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Publication numberUS3437548 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 8, 1969
Filing dateDec 24, 1964
Priority dateDec 24, 1964
Publication numberUS 3437548 A, US 3437548A, US-A-3437548, US3437548 A, US3437548A
InventorsAyers Osborn
Original AssigneeJohns Manville
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Decorative products and process for making same
US 3437548 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

April 8, 1969 o. AYERS 3,437,548

DECORATIVE PRODUCTS AND PROCESS FOR MAKING SAME Filed Dec. 24, 1964 5 INVENTOR. I OSBOe/V A Yeas ATTORNEY 3,437,548 DECURATIVE PRODUCTS AND PROCESS FOR MAKING SAME Osborn Ayers, Westfield, N.J., assignor to Johns-Manville Corporation, New York, N.Y., a corporation of New York Filed Dec. 24, 1964, Ser. No. 421,071 Int. Cl. 332i) 31/20, 31/18, 19/00 US. Cl. 161-41 11 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Producing decorative, pervaded designs or patterns in hydraulic cementitious materials through density variations within the mass of the material, and the products thereof.

This invention relates to decorative products and a method of producing the same. More particularly, the invention comprises decorated, hydraulic setting binder and fiber articles and a method of introducing therein a permanent pervaded design.

The building products, furniture and related industries have proposed and developed numerous techniques or means of applying or imparting decorative or design effects in wall and partition panels or sections, and in furniture components or appointments. Commonly, such techniques or means in general comprise effecting the design or decoration through, or as a result of embossing or in some manner providing or introducing an irregular, or raised and depressed surface condition, or they involve applying or incorporating an extraneous material such as paint, dye or pigment in a variety of systems or arrangements. The former approach comprising embossing means, etc., entails an inherent disadvantage of creating surfaces which are difiicult to clean and if sub jected to abuse or abrasion are highly susceptible to wear with the ultimate removal of the decorative surface configuration. The latter general means of decoration employ normally costly materials such as paint, pigments, etc., and unless the color or design imparting means is dispersed throughout the mass of the body, which further requires uneconomical quantities and frequently costly application processes, the surface applications are particularly vulnerable to weathering and wear, requiring costly reapplications.

It is a primary object of this invention to provide a low cost means of effecting or introducing a decorative design or pattern to articles composed of hydraulic setting calcareous cement and fiber compositions, such as common abestos-cement materials and the like products, which does not require costly process or manufacturing means and does not necessitate the introduction or application of additional or extraneous components or materials such as paint, pigments, etc.

It is also a primary object of this invention to provide decorated articles of calcareous binders and fibers having smooth, and in turn highly resistant to wear and breakage, face surfaces which can be readily cleaned such as by wiping or washing, and may be sanded or otherwise have their exposed surfaces refinished Without removal of the decoration or design therefrom.

It is a further primary object of this invention to provide asbestos-cement and the like calcareous articles hav- 3,437,548 Patented Apr. 8, 1969 ing a decorative design or pattern pervaded or extending and continuing transversely through the mass or crosssection of the decorated article whereby the design or pattern is as enduring as the component article or structure itself.

These and other objects and advantages of this invention will be apparent from the hereinafter detailed description and the drawings in which:

FIG, 1 is a perspective view of a small section of a sheet of asbestos cement in unhydrate'd state;

FIG. 2 is a perspective view of the small section of the sheet of asbestos-cement having been embossed with a design and compressed showing the increased density defining the embossed design of the unhydrated material extending generally transverse therethrough in the area of applied compression; and,

FIG. 3 is a perspective view of the same small section of the sheet following hydration of the embossed and compressed asbestos-cement material and the cutting away of the embossed surface to level the same to a flat plane whereby the induced design is visible due to the density variation.

This invention is, in part, based upon the finding that, unlike many otherwise apparently related or comparable materials or compositions, uncured or unhydrated Wet calcareous based cement and fiber compositions, upon compressing and consolidating to solids densities of at least about p.c.f. (lbs. per cubic ft.) and water contents of not greater than about 60 to 70 percent by weight, are of a consistency which is yet sufliciently plastic as to be impression-able but of a firmness such as to effectively resist lateral or transverse movement or flow of their mass or the solid components thereof with the application of pressure upon or over limited or restricted areas of the surface of the body or article thereof. In other words upon the application of uneven vertical compressive forces over such compositions there is effected a vertical compression or displacement of water from within the material without a corresponding horizontal [flow whereby the intensity of consolidation or density can be increased or raised within limited predetermined areas of such compositions over and beyond that of the immediately aide jacent area. Moreover, this increase in density or consolidat'ion is transmitted vertically or in the same direction of the force transversely through the mass of the body substantially adjacent and conterminously confined to the limited area of applied surface pressure or areas of greater pressure.

The present invention also comprises the discovery that when a formative mass of the particular calcareous bonded cement and fiber composition is compressed to unlike degrees. of consolidation or density, the differences in the density of the mass are percelptible and distinctly visible to the eye, being manifested by a decidedly discernible difference in the intensity of the natural or induced color of the materials with a denser area exhibiting a noticeably darker or intenser color or hue. This invention therefore further includes the discovery that articles or shapes formed of the particular calcareous based cement and fiber compositions subsequent to their usual or typical manufacture comprising shaping and con solidating, can be further compressed and consolidated or densified in selected portions or areas over a surface or surfaces thereof which define or represent a predetermined decorative design or pattern and that the given design or pattern can be indelibly or permanently and visually introduced and transmitted through the mass of the article or body of such material.

Accordingly this invention in general comprises a method, and the resulting products thereof, of producing decorative pervaded designs or patterns in articles or products of hydraulic setting calcareous binder and fiber compositions by impressing selected portions defining a decorative design of the surface of an uncured formative body of such compositions and permanently differentially densifying and consolidating such a body transversely through its mass in the area or areas conterminous to the resulting depressed selected portions, then curing the hydraulic setting calcareous binder phase, and finally removing the protuberant elevations remaining from the induced depressions and extending beyond the depressed surface of the said differentially densified and consolidated body and effecting a substantially plain surface free of protuberances. The induced contrast of unlike intensities of densities of the internal mass of the foregoing introduced differential densification and consolidation within the body visually effects the defined design of the said selected portions through the continuous or fiat surface of the article.

The hydraulic setting calcareous binder or matrix and fiber bodies or compositions which may be permanently and pervadedly decorated according to the means of this invention particularly comprise the common and familiar asbestos-cement building, furniture, etc., articles such as sheet or slab panels or sections consisting of Portland cement and asbestos fiber and a variety of assorted fillers, and silica as a reactant when steam cured. Also included are structural bodies or articles composed of fiber and a hydrothermally formed calcium silicate binder phase, or reaction product of lime or calcium oxide and silica such as diatomaceous earth, tripoli, silicic acid or common reactive sources of silica. Calcareous cementitious binder phases or matrices and sources thereof include Portland cement, Portland-slag cements, calcium aluminate cements and calcium oxide and silica reaction products. Asbestos fibers are definitely preferred as the reinforcing fibrous component because of their inorganic compositions and their unique compatibility with calcareous binders, however, other inorganic fibers such as glass, metal and assorted mineral or argillaceous compositions, or even or ganic fibers, such as wood pulp, natural and synthetic fibers, can be substituted for all or substantial portions of the asbestos content. Moreover, in accordance with the art and common practices, and primarily depending upon the properties desired and/or the intended utilization or application of the product, the asbestos-cement compositions employed in the practice of this invention may include other reactive components such as certain clays, as for example, bentonite, or various sources of lime, silica, alumina etc. Also, a variety of non-reactive or inert fillers and pigments or coloring materials may be incorporated therein to effect assorted properties ranging from lower costs to introducing a particular color, reduce bulk, etc. These fillers include scrap or waste from previous runs, sand, cinders, expanded perlite and the like insoluble material for reduced Weight or bulking which are not generally reactive under ambient temperature conditions, or when steam cured in the autoclaving atmosphere employed.

Typically these fiber reinforced calcareous cement products comprise from about percent to about 85 percent of the calcareous binder phase based on the overall weight of the material and more preferably about percent to about 70 percent by weight, together with about 15 percent up to about 80 percent by weight of reinforcing fiber, preferably asbestos, and commonly about 20 percent to about 50 percent of such fibrous material. Fillers may constitute amounts up to about 50 percent by weight but preferably in proportions of not greater than about percent by weight, and when the product comprises a Portland cement as is most common and is steam cured, it

should include approximately equal amounts by weight of a reactive silica to combine with the lime of the Portland cement under autoclaving conditions as is conventionally practiced in the art.

An asbestos cement article or base such as a sheet or panel in which the pervaded design is effected by the means of this invention can be formed or produced by any conventional procedure or technique including the wet forming or so-called Hatchek process illustrated by US. Patent No. 2,182,353, the dry forming or so-called Norton process illustrated by U.S. Patent No. 2,230,880, or simply by casting or molding any desired shape from a wet admixture of the applicable solids.

The impresing of the green and impressionable plastic cement body or base article in the selected portions of the surface thereof defining the desired pattern or decoration to introduce the same through the body or article as a permanently differentially densified and consolidated transverse area thereof conterminous to the areas of im pression can be effected by any suitable means such as a patterned die or press platen. A preferred economical die means comprises a metal sheet of apt thickness provided with cut out sections forming the design as for example a repetitive pattern of cut out openings in the sheet f circles, ovals, hexagons, clover leafs, fleur-de-lis, etc., which upon pressing over a surface of the asbestos-cement article transfers and impresses the pattern therein. The cutouts or voids forming or providing the designs or pattern in the die means should be at least inch or more, and preferably inch and greater, in their smallest diameter or dimension to effect or introduce the design to a highly pronounced and sharply perceptible degree both on the surface and continuing transversely through or substantially through the transverse thickness of the sheet or article. The degree of differentially densifying and consolidating the pattern into the base material can be conveniently regulated by the thickness or depth of such a patterned die plate and since the degree or difference in the density of the base material affects the contrast of the pattern introduced therein, this comprises a convenient means of controlling the degree of contrast of the pattern in the article.

Referring to the drawings, the principal basic steps of this invention, or the effects thereof, are successively illustrated in perspective view in the drawings comprising FIGS. 1, 2 and 3. FIG. 1 shows a section 10 of a common asbestos-cement sheet product of generally uniform density 11 in composition with plane surface 12, but in a yet unhydrated state and as such somewhat plastic consistency. In FIG. 2 the section 10 of asbestos-cement sheet is shown embossed with a design 13 impressed in original surface 12 and the resulting depressions 14, wherein the pressure upon the unhydrated body has further compressed its mass transversely through the body within the area of the applied pressure as shown at 15. Following embossing and inducing the design transversely through the mass of the body by the density increase, the sheet is cured by completing hydration through usual means whereby the sheet becomes substantially permanently set and rigid with the induced density differences fixed therein. Finally as shown in FIG. 3, the remaining elevated original surface 12 is removed by sanding or planing, or cut away by any apt means, at least down to the level of depressions 14 so as to provide a new plane surface 16 whereby the design 13 is manifested solely due to the density differences of the material.

The following comprises a specific illustration or example of a preferred and typical means of introducing a decorative and pervaded design in a common hydraulic calcareous cement and asbestos fiber articles according to the procedures and techniques of this invention and demonstrates the simplicity and pronounced advantages and utility thereof. It should be understood however, that the specific formulation or starting ingredients as well as the means described for forming the product or otherwise given hereinafter are primarily exemplary and are not to be construed as limiting the invention to any particular composition, method or technique of preparation, or conditions thereof of this example.

Steam cured asbestos-cement sheets or panels were formulated and produced pursuant to conventional procedures and permanently decorated with a pervaded design according to the novel techniques of this invention as follows. Green or uncured asbestos-cement sheets were produced from a dilute aqueous slurry comprising solids, in percent by weight, of:

Hydraulic setting cement (Portland) 41.5 Asbestos fiber 29.5 Silica 24.9 Pigment (titanium dioxide) 3.7 Pigment (chromium oxide) 0.4

on a wet forming machine and process of the Hatchek type illustrated generally by US. Patent No. 2,182,353, under standard conditions. The sheets were produced by building up laminations of thin webs of stock and consolidating the same on the forming and consolidating mandrel or roll of the wet machine to a thickness of about /4 inch and a solids or dry density of about 80 p.c.f. (range from about 70 to 90 p.c.f.). At an 80 p.c.f. density these sheets contain about 50 percent of water by volume or about 40 percent of water by Weight of the solids. As such, these green sheets were found to be of a consistency yet sufficiently plastic as to permit the compressing of selected or limited areas thereof, effecting further consolidation by compression displacement or flow in the vertical direction and substantially conterminously with the limited areas of force application without discernible shearing or displacement or flow horizontally or perpendicular to the force. Repressing of the sheet subsequent to removal from the forming roll to simultaneously straighten or flatten this cylindrical formed sheet and to impress selected portions thereof to differentially densify and consolidate its mass and thereby effect an internal pervaded design therein was carried out by superimposing upon a surface of the green impressionable sheet a steel die plate 0.032 inch thick provided with cut-outs or voids totaling about 50 percent of the surface area thereof and effecting an overall pattern, or by assembling a plurality of the green asbestos cement sheets with each positioned between such steel plates and a conventional repress screen, and pressing the individual sheet and die plate(s) or assemblage thereof at 2200 p.s.i. for minutes. The resulting density of the induced depressions or valleys of the sheets was about 105 to 110 p.c.f. whereas the density of protuberant elevations or crowns was about 92 to 102 p.c.f. and the difference in the thickness of the sheet between such locations, or in other words the difference between the valleys and crowns was approximately the depth of the steel plate, that is about 0.032 inch. The repressed and differentially densified green sheets were stripped or removed from the designed die plates and repress screens and thereupon steam cured in an autoclave for 20 hours at a steam pressure of 100 p.s.i. The cured sheets were then dried and allowed to reach ambient moisture content or equilibrium and surface sanded to remove the remaining crowns or protuberant elevations remaining from the induced depressions to effect a surface free of elevations or protuberances and comprising a smooth plane. The sanding was continued to remove the surface of the valleys and extend to a point just below the bottom thereof in order to remove surface bloom resulting from the autoclaving. The resulting impressed and sanded surface of the sheets was smooth and free of protuberances with the areas conterminous with the openings of the impressing plate and in turn under the protuberant elevations remaining upon impressing adjacent areas having a density of about 97 p.c.f. and being light in color whereas the areas compressed under the conterminous portions of the die plate or the impressed selected portions induced thereby had a density of about 107 p.c.f.

and were discernibly darker in color. The overall pattern was clearly perceptible and manifested by a decided difference in the intensity of the base color of the sheets providing a pleasing and decorative internal design which could not be wiped or worn away.

Because the visible effects or design produced by this invention and apparent in the products thereof is manifested only in distinctly discernible difierences in the intensity of the base color with the denser areas exhibiting a noticeably darker or intense color or hue than that of the areas of lower density, ancillary coloring pigments or agents are not required to introduce or effect the pattern. However, because of the rather drab natural color of asbestoscement of the like composition it is frequently desirable to incorporate a coloring material such as a pigment of the example throughout the product whereby the same design effects are produced in the base material of a more pleasing or desirable color.

What I claim is:

1. The method of producing decorative, pervaded designs in hydraulic setting calcareous binder and fiber bodies comprising:

(a) impressing selected portions, defining a decorative design, of the surface of an uncured impressionable plastic body comprising a hydraulic setting calcareous binder phase and fiber and thereby permanently differentially densifying and consolidating said body transversely through its mass in the area conterminous to the resulting depressed selected portions;

(b) curing the hydraulic setting calcareous binder phase of the said differentially densified and consolidated body; and,

(c) removing the protuberant elevations remaining from the induced depressions and extending beyond the depressed surface of the said differentially densified and consolidated body and effecting a surface free of protuberances, whereby the induced contrast of unlike intensities of densities of the internal mass of the said differentially densified and consolidated body visually affects the defined design of the said selected portions through its continuous surface.

2. The calcareous binder and fiber body having a decorative, pervaded design produced by the method of claim 1.

3. The method of claim 1, wherein the hydraulic setting calcareous binder comprises Portland cement.

4. The method of claim 3, wherein the fiber is inorganic.

5. The method of claim 1, wherein the hydraulic setting calcareous binder comprises a hydrothermally reactive calcium silicate.

6. The method of claim 5, wherein the fiber is inorganic.

7. The method of producing decorative, pervaded designs in hydraulic setting calcareous binder and fiber bodies comprising:

(a) impressing selected portions, defining a decorative design, of the surface of an uncured impressionable plastic body comprising approximately 20 percent to 85 percent by weight of a hydraulic setting calcareous binder phase and approximately 15 to approximately percent by weight of fiber and thereby permently differentially densifying and consolidating said body transversely through its mass in the area conterminous to the resulting depressed selected portions;

(b) curing the hydraulic setting calcareous binder phase of the said differentially densified and consolidated body; and,

(c) removing the protuberant elevations remaining from the induced depressions and extending beyond the depressed surface of the said differentially densified and consolidated body and effecting a substantially plain surface free of protuberances; whereby induced contrast of unlike intensities of densities of the induced contrast of unlike intensities of densities of the internal mass of the said differentially densified design of the said selected portions through its continuous surface.

8. The method of claim 7, wherein the uncured plastic body comprises approximately 35 to approximately 60 percent by weight of water based upon the weight of the solids.

9. The method of claim 8, wherein the hydraulic setting calcareous binder comprises Portland cement.

10. The method of claim 9, wherein the fiber comprises asbestos.

11. The method of producing decorative pervaded design in hydraulic setting calcareous hinder and fiber bodies comprising:

(a) impressing selected portions defining a decorative design of a surface of an uncured impressionable plastic 'body comprising approximately 30 to approximately '70 percent by weight of Portland cement, approximately 20 to approximately 50 percent by Weight of asbestos fiber, and approximately to approximately 50 percent by weight of silica, and con taining water in amount of approximately 35 to approximately 60 percent by weight of the solids, and thereby permanently differentially densifying and consolidating said body transversely through its mass in the area conterminous to the resulting depressed selected portions;

(b) curing the Portland cement binder phase of the said differentially densified and consolidated body; and,

(c) removing the protuberant elevations remaining from the induced depressions and extending beyond the depressed surface of the said differentially densified and consolidated body and effecting a surface free of protuberances, whereby the induced contrast of unlike intensities of densities of the internal mass of the said differentially densified and consolidated body visually affects the defined design of the said selected portions through its continuous surface.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,274,907 3/1942 Madala 2i64-293 X 2,328,058 8/1943 Crabbs 264-293 2,738,713 3/ -6 Buczkowski 162134 X 3,204,019 8/1965 Schulze 264-333 X EARL M. BERGERT, Primary Examiner.

T. R. SAVOIE, Assistant Examiner.

US. Cl. X.R.

qg ggg UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Pat n N QJR'TJS IEi Dated Aoril 8. 1Q6Q Inventor(s) Osborn Ayers It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:

I Column 3, line 46, "portions" should read --proportions--. I

Column l, line l t, "impresing" should be --impressing. Column 6, line 7 L, cancel entire line beginning with "induced" and ending with "of". Column 7, line 1, after densified" insert the following line --and consolidated body visually affects the defined-- SIGNED AND SEALED FEB 2 4 1970 am AM mm x. mm. m. Aus in; Offiw commissioner of Patents

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2274907 *May 31, 1941Mar 3, 1942Madala Joseph AProcess of making mosaic
US2328058 *Dec 1, 1938Aug 31, 1943Carey Philip Mfg CoManufacture of hydraulic cement products
US2738713 *Sep 18, 1952Mar 20, 1956Keasbey & MattisonMethod and apparatus for making decorated asbestos-cement sheet material
US3204019 *Nov 15, 1962Aug 31, 1965Schulze Herbert CProcess for forming cement and asbestos articles
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4198457 *Feb 7, 1975Apr 15, 1980Yoshino Kogyosho Co., Ltd.Molded article having stereoscopic decorative pattern and fabrication process therefor
US4800054 *Jun 5, 1987Jan 24, 1989Roestenberg Jerome RMethod for shaping a molding compound applied to a surface for modifying the surface
US5037600 *Apr 30, 1990Aug 6, 1991Amsted Industries IncorporatedMethod of applying a polyolefin coating to pipe
US5173233 *Oct 16, 1991Dec 22, 1992Kafarowski Z GrantProcess for forming decorative concrete slabs
US5856661 *Nov 27, 1996Jan 5, 1999Universal Magnifier LlcCredit card with magnifying lens formed with a radiation-curable resin
US6176430Apr 24, 1998Jan 23, 2001Lenscard U.S. LlcMethod for making a wallet card with an integral magnifying lens
US6769618Jan 22, 2001Aug 3, 2004Lenscard U.S., LlcWallet card with a magnifying lens and light
US6817532Jun 11, 2002Nov 16, 2004Lenscard U.S., LlcWallet card with built-in light
US6902116Nov 20, 2002Jun 7, 2005Innovative Card Technologies, Inc.Method for making a financial transaction card with embedded electronic circuitry
US20030226899 *Nov 20, 2002Dec 11, 2003Lenscard U.S., LlcMethod for making a financial transaction card with embedded electronic circuitry
Classifications
U.S. Classification428/409, 428/443, 264/162, 264/320, 156/153
International ClassificationB28B11/08
Cooperative ClassificationB28B11/08
European ClassificationB28B11/08