantially avoiding any stretching of the fabric. The friction clamps 24 may be replaced by other suitable holding elements known to those skilled in the art, such as tension or spring hooks or the like.
The finished molded brassiere cup formed in this manner is illustrated in FIGS. 6 and 7. It will be seen that the brassiere cup consists of the molded fabric portion 31 and a plastic edging 32 which surrounds the edge of the molded fabric portion and will prevent the relatively rigid monofilaments of the warp from poking through and possibly scratching the wearer. Preferably, the plastic edging 32 is covered by a fabric cover 33.
Preferably, the fabric of the present invention will be a thick weave type of fabric with two sets of Warp ends, whereby the yarns of one set of warp ends will be conventional and relatively soft and flexible, while the yarns of the other set of warp ends, while flexible, will be substantially stiffer than the yarns of the one set of warp ends and will consist of the above described prestretched or fully drawn thermoplastic monofilaments, preferably nylon. The filling yarns may also be of a conventional material and may consist in the same way as the set of warp ends, of relatively soft flexible yarns, and these yarns may be, for example, synthetics like rayon, nylon, polyester, etc., or natural fibers such as cotton or silk. The two sets of warp ends are united at appropriate intervals by the filler yarns, as is indicated diagrammatically in the sectional view of FIG. 2.
The fact that the stiffer warp ends are predrawn monofilaments is of great significance. The reinforcing cords which were used according to the prior art for stiffening fabrics were substantially thicker than the other yarns and did present great problems when woven into the fabrics. It is for this reason that it has been previously suggested to use the reinforcing cords as part of the filler since in this way the shed of warp yarns can be handled in the usual manner and it is only necessary to beat the heavier cords into the shed with the reeds so that no particular problem is encountered. However, where it comes to arranging the reinforcing yarns parallel to the warp yarns, it is, of course, impractical to include such heavier yarns in a shed which must be criss-crossed back and forth by the heddle frames.
According to the present invention, the stiffer warp ends are required to be fully drawn monofilaments. It is characteristic of such filaments that they form a solid one-piece length of material and are not made of a plurality of fibers which must be twisted together, for example. Therefore, the necessary stiffness can be achieved with monofilament yarns which are of a surprisingly small diameter and as a result thereof, it is possible for the first time, insofar as applicants are aware, to incorporate such yarns into the fabric by means of the filler yarns themselves. In other words, when monofilaments of the type described herein form the stiffer yarns, they can form part of the warp without causing any particular inconvience in the weaving operations.
By slidably gripping exposed edges of the fabric while the same is being molded, so that the fabric can be drawn into the mold to meet the needs of the molding operation with a minimum of further stretching, such fabric can then be molded to the desired shape. The result of the molding operation carried out in this manner with the fabric described above at a suitable elevated temperature is, in the case of a brassiere, a cup shape of desired curvature, in which the fabric is additionally stretched only very little. This can be demonstrated by measuring the length between various points of the surface of the fabric before and after the molding operation. It has been found that these lengths are changed only by very small percentage, generally not more than about due to the molding operation. The fabric takes the desired shape under the heat and pressure of the molding operation without creasing or bunching to any noticeable extent even though the fabric is somewhat compressed in the neighborhood of the periphery. The thus shaped cup or the like will hold the shape given to it in the molding operation largely due to the permanence of the form or shape given to the fully drawn nylon monofilaments which are heat set during the operation.
If, on the other hand, the exposed edges of the fabric were pinned or otherwise rigidly held during the molding, then the fabric would tear during the molding operation. It is important for the success of the presently described process that the stretching of the fabric due to molding is minimal.
The following example is given as illustrative only without, however, limiting the invention to the specific details of the example.
Example A typical fabric is a plain weave ground or base fabric with a monofilament nylon overlaid in a loosely woven interlaced weave. The warp comprises two yarns, namely, a first yarn of 70 denier, 34-filament, S-turn semi-dull nylon; and a second yarn which consists of fully drawn 12-mil monofilament nylon. The filling yarn is 70 denier, 34-filament, zero twist semi-dull nylon. The reed width is 51.16 inches, 25 dents reeded 4 and 6 ends per dent; average reed sley is 17.35; 88 picks.
The fabric is placed in the pre-heated contoured mold (note FIGS. 4 and 5) which is maintained at a temperature of approximately 350 F. The mold is closed for a period of approximately 30 seconds to heat, shape and set the fabric in the desired molded contour. To minimize creasing or stretching as the mold is closed on the fabric, the fabric is held by adjustable friction or spring clamps so that it moves smoothly into the mold without excessive stretching or creasing.
After the mold is opened, the shaped fabric is removed and permitted to cool. The correct edge outline of the cup is then cut out, preferably with a die cutter or by heat cutting to fuse the ends of the monofilaments in place, and/or the edge may be bound with a soft plastic, to cover the raw edges and prebent the monofilaments from poking through. It is frequently preferred to cover the soft plastic cover with a suitable fabric which will then form the outer face of the edge.
Preferably, the edge is bound by sewing to it a nylon tape together with a 2-4 mil thick vinyl tape, the nylon tape forming the outer face of the edge and the vinyl tape serving to prevent the monofilaments from piercing the binding.
It will be understood that each of the elements described above, or two or more together, may also find a useful application in other types of fabrics or garments differing from the types described above.
While the invention has been illustrated and described as embodied in a brassiere cup and a method of producing the same, it is not intended to be limited to the details shown, since various modifications and structural changes may be made without departing in any way from the spirit of the present invention.
Without further analysis, the foregoing will so fully reveal the gist of the present invention that others can by applying current knowledge readily adapt it for various applications without omitting features that, from the standpoint of prior art, fairly constitute essential characteristics of the generic or specific aspects of this invention and, therefore, such adaptations should and are intended to be comprehended Within the meaning and range of equivalence of the following claims.
What is claimed as new and desired to be secured Letters Patent is:
1. In a fabric adapted to be molded to form a shaped, shape-retaining body and particularly adapted for use in garments such as brassieres, girdles and the like, in comlbination, two sets of warp ends and one set of [filler yarns, one of said sets of warp ends being composed of relatively soft highly flexible yarns arranged transverse to said filler yarns and forming a complete fabric therewith, and the other of said sets of warp ends being composed of substantially fully drawn thermoplastic monofilaments which while flexible are substantially stiffer than the yarns of said one set of warp ends.
2. A fabric as defined in claim 1, wherein said fabric is a woven fabric.
3. A fabric as defined in claim 2, wherein said other set of warp ends is parallel to said one set of warp ends and is distributed over one face of said fabric and joined thereto by said filler yarns. i
4. A fabric as defined in claim 2, wherein said other set of warp ends is uniformly distributed throughout said fabric.
5. A fabric as defined in claim 2, wherein said other set of warp ends is distributed in groups throughout said fabric.
6. A fabric as defined in claim 2, wherein said other set of warp ends consists of substantially fully drawn nylon monofilaments.
7. A fabric as defined in claim 6, wherein said substantially fully drawn nylon monofilaments have a diameter of about 20 mils.
8. A fabric as defined in claim 1, wherein said other set of warp ends consists of substantially fully drawn thermoplastic monofilaments having diameters of between about 10 and 12 mils.
9. An article of wearing apparel, comprising a molded, shaped, shape-retaining body consisting essentially of a fabric which comprises two sets of warp ends and one set of filler yarns, one of said sets of warp ends being composed of relatively soft highly flexible yarns woven with said filler yarns and forming a complete fabric therewith, and the other of said sets of warp ends being composed of monofilament yarns which while flexible are substantially stiffer than the yarns of said one set of warp ends, said other set of warp ends consisting ofsu bstantially fully drawn thermoplastic monofilaments.
10'. An article of wearing apparel as de fined in claim 9,
wherein said other set of Warp ends is parallelto said one set of warp ends and consists of substanti nylon monofilaments, and wherein said one set of warp ends comprises nylon multifilarnents.
11. An article ofwearing apparel as defined in claim 9,
wherein said article is a blrassiere. 1 12. An article'of Wearing apparel as de wherein said article is a girdle.
ally fully drawn fined in claim 9,
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS ADE-LEM. EAGER, Primary Examiner.
Us. 01. X.R.