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Publication numberUS3435794 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 1, 1969
Filing dateJun 6, 1967
Priority dateJun 6, 1967
Publication numberUS 3435794 A, US 3435794A, US-A-3435794, US3435794 A, US3435794A
InventorsPechacek Raymond E
Original AssigneeHahn & Clay
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Removable two-way pressure door assembly
US 3435794 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

April 1, 1969 R. E' PECHACEK 3,435,794

REMOVABLE TWO-WAY PRESSURE DOOR ASSEMBLY /5 J /W/ Jo 757 (7a M 72@v L 72 .53a F 7 I J5 .Ss y IM/ENTOR.

BY f

` April l, 1969 R.`E. PEcHAcl-:K 3,435,794

REMOVABLE TWO-WAY PRESSURE DOOR ASSEMBLY Filed June e, 1967 Sheet of 2 N VEN TOR.

BY #ogm f Houd United States Patent O 3,435,794 REMOVABLE TWO-WAY PRESSURE DOOR ASSEMBLY Raymond E. Pechacek, Houston, rIex., assigner to Hahn & Clay, a corporation of Texas Filed June 6, 1967, Ser. No. 643,947 Int. Cl. B63b 19/28; B6Sd 45 00 U.S. Cl. 114-16.6 10 Claims ABSTRACT F THE DISCLOSURE A door assembly for diving bells, submarines, and the like, wherein a single door is capable of sealing against pressure from either side and is also readily removable for replacement, repair, or other purposes.

Background of the invention The field of this invention relates to doors for diving bells, submarines, and any other unit subjected to pressures internally and externally thereof. `So far as is known, double doors have heretofore been used in devices such as diving bells and `submarines which were subjected to both internal pressure and external pressure. Furthermore, doors used for sealing internal pressures have not been removable from the yunit except by cutting an enlarged opening in the wall of the unit with a cutting torch or similar tool, thus damaging the unit and requiring subsequent repair. The use of an oval-shaped door has heretofore been proposed to eliminate the cutting of the Wall of the unit, but suc'h construction introduces the disadvantage of diflicult fabrication due to the unusual shape of the door, its opening, and the parts associated therewith. Doors having a generally rectangular shape are not adequate for sealing against pressures of the magnitude encountered in submarines and diving bells which are as high as three hundred pounds per 'square inch (300 p.s.i) or higher.

Sum-mary of the invention The present invention relates to a door assembly in which a single door is capable of sealing against pressure acting thereon from either side, particularly high pressures of the magnitude of three hundred pounds per square inch (300 p.s.i.) or more, such as encountered in submarines and diving bells. In its more specific aspects, the invention employs a generally round door which nevertheless may be removed from the submarine, diving bell, or other unit without any cutting or other damage to the unit to effect such removal.

Brief description 0f the drawings FIG. 1 is a view partly in elevation and partly in section of the removable two-way pressure door assembly of this invention;

FIG. 2 is a partial view of the door and its locking mechanism as viewed generally from the right-hand end of FIG. l;

FIG. 3 is a detailed sectional View, partly in elevation, of a portion of the operating mechanism for the locking means forming a part of the door assembly of the present invention; and

FIG. 4 is an elevation taken from the left-hand side of FIG. 1 illustrating particularly the hinge or pivot means for the door assembly in the preferred form of the invention.

Description of the preferred embodiments In the drawings, the letter D designates generally the door of the present invention which is adapted to be ICC used in conjunction with a doorframe F mounted in a diving bell, submarine, or other vessel V, a portion of which is illustrated. The door assembly of this invention may be used in any installation wherein such door D may ybe subjected to pressure from either side and it is particularly suitable for installations such as diving bells and submarines wherein relatively high pressures on both sides of the door D are experienced. In addition to its capability of holding relatively high pressures on each side of the door D, the door D is also constructed so that it may be readily removed from the vessel V without damage to the structure and with a substantially round external configuration of the door D.

Considering the invention more in detail, the door D includes a door body having an annular door member 10 and a central door closure plate 12 welded thereto at an annular weld 12a. The annular body member 10 and the closure -plate 12 are preferably formed of steel, and in the preferred form of the invention, the plate 12 is curved or dish-shaped for increased strength as particularly seen in FIG. 1. The plate 12 has a central opening 12b therethrough which receives a cylindrical housing 14, the purpose of which will be described hereinafter. The housing 14 is preferably formed of steel and is welded in the opening 12b at the weld 14a, or is otherwise suitably attached.

In the preferred form of the invention, the outer edge 10a of lthe annular member 10 is round or cylindrical in its general configuration. An annular shoulder 10b (FIG. 1) is formed on the inside portion of the outer edge 10a, and an O-ring seal 15 is carried therein for sealing with the doorframe F, as will be more evident hereinafter. The outer edge 10a preferably has a taper from the shoulder 10b to the right as viewed in FIG. 1 for facilitating the opening movement of the door D.

An annular groove 10c is provided in the outer edge 10a for receiving a plurality of locking shoes 20, each of which is preferably formed of brass. Each locking shoe is connected to a radially disposed rod, preferably formed in two parts 22a and 22b, which are connected together with a connecting sleeve 23 employing locking screws 23a (FIGS. 1 and 2). The outer end of each rod section 22a is Welded or otherwise secured to the locking shoes 20. Each of the rod sections 22a extends through an opening 10d in the annular body 10. Each of such openings 10b is formed radially with respect to the center or central axis of the door D so as to radially guide the movement of the rod 22a and the parts connected therewith.

Each rod section 22a has a coil spring 25 or similar resilient means mounted thereon and disposed 'between the outer shoulder 23b of the connecting collar 23 and the inner `surface 10e of the annular body member 10 so as to resiliently urge the rod 22a in an inward direction toward the centerof the door D to retract its locking shoe 20 into the annular groove 10c as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2.

The inner ends 22e of the rod sections 221; engage the external surface of an expander element 30 which has a substantially cylindrical portion 30a and a frustum of a cone or tapered portion 30b. Such rod sections 22b also extend through radial openings 14b formed in a cylindrical housing 14 to guide the radial movements of the rod sections 2211 towards and away from the center or central axis of the door D, as will be more evident hereinafter.

The expander 30 is disposed in a bore 14e of the cylindrical housing 13 and it is mounted on a rod or shaft 35, the outer end of which is connected to an operating handle 36 by a connecting pin (not shown) or any other suitable connecting means. The expander 30 is secured to the .rod or shaft by a retaining pin 35a or any other suitable securing means so that the rod or shaft 35 and the expander .30 are adapted to move in unison.

The inner end of the shaft 35 is welded to or is formed integrally with a cylindrical guide body 38 which fits within a portion of the bore 14C for relative movement with respect thereto. The guide cylinder '38 has an annular groove 38a for receiving an O-ring 319 formed of rubber or similar materials for providing a seal with the bore 14C, as will be more fully explained. Longitudinal bleed grooves 14d are provided in a portion of the bore 14e for automatically equalizing the pressure internally and externally of the door when the door D is in the unlocked or released position, as will be more fully explained.

The inner end of the cylinder 33 is connected, or formed integrally with a threaded rotatable shaft which preferably has coarse acme threads as indicated in the drawings. Such threads 40 engage with internal threads 14e formed internally of the housing 14 for coaction with the threads on the shaft 40. During normal operation, the inner end of the shaft 40 has an operating handle 46 connected thereto by a connecting pin (not shown) or any other suitable means. Preferably, such handle 46 is readily removable by removing a pin or other removable connecting means so that a closure cap (FIG. 3) may be inserted over the end of the shaft 40 for sealing purposes in the event a failure occurs in the locking mechanism which might cause a passage of pressure from internally of the vessel V to the area externally thereof under conditions when this would be undesirable. The cap 50 has an O-ring seal 51 therewith which engages the external surface of the cylindrical housing 14 as shown in FIG. 3 after the handle 46 has been removed so that air cannot thereafter pass around the shaft 40, The cap 50` is normally maintained in the seated position shown in FIG. 3 by the internal pressure within the vessel V, but it will be appreciated that any suitable clamp may lbe employed for holding the cap `50 on the housing 14 if desired.

For co-acting with the locking shoes 20 to lock the door D in the closed position, channel members are secured in a receiving groove 55a in the doorframe F. There are preferably at least two of the channel members 55 so that they can be readily removed when the door has been moved to the open position. Ihe removal of the channel members 55 is accomplished by removing retaining screws 56 or such other removable securing means as may be employed. Each of the channel members 55 is formed with an internal channel 55h for receiving the locking members 20. Thus, the width of the channel thus provided by the channels 55h is substantially the same, but slightly larger than, the width of the locking shoes 20 so that the locking shoes 20 may enter such channels 55b and thereby lock the door D to the doorframe F. The outward movement of the locking shoes 20 to move them into the locking position from the unlocked position shown in FIGS. l and 2 is accomplished by rotating either the inside handle 46 or the outside handle 36 so as to cause a threading action of the threads 40 within the internal threads 14e for a movement of the expander 30 to the right from the position shown in FIG. 3. As the expander 30 moves to the right, the inner ends 22C of the actuating rods move upwardly on the conical surface 30b so that they are forced outwardly, overcoming the action of the spring 25, until they reach their fully seated and locked position with the members 2Gb at or near the bottom of the channel 55b. When the expander 30 has thus moved to the right (from the unlocked position of FIG. 3), the O-ring seal 39 is then disposed in the bore 14C and is in full contact therewith for maintaining a fluid seal to thereby prevent any equalization or change in pressure internally and externally around said seal 39. The O-ring seal 15 at the outer edge of the ange 10b provides the seal for retaining any equalization or passage of air pressure around the outer edge of the door D. The locking shoes 20 provide the strength for resisting the relatively high pressures that are encountered, particularly in diving bells and submarines and which may be in the neighborhood of three hundred pounds per square inch (300 p.s.i.) or more.

The unlocking of the locking shoes 20 is accomplished by a reverse rotation of either the handle 36 or the handle 46 so as to return the expander 30 to the left and ultimately to the unlocked position shown in FIG. 3. The seal ring 39 moves into a position so as to expose both ends of the bleed grooves 14d to thus allow a bypass of air or gas pressure around the seal 319 and the threaded shaft 40 to thereby provide an automatic equalization of pressure internally and externally of the door D when the door D is unlocked.

The door D is preferably mounted so as to pivot with a hinge means H including a pair of hinge bars 60 (FIGS. l and 4) which are reinforced by connecting straps 61. The hinge bars 60 are connected to the doorframe F by a pivot pin 61 which extends through each of the hin-ge 'bars 60 and through pivot lugs 62. Similarly, the other ends of the pivot bars 60 are pivotally connected to pivot lugs 63 with pivot pins 64 or any other suitable pivotal connection means. The pivotal mounting means H permits a nonpivotal movement of the door D for the initial portion of its travel away from the doorframe F during the opening thereof so as to provide a clearance of the entire door member 10 prior to arcuate or pivotal movement of the door D with respect to the frame F. Such initial nonpivotal movement is provided with the double pivot action of the pivot pins `61 and 64, but it will be appreciated that other types of hinge means may be employed so long as they have adequate strength and are capable of providing adequate clearance for the initial opening of the door D.

In the preferred form of the invention, the doorframe F has an external connecting cylinder 70 welded thereto as indicated at 70a and which is provided with a flange 7012. The cylinder 70 is adapted to be aligned with a corresponding cylinder 72 on a decompression chamber or similar structure so that the diving bell or other vessel may be connected when the door D is open to create a pressure within the bell which is comparable to that in the decompression chamber.

By way of illustration, the cylinder 72 may have a flange 72a which corresponds with the dlange 7011 so that the two cylinders may be temporarily connected together by any suitable releasable connecting means such as a split ring which has a pair of connecting tabs 81 at each of the split ends thereof. The tabs 81 are connected by a suitable connecting bolt 82 or any other `suitable connecting means to hold the flanges 70b and 72a together as shown in FIG. 1. When the cylinders 70 and 72 are thus connected, the door D may be opened so that the pressure in the vessel such as a decompression chamber which is connected to the cylinder 72 then is transmitted to the interior of the vessel V to pressurize same, or so that the pressures are otherwise equalized. A door D similar to that illustrated in FIG. 1 may be provided also in connection with the decompression chamber. In such event, both of such doors D would be open after the cylinders 70 and 72 are connected so as to interconnect the interior of the vessel V with the interior of the decompression chamber or other unit.

A by-pass pipe or tube 84 between the cylinder 70 and the wall of the vessel V is provided for equalizing the pressures internally and externally of the door D when desired, and to this end suitable valves such as valves 85 and 86 are employed so that the bypass may be controlled internally and externally with respect to the vessel V. Also, a valve 87 is preferably provided with an outlet pipe 88 so as to permit an exhaust of pressure from the cylinder 70 to atmosphere when dessired. It may be desirable, for example, after a diving bell has been pressurized and the door D has been closed, to exhaust pressure from the cylinder 70 to atmosphere prior to disconnecting the connecting band 80. Such arrangements for the control of the air pressure are merely illustrative of various ways of controlling the air pressure during the pressurizing and depressurizing of the vessel V in conjunction with the opening and closing of the door D.

Although not essential, it is desirable to have a dust cover or plate 90 disposed on the outside of the door D for protecting the internal working parts from dust and foreign objects. Such dust cover 90 is retained in position by any suitable means such as screws 91 which extend into the annular member and also screws 92 which extend into the cylindrical housing 14.

In the event it becomes desirable to remove the door D from the vessel V, the door D is unlocked by rotating the handle 36 or the handle 46 to move the expander 30 to the unlocked position wherein the ends of the rod 22b are in engagement with the cylindrical surface 30a. Thereafter, the door D is removed from the hinge means H by removing either the pins 64 or the pins 61, or both. Then, the channel members 55 are removed -by removing the retaining screws 56 so that the internal opening of the doorframe F is enlarged by such removal a suicient amount to allow the annular shoulder 10b to pass through the door frame opening and outwardly from the vessel V. It should be noted that for the removal of the channel members 55, the ends 55e of the channel members 55 are spaced far enough from each other so as to permit channel members 55 to be moved radially inwardly or otherwise angled inwardly out of the groove 55a. At least two of such channel members 55 are employed so that they can be removed from the groove 55a.

After the door D has been repaired or replaced, it may then be returned to the inside of the vessel V, and the channel members 55 may be reinserted into the annular groove 55a and secured by the screws 56. Then, upon a reconnection of the door D to the hinge means H, it is ready for use in the same manner as heretofore described.

Normally during the locking and unlocking of the locking shoes 20, such is readily accomplished by merely rotating the handles or rotatable wheels 36 and 46. During the opening or unlocking of the door D, the O-ring 39 is moved into a position with respect to the bleed grooves 14d so that a bypass of air pressure around the ring 39 is permitted to thereby equalize automatically the pressure internally and externally of the vessel V. In the event the locking members should become partially unlocked and the ring 39 is in a position so that there is a bypass around the ring 39 while still being unable to completely unlock the door D, the pressure within the vessel V may be maintained to protect the divers or persons therein by such personnel simply removing the handle 46 and substituting therefor the safety cap 50. Such cap 50 provides a seal with the seal ring 51 so that the internal fluid pressure cannot escape through the cylinder 14 even though the O-ring 39 is in the position adjacent the grooves 14d (FIG. 3).

The foregoing disclosure and description of the invention are illustrative and explanatory thereof, and various changes in the size, shape, and materials as well as in the details of the illustrated construction may be made without departing from the spirit of the invention.

I claim:

1. A door assembly for a submarine, diving bell, or other vessel for sealing against pressure acting from either side thereof, comprising:

(a) a doorframe having an opening therethrough;

(b) a door body having an outer edge conforming generally to the internal configuration of the opening of the doorframe;

(c) a plurality of arcuate locking shoes disposed in proximity to the outer edge of said door body;

(d) means for mounting said arcuate locking shoes for movement in a direction generally parallel to the plane of the door body and towards and away from the center of said door body;

(e) said doorframe having a substantially cylindrical channel for receiving each of said arcuate locking shoes when said shoes are moved outwardly in a direction away from the center of said door body for thereby locking said door body to said doorframe;

(f) each of said arcuate shoes having a curvature corresponding generally to the curvature of said substantially cylindrical channel; and

(g) seal means between said door body and said doorframe for holding fluid pressure on either side of said door body when said shoes are in the locked position with said doorframe.

2. The structure set forth in claim 1, wherein:

(a) said channel is formed in a plurality of channel members which extends into said opening; and

(b) means for removably mounting said channel members to permit removal thereof from the opening of said doorframe for thereby providing a large enough opening for the removal of the door body therethrough.

3. The structure set forth in claim 1, wherein said means for mounting said locking shoes includes:

(a) a radially movable rod for each shoe and having its outer end connected to one of said shoes and its inner end disposed in proximity to the control axis of said door body;

(b) an expander having an expander surface which is a frustum of a cone engageable with the inner ends of said rods for urging said rods and said shoes therewith radially outwardly to the locked position; and

(c) resilient means for urging said rods to move radially inwardly so that when said expander is moved to disengage said expander surface from contact with said inner ends of said rods, the rods will move radially inwardly for retraction from said channel.

4. The structure set forth in claim 1, including:

(a) means for equalizing uid pressure internally and externally of the vessel prior to the opening of the door.

5. The structure set forth in claim 1, including:

(a) means operable from either side of said door for moving said locking shoes to and from the locked position in said channel; and

(b) means for automatically equalizing the pressure internally and externally of the door and the vessel when the locking shoes are moved from the locked to the unlocked position.

6. The structure set forth in claim 1, including:

(a) means for equalizing fluid pressure internally and externally of the vessel when the door is in the open position; and

(b) means for preventing an equalization of pressure through said equalizing means when the door is in the locked position.

7. The structure set forth in claim 1, including:

(a) means operable from either side of said door for moving said locking shoes to and from the locked position in said channel;

('b) means for automatically equalizing the pressure internally and externally of the door and the vessel when the locking shoes are moved from the locked to the unlocked position; and

(c) means for closing said means for automatically equalizing the pressure to prevent a loss of internal pressure when said door is locked or partially unlocked.

8. The structure set forth in claim 1, including:

(a) hinge means pivotally connecting said door body to said vessel for permitting limited nonpivotal movement of the door body relative to said doorframe so as to prevent interference therebetween upon subsequent pivotal movement of said door body relative to said doorframe.

9. A door assembly for a submarine, diving bell, or other vessel for sealing against pressure acting from either side thereof, comprising:

(a) a doorframe having an opening therethrough;

(b) a door body having an outer edge conforming generally to the internal conguration of the opening of the doorframe;

(c) a plurality of locking shoes disposed in proximity to the outer edge of said door body;

(d) means for mounting said locking shoes for movement in a direction generally parallel to the plane of the door body and towards and away from the center of said door body;

(e) said doorframe having a channel for receiving each of said locking shoes when said shoes are moved outwardly in a direction away from the center of said door body for thereby locking said door body to said doorframe;

(f) seal means between said door body and said doorframe for holding fluid pressure on either side of said door body when said shoes are in the locked position with said doorframe;

(g) said channel being formed in a plurality of channel members which extend into said opening; and

(h) means for removably mounting said channel members to permit removal thereof from the opening of said doorframe for thereby providing a large enough opening for the removal of the door body therethrough in either direction.

10. A door assembly for a submarine, diving bell, or other vessel for sealing against pressure acting from either side thereof, comprising:

(a) a doorframe having an opening therethrough;

(b) a door body having an outer edge conforming generally to the internal configuration of the opening of the doorframe;

(c) a plurality of locking shoes disposed in proximity to the outer edge of said door body;

(d) a radially movable rod for each shoe and having its outer end connected to one of said shoes and its inner end disposed in proximity to the central axis of said door body;

(e) said doorframe having a channel for receiving each of said locking shoes when said shoes are moved outwardly in a direction away from the center of said door body for thereby locking said door body to said doorframe;

(f) an expander having an expander surface which is a rustum of a cone engageable with the inner ends of said rods for urging said rods and said shoes therewith radially outwardly to the locked position;

(g) a threaded shaft operably connected to said expander and engageable with internal threads formed in said door for eiecting movement of said expander for radially moving said rods outwardly; and

(h) handle means connected to each end of said threaded shaft and disposed on each side of said door for rotating said threaded shaft to longitudinally move said expander from either side of the door.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 320,971 6/1885 Rowland 220-55.3 1,560,489 11/1925 Yager 292-37 1,858,013 5/1932 Heins 220-55.3 2,926,012 '2/ 1960 Maher 49-68 2,373,480 4/ 1945 Lambert 49-395 XR 3,155,116 11/1964 Ver Nooy 292-37 XR D KENNETH DOWNEY, Primary Examiner.

U.S. Cl. XR.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US320971 *May 12, 1884Jun 30, 1885 Thomas p
US1560489 *Oct 3, 1924Nov 3, 1925Alice J YagerReceptacle closure
US1858013 *Oct 18, 1930May 10, 1932Kny Scheerer CorpSterilizer door
US2373480 *Oct 16, 1942Apr 10, 1945Heintz Mfg CoQuick-acting door
US2926012 *Jun 6, 1958Feb 23, 1960Chicago Bridge & Iron CoDoor interlock system
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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4121383 *Jul 11, 1977Oct 24, 1978Perry Oceanographics, Inc.Closure mechanism for a door
US4519519 *Feb 26, 1982May 28, 1985Westinghouse Electric Corp.Fuel transfer tube quick opening hatch
US6851452 *Jan 3, 2003Feb 8, 2005General Signal Uk LimitedGuide plate
US8800209Nov 12, 2013Aug 12, 2014Gaven Industries, Inc.Door and system providing radio frequency shielding against high-altitude electromagnetic pulse
US20120199571 *Jan 5, 2012Aug 9, 2012Christopher BrownPressurized Cooking Oven
DE102005025995B3 *Jun 7, 2005Nov 9, 2006Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft GmbhSubmarine dividing wall, in a pressure-tight assembly, has a door to seal the opening mounted on swing joint arms to allow use of the space between the wall and an intermediate wall
Classifications
U.S. Classification114/312, 220/324, 49/395, 49/246
International ClassificationB63C11/00, F16J13/00, B63G8/04, B63C11/44, B01J3/03, F16J13/08, B63G8/00
Cooperative ClassificationB63G8/04, F16J13/08, B63C11/44, B01J3/03
European ClassificationB63C11/44, B63G8/04, B01J3/03, F16J13/08