US 3435580 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
msumwn, REINFORCED cpucamn, "PANEL-TYPE, BUILDING mm Filed March 17, 1966 April 1, 19 69 T; s. MERRILL ET AL Sheet F/G. Y 2..
., INVENTORS TAYLOR SMEHMUJLL DONALD D. JOHNSON BY MALLJNCKRODT 8 MALLINCKRODT ATTORNEYS April 1, 1969 T. s. MERRILL .E AL- 3,435,580
msunnsp. REINFORCEDCONCRETELPANEL-TYPE, BUILDING UNIT Filed March 17, 19 66 S t-L; of 2 INVENTORS TAYLORiMERRILL DONALD D. JOHNSON BY MALLINCKRODT 8x MALLN KR T ATTORNEYS United States Patent 3,435,580 INSULATED, REINFORCED CONCRETE, PANEL-TYPE BUILDING UNIT Taylor S. Merrill and Donald D. Johnson, Salt Lake City, Utah, assignors to Otto Buehner & Company, Salt Lake City, Utah, a corporation of Utah Filed Mar. 17, 1966, Ser. No. 535,121 Int. Cl. E04h 3/20; E040 1/06, 1/16 11.8. C1. 52405 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A curtain wall building unit of panel formation, having sheet material providing one broad face of the panel and a mesh-reinforced concrete slab providing the opposite face. Slab insulating material is positioned between the two facing components of the panel, and a plurality of relatively narrow strut pieces, mutually spaced both longitudinally and transversely of the panel, are fastened to the sheet material and extend through the insulating material into embedded engagement With the mesh reinforcing of the concrete slab.
This invention relates to thermally insulated, paneltype building units of reinforced concrete or the like, as used in the construction of curtain walls supported by load-bearing, structural columns in building construction.
The panel-type, curtain wall building units of the invention have mutually opposite, broad, panel faces that provide architecturally acceptable nd pleasing exterior and interior finish facings, respectively, for office buildings and other structures. One of these panel faces is provided by a metal sheet component that can be painted and otherwise decorated; the other is provided by a concrete material that is cast in place and preferably utilizes an aggregate or an additive to make it resemble building stone. Sandwiched between the two facing materials is thermal insulation, preferably a foamed plastic. The two facing materials are rigidly tied together by metal pieces that are secured to the inside face of the metal sheet, as by welding, and to the concrete by engagement with the reinforcement embedded therein. The edge faces of the units can be formed in various ways, depending upon the nature of the frame members of the building, with which they must connect, and upon the desired manner of securing the units thereto.
In the making of the invention, principal objects were to provide structural rigidity suflicient to effectively resist self-imposed stresses and strains and external stresses and strains, such as wind and seismic vibrations, as well as impact; to provide superior insulating properties, with minimum weight and bulk; and to provide a desired architectural finish at both broad panel faces.
These objects were accomplished by the aforedescribed rigid tying of a metal facing sheet to an opposed, reinforced, cementitious, slab facing, with thermal insulation therebetween.
Additional objects and features of the invention will become apparent from the following detailed description of the specific embodiments that are illustrated in the accompanying drawings and that represent the best mode presently contemplated of utilizing the generic inventive concepts particularly pointed out.
In the drawings:
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of one form of the curtainwall unit of the invention, looking toward the cementitious slab face thereof and with part of the slab broken away to show internal structure;
FIG. 2, a fragmentary section taken on the line 2-2 of FIG. 1 and showing the unit attached to a framing 3,435,583 Patented Apr. 1, 1969 meinber of a building, the view being drawn to a larger sca e;
FIG. 3, a perspective view showing the interior of the metal pan that provides the metal sheet facing for the unit of FIG. 1 with the thermal insulation material in place but broken away in part to reveal pan construction;
FIG. 4, a view similar to that of FIG. 2, but showing a somewhat dilferent form of panel building unit to illustrate how panel edge faces can be varied to accommodate variations in building framing members:
FIG. 5, a corresponding view showing further variations in both panel building unit construction and its securement to a building framing member; and
FIG. 6, a fragmentary section corresponding to the righthand portion of FIG. 2, but illustrating a somewhat different form and arrangement of structural components especially suitable for large size units.
Referring to the drawings:
In the embodiments of FIGS. 1-3, the panel building unit is rectangular and comprises a metal sheet facing 10, FIG. 2, and a concrete slab facing 11, the two being rigidly tied together by a number of relatively narrow metal strut pieces 12, with thermal insulating material 13 therebetween.
The metal sheet facing 10 is provided by the bottom of a broad and shallow, rectangular pan 14 of sheet metal, for example, twenty gauge mild steel, preferably specially treated at least on its exposed surface 10 for the retention of paint as is the proprietary product Paintlock produced by Republic Steel Company.
The sides 14a and 14b of the pan 14 serve as peripheral framing for the metal-faced portion of the unit, and, in this instance, are inturned to provide overhanging flanges 15a and 15b, respectively, for tie-in with the concrete slab portion 16 of the unit.
For rigidly tying together the broad bottom of the metal pan 14 and the concrete slab 16, and, thus, the metal facing 10 with the slab facing 11, the strut pieces 12, here shown as formed of sheet metal, are secured, as by welding, to the inside face of such bottom, in mutually spaced relationship both longitudinally and transversely of the unit, as shown, so as to project upwardly for tying engagement with the reinforcing material for the slab.
A preferred way of insulating the unit is to position appropriately dimensioned batts of the insulating material 13, such as a foamed plastic, i.e., expanded polystyrene, in metal pan 14, so as to leave a peripheral channel 18 for the reception of the wet concrete mix, which is cast onto the insulation and confined laterally by a suitable temporary form structure (not shown) for defining exposed .peripheral edge faces for the slab portion 16 of the unit. Although pre-formed batts of insulating material are preferred and are easily accommodated by the upstanding strut pieces 12, it will be readily appreciated that the foamed plastic or some other type of thermal insulating material can be formed in place by casting or blowing into a suitable form structure placed temporarily or permanently in the pan.
The reinforcing material for the concrete slab 16 preferably comprises a heavy wire mesh 20, FIG. 1. A 2" x 2" 14/14 gauge welded wire fabric has proven very satisfactory. With this weight reinforcing material and a twenty gauge steel pan, units of the invention have shown a load-carrying capacity of lbs./ sq. foot.
The reinforcing mesh 20 is preferably pre-formed to lie fiat on or immediately above the tops of insulation bats 13, with its peripheral margins bent downwardly to extend into the vicinity of peripheral channel 18, and the sheet facing 10 as indicated in FIGS. 1 and 2, whereupon the strut pieces 12 are bent down over adjacent wires of such mesh in engagement therewith so as to tie opposite face portions of the panel together. Additional reinforcing bars 21 may be provided in peripheral channel 18 or otherwise, as deemed advisable in particular instances.
Concrete slab 16 is cast into place over the insulating bats 13 and around reinforcing mesh and bars 21, filling peripheral channel 18 and providing the slab facing 11 for the unit. Upon setting and curing about the bent upper ends of strut pieces 12 and about the reinforcing mesh 20 engaged thereby, the concrete and such strut pieces establish rigid connection of the metal facing component of the unit with the slab facing component. The slab facing 11 can be of any ornamental character desired by appropriately choosing the aggregate or additives for the cementitious mix.
It should be noted that the metal skin, provided by pan 14, and the concrete slab 16 combine to resist tension and/ or compression, depending upon how the panel building unit is utilized in building construction.
In order to enable this form of the panel building unit of the invention to be easily secured to framing members of a building, for example, to the steel or aluminum mullion 22, FIG. 2, by means of screws 23, it is desirable that metal plates 24 be secured to the inside faces of the sides 14a and 14b of metal pan 14 at intervals along their lengths in any suitable manner, e.g., by cementing, and that these be backed by blocks 25 of foamed plastic or other soft filler material. In erecting the building, it is only necessary to drill and selectively tap receiving holes through the framing members, the sides of the pan, and the plates 24 for screws 23, which can protrude without resistance into the backing blocks 25.
In the embodiment of FIG. 4, the panel building unit 26 is of the same construction as the corresponding unit of the foregoing FIGS. 1-3, except for the edge margins, which are shouldered, as at 27, by restricting the extent of the concrete slab portion 28 of the unit so it does not overlap the inturned flange 29a of the metal pan 29. This leaves what is, in effect, rabbeted edge faces, with respective tongue portions 30 adapted to fit into receiving grooves 31 provided by mullion framing members '32 and respective, removably attached, auxiliary members 3-3. Sealing tape 34 is applied to both the outer and inner peripheral margins of the tongue portions 30 to provide weather seals, and interposed leaf springs 35 hold the unit tightly in place.
In the embodiment of FIG. 5, the panel building units 36 are each constructed with a metal pan 37, insulating material 38, and a mesh-reinforced concrete slab 39 tied together by metal struts (not shown), as in the preceding embodiments, but the slab 39 completely surrounds the sides 37a of the pan to provide peripheral edge faces of exposed concrete, rather than metal. For a successful tie-in of the peripheral portions 390: of the concrete slab with the remainder of the slab, it is necessary to either perforate the sides 37a along their lengths by, for example, a series of holes of say inch diameter (not shown), or to otherwise form or provide such sides with tie-in projections that will disrupt the lines of parts existing otherwise at the faces of such sides 37a.
To provide for welding securement of the units 36 to structural steel columns of the structural framework of a building, steel plates 41 are embedded in the peripheral portions 39a of the concrete slab 39 at and exposed to the inside, metal sheet face of the unit, because direct welding of the metal pan '37 to such a column 40 would buckle and deform the pan. These plates 41 may extend continuously around the peripheral margins of the unit or intermittently, as desired for particular instances. In either event, they are provided with stub reinforcing bars 42 projecting from welded securement to their back faces, as illustrated, and one or more reinforcing rods 43 may be laid in the concrete transversely thereof.
In attaching these units 36 to columns 40, an inter- 4 mediate steel plate 44 is spot welded to the exposed faces of plates 41 and to the column.
It should be noted that, in both embodiments of FIGS. 'l3 and FIG. 4, the sides of the metal pan can be eliminated and merely a flat metal sheet used for the pan, so long as a form is used for retaining and molding the wet concrete that is otherwise retained and molded by the sides of the pan. This leaves peripheral edge faces of exposed concrete, as in the embodiment of FIG. 5, rather than of metal.
The embodiment of FIG. 6 is a very advantageous construction for large panel building units conforming to the invention, for example, larger than 9 sq. ft., and can be also used for the smaller units when desired. In this embodiment, the metal strut pieces are in the form of short pieces of angle iron 45 welded to the inside faces of the metal pan 46. The bats 47 of insulating material are preferably beveled, as at 47a, to provide V-shaped channels 48 along the respective lines of strut pieces, into which wet concrete will flow during the casting of the slab portion 49 of the unit, and, when set and cured, will provide steel-reinforced, slab-reinforcing, concrete ribs 49a for the unit.
Slab-reinforcing, steel mesh 50 is provided, as in the preceding embodiments, but, in this instance, is literally tied into the strut pieces 45 by means of tie wires 51 passing through receiving holes 52 provided in the upper ends of such str-ut pieces 45. The peripheral edge details of this unit can be shown in any of the preceding embodiments.
It should be realized that there are many possible peripheral edge constructions that can be employed for each of the various embodiments of panel building units of the invention, depending upon the particular scheme of structural framing employed by any given builder, and that adapting these to the structural concepts here disclosed will be well within the skill of the art.
It should also be realized that, although it is highly advantageous to utilize sheet steel to provide the one panel face of the unit and steel struts welded to the inside face of such sheet, other sheet facing material can be used in place of the sheet steel, within the broadest purview of the invention, and other rigid material can be used for the struts and can be securely fastened in some other way to the sheet facing material. Also, although concrete made of Portland cement and a conventional aggregate is preferred for the concrete slab, other concretious materials utilizing various bonding agents can be employed, as can various natural and artificial stone and other materials as ornamental insets in the exposed face of the slab.
Whereas this invention is here described and illustrated with respect to certain forms thereof, it is to be understood that many variations are possible.
1. A curtain wall building unit of composite panel type, comprising structural sheet material at one of the broad panel faces of the unit providing, exteriorly thereof, an interior finish panel face for the unit; a concrete slab at the opposite broad panel face of the unit providing, exteriorly thereof, an exterior finish panel face for the unit, the peripheral margins of said slab being in face-to-face engagement with peripheral marginal portions of said sheet material and intermediate portions of said slab being spaced apart from corresponding intermediate portions of said sheet material to provide a recess for the reception of insulating material; structural reinforcing mesh embedded in said slab, with its peripheral margins bent toward and into the vicinity of said sheet material and the periphery thereof surrounding said recess; a plurality of relatively narrow, rigid struts distributed in mutually spaced relationship along both the length and the breadth of said unit, each being securely fastened at one of its ends to said sheet and extending into tying engagement with said reinforcing mesh intermediate the said bent margins thereof; and thermal insulating material sandwiched between said intermediate portions of said sheet material and said slab and surrounding said struts.
2. A panel building unit in accordance with claim 1, wherein the insulation material is channeled substantially to the inside face of the sheet facing material along lines joining pluralities of the struts, and portions of the slab extend into the channels and embed the said struts to provide reinforced concrete ribs as reinforcements for said slab.
5. A panel building unit in accordance with claim 1, wherein the struts are connected at their free extremities to the structural reinforcing of the slab by means of wire ties.
4. A panel building unit in accordance with claim 1, wherein the free extremities of the struts are tied to the structural reinforcement of the slab by being bent over said structural reinforcement.
5. A panel building unit in accordance with claim 1, wherein the sheet facing material has enclosing sides forming an externally closed pan into which peripheral marginal portions of the slab extend in face-to-face engagement with the sheet facing material.
6. A panel building unit in accordance with claim 5, wherein the sides of the pan terminate in inturned flanges overhanging the interior of the pan and encased in the concrete slab, leaving the lateral sides of the slab exposed therebeyond.
7. A panel building unit in accordance with claim 6, wherein the concrete slab terminates short of the inturned flanges, leaving peripherally projecting tongues encased by the sheet facing material.
8. A panel building unit in accordance with claim 5, wherein relatively small blocks of insulating material are secured to the inside faces of the sides of the pan at intervals along the lengths thereof for receiving screws in the seourement of the unit to structural framework of a building.
9. A panel building unit in accordance with claim 1, wherein the sheet material terminates short of peripheral margins of the one panel face of the unit, such margins being provided by peripheral portions of the concrete slab; and wherein steel plates are embedded in said portions of the concrete slab, with one face of each exposed at said one panel face of the unit to provide areas for welding to supporting frame members of building construction.
10. A panel building unit in accordance with claim 9, wherein stub reinforcing members extend from securement to embedded faces of the steel plates into the peripheral portions of the concrete slab as part of the structural reinforcing thereof.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,661,183 3/1928 Junkers 52405 X 1,796,048 3/ 1931 Robinson 52-601 X 1,915,896 6/ 1933 Maul 52599 1,959,083 5/1'934 Maul 52597 2,151,148 3/1939 Plumb 52576 X 2,961,804 11/ 1960 Bec'kman 52599 X FOREIGN PATENTS 674,328 11/1963 Canada.
ALFRED C. PERHAM, Primary Examiner.
US. Cl. X.R- 52576, 597, 599