US 3438151 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 15, 1969 s, EVERS ET AL 3,438,151
OPERATING LINKAGE FOR WINDOWS AND THE LIKE Filed March 17, 1967 Sheet I of 2 FIGZ INVENTORS ROBERT s. EVERS MEARL J MINTER 28 BY 9244M" ATTORNEYS.
April15,1969 R.S.EVER$ ETAL 3,438,151
OPERATING LINKAGE FOR WINDOWS AND THE LIKE Filed March 17, 1967 Sheet 2 of 2 r m 1 I 1 Q I I 1 I 1 1 I I l'\ 5 I I I 1 I I St;- g I g\ I m I x! Q 10\ I I 8 m-\ m g LO I n I no I 1 1 I o 1 I q I I :1 1 1 I 1 5 93 l 1 o I I I 3 I 1 11 I 1 I I v Q\ g;- INVENTORS Q f 3 ROBERT s. EVERS MEARL J. MINTER ATTORNEYS.
United States Patent US. Cl. 49-345 2 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE The improvement in a linkage assembly pivots open and closed a window sash. In the embodiment for casement windows, the top and bottom ends of one side of the sash slidably mounted in horizontal channels situated in the sill and head jamb of the frame. The linkage assembly comprises a pair of interconnected lever arms which are driven by a crank and worm gear assembly in the sill. The linkage assembly drives the sash open by causing the unmounted side of the sash to swing outwardly from the frame as the pivotally mounted side slides in the channels. The improvement is a first catch means mounted on the lever arms and synchronized to engage a second catch means mounted on the sash when the sash is in a nearly closed position. The engaging catches cause the sash to close more tightly and evenly than prior window assemblies of a similar type.
Background of the invention This invention relates to an operating linkage for horizontally or vertically swinging windows and more particularly to an improvement therein of the linkage lever arm assembly.
The advent of the construction of high-rise apartments has necessitated the designing of windows which can be easily washed or repaired from the inside of a building. The design generally incorporated has been some variation of a horizontally swinging sash in a window frame. When opening the sash, one side of the sash slides horizontally in the plane of the window frame as the other side swings outwardly away from the plane of the frame. Thus, when the sash is in the fully opened position, the plane of the sash is substantially in the middle and perpendicular to the plane of the window frame. This results in easy access from the building interior to both sides of the glass in the sash. The swinging sash facilities not only the task of washing the outside of the glass, but also the more difiicult tasks of repairing or replacing glass panes while working from the interior of the building. Furthermore, the sash when in a partially opened position is angled and acts as a vent for flow of air into or out of a room.
In horizontal sashes the linkage used to drive the sash open and closed is generally comprised of a pair of lever arms which act on the sash causing one side to swing outwardly while causing the other side to slide in a horizontal direction. These lever arms interconnect the window sill and the bottom of the sash near one side member of the sash. When closing the sash, the lever members often do not effect an efficient seal between the sash and the frame members especially near the bottom and top center portions of the sash which are not directly driven by the lever arms. Inetfective closing and sealing is especially noticeable in older installations due to play in the linkage mechanism.
Other disadvantages are also apparent with a horizontally opening sash. The operator turning the hand crank which drives the gears and levers that close or open the sash will encounter difficulty in driving the sash ice especially when the sash is just about in the closed position in the window frame. This results from connecting the lever arms to the sash near one of the vertical side members of the sash, which in turn, results in a very short turning moment axis about the hinge connecting the sash to the window frame. The short turning moment is especially apparent when the sash is in a nearly closed position and necessitates greater force on the crank handle gears and lever arms in order to drive and fully close the sash. As more force is required by the operator to close the window, more strain is placed upon the elements in the linkage resulting in greater likelihood of failure in the window linkage.
Summary of the invention In a principle aspect of the present invention, a pair of catch means positioned near the center of the sash are synchronized to engage one another whenever the horizontal sliding sash swings to a nearly closed position. Upon engagment, the catches pull the sash closed more easily than the previous linkage arms.
It is thus an object of this invention to provide an improved operating linkage for horizontally sliding windows.
It is a further object of this invention to provide an improved operating linkage which effects a more efficient seal between a swinging, horizontally mounted sash and a window frame.
Another object of the present invention is to provide an improved linkage which relieves stress and strain on the gears and lever arms in prior art linkage mechanisms when the sash is near the closed position in the window frame.
These and further objects, features, and advantages will become further understood in the detailed description which follows.
Brief description of the drawings FIG. 1 illustrates a front elevation of a sash installed in a window frame;
FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view taken along the line 2-2 as shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a top plan view of the improved linkage with the sash in an opened position;
FIG. 4 is a top plan view of the improved linkage with the sash coming into a nearly closed position; and
FIG. 5 is a top plan view of the improved linkage with the sash in a fully closed position.
Description of the preferred embodiment FIG. 1 shows a window frame, generally at 6, with a sash 8 mounted therein. The frame 6 consists of a sill 10, side jambs 12, and a head jamb 14. The sash 8 is comprised of side sash members 16 with a top sash member 18 and a bottom sash member 20 connecting the side sash members 16 so that the entire sash 8 is in a snug relationship with the frame 6. A pane of glass or other translucent or transparent material 22 is suitably fastened into the opening defined by the sash members. FIG. 1 shows the window frame assembly as it would appear from the inside of a typical room.
Turning the hand crank 24 will cause the sash assembly 8 to pivot outwardly and also slide horizontally at one end. In the fully open position, the pane 22 is substantially perpendicular to the plane of the frame 6. In this position, both sides of the window pane 22 are exposed so that a person may reach from the inside of a room through the frame 6 in order to clean or replace the window pane 22.
Looking at FIG. 2, one can see the detailed construction of a typical sash and frame assembly. The sill 10 has an upper sill plate or block 26 attached thereto. The
3 crank handle 24 is attached to a lug which in turn is attached to gears which drive the window lever arms. The gears are in a housing 28.
Likewise, the head jamb 14 has an attached head jamb plate 27. The sill and head jamb 14 each have a channel member 30 extending longitudinally across the entire width of the window. A lower plate 32, which is part of the hinge assembly which connects the channel 30 to the bottom sash member 20, is positioned to slidably engage the channel 30. The plate 32 is pivotally attached to a hinge member 34 which, in turn, is attached to the lower sash member by suitable fastening means such as a screw. The upper sash member 18 also has a hinging member 33 connected to an upper plate 31 which slidably engages the channel 29. The pane 22 is shown set in grooves made to receive the pane 22. When the sash is in the closed position, as shown in FIG. 2, the sash is sealed against the frame by sealing means 36 which extend around the circumference of the junction between the sash 8 and the frame 6.
FIG. 3 shows the bottom sash member 20 which is attached to the sash hinge member 34. The sash hinge member 34 is, in turn, attached to the channel plate 32 by means of the pivot or pin at 38. The plate 32 slides transversely in the channel in the direction denoted by the arrow as the position of the sash 8 is changed; The plate 32 slides to the right as the sash 8 is closed and to the left as the sash 8 is opened. The top sash member 18 is similarly constructed to allow the sash 8 to slide relative to the frame 6.
The upper sill plate or block 26 is shown cut away so that the gear housing 28 can be observed. The housing 28 is partially cut away so that the position of the gears 48 can be shown. The crank handle (not shown in FIG. 3) is attached to the handle lug or fitting 50. Turning the handle causes the gears 48 to mesh and drive the first lever linkage arm 40. This arm is connected to a second lever linkage arm 42 at a pivot point 43. The second lever arm 42 is, in turn, connected to the bottom sash member 20 by means of a connecting plate 44 fastened to the bottom sash member 20 at the pivot point 45. Rotating the crank handle at the handle fitting in the direction denoted by the arrow will cause the sash 8 to slide in the channels 29 and 30 and swing as denoted by the arrows to an open position. Rotating the handle in the opposite direction causes the sash 8 to close.
To position the sash 8 in an opened position so that it swings outwardly until it is perpendicular to the frame 6 when in the fully opened position, a guide and support member 52 is connected to the bottom sash member 20 at a sash pivot point 56 near the middle of the bottom sash member 20. The support member 52 is connected at its other end to the sill 10 at a pivot point 54 near the gear housing 28. The support member 52 provides a secondary axis about the sash pivot point 56 about which the sash 8 can rotate or swing to a fully opened position.
The invention consists of a pair of catch members synchronized to engage each other when the sash 8 is in a nearly closed position. The first catch 58 extends from the first linkage arm 40 and the second catch 60 extends from the bottom sash member 20 so that they will intersect and engage one another when the sash 8 is nearly closed. Preferably the second catch 60 is part of the inside sash plate 46 of the connecting plate 44. A single metal plate (the combination of the second catch 60, the inside sash plate 46 and the connecting plate 44) adds stability and strength to the sash member 20 and also eliminates an extra step in the manufacturing process, i.e., measuring and positioning the second catch 60 in relation to the first catch 58. Thus, accurate positioning of the catches 58 and 60 i inherently obtained by stamping or fabricating them as part of the linkage assembly parts. Finally, when the second extension 60 is made an extension of the inside sash plate 46, it can more easily be fastened to the bottom sash member 20 by fastening means such as screws or the like so that it will be in the same plane and otherwise properly positioned relative to extension 58.
While in FIG. 3 the sash assembly is shown in an opened position, FIG. 4 shows the sash assembly drawn into a nearly closed position in the direction denoted by the arrow. The hinge plate 32 has moved in the channel 30, as denoted by the arrow, to accommodate the change in position of the sash 8. In the nearly closed position, the first catch 58 has just made contact with the second catch 60. In FIG. 3, the lever arms 40 and 42 are driving the sash to a closed position through the pivot point 45 about an axis through the hinge pivot 38. However, in FIG. 4 the lever arm 40 is coupled through a pivot point which is the intersection of the second catch and the guiding cam surface 59 of the first catch 58. Thus the lever arm 40 in FIG. 4 drives the sash closed about the hinge pivot 38.
The distance between the hinge pivot 38 and the point of intersection on the guiding cam surface 59 between the extensions of catches 58 and 60 is much greater than the distance between the hinge pivot 38 and the plate pivot 45. The greater distance or longer axis in the improved device results in a mechanical advantage for driving the sash which is greater than available in previous devices. Such -a mechanical advantage is especially desirable in the nearly closed or nearly opened position of the sash since at these positions movement of the sash by turning the crank is especially difiicult.
In FIG. 5, the lever arms 40 and 42 have been extended into a straight position. The lever arms 4!) and 42 tend to stay in a straight position due to the interaction of the engaged catches 58 and 60. To reopen the sash, the handle is turned to activate the lever arms. A contact point 62 on the first linkage lever 40 presses against the second catch 60 thereby causing a pushing force on the sash 8. The effective lever arm acting on the sash to open it extends from the contact point 62 through the hinge pivot 38. Prior to the disclosed improvement, linkage devices were constructed so that the only force tending to open the sash was that transmitted through the pivot 45 to the connecting plate 44 and thence to the sash thereby making the effective lever arm the distance from the pivot 45 to the hinge pivot 38. The amount of force required to turn the sash 8 about a torque axis through the hinge pivot 38 is greater when the force is to be applied through the connecting plate pivot 45 rather than through the second catch 60 at a point opposite the contact point 62. Therefore, it is clear that this device makes it not only easier to lock and close a sash but also easier to open the sash once it has been closed.
It is to be understood that this invention is not limited to the specific embodiment of a horizontally swinging sash depicted in the drawing and specification; rather, it is intended that all equivalents, including the application of the present invention to a vertically swinging sash, and others obvious to those skilled in the art be included within the scope of this invention, as claimed.
What is claimed is:
1. In a window frame which includes a sill, a head jamb and connecting side jambs; a sash within said frame, said sash including a top, a bottom and opposite side sash members, said top and bottom sash members each including mounting plates slidably mounted in channels in the head jamb and sill respectively; and an operating linkage for driving the sash from a closed position in said frame to an open position, said linkage including at least one guide and support member, said support member pivotally attached at one end to said sill and at its opposite end to the mid-portion of said bottom sash member, said linkage also including a driven first lever linkage arm pivotally driven at one end from a sill mounting intermediate said side jambs and connected at its opposite end to one end of a second lever arm, said second lever arm having its opposite end pivotally connected to said bottom sash member adjacent one of said side sash members, the
5 6 improvement comprising in combination: References Cited first and second interlocking catch members attached UNITED STATES PATENTS respectively to said first lever linkage arm and sald bottom sash member, said catch members adapted 2,492,508 12/1949 Tracy 49' 324 to engage when said sashis in a nearly closed posi- 5 2,525,738 10/1950 T'racy 49-345 tion, said first catch member being positioned on 2,324,735 2/1958 Stavenau et aL 49-424 said first linkage arm intermediate the pivotal connection between said linkage arms and said sill and DAVID WILLIAMOWSKY Pr'mm'y Exammer' extending toward said sash when said sash is in a I. K. BELL, Assistant Examiner. nearly closed position. 10 2. The improvement of claim 1 wherein said first catch U.S. Cl. X.R. member provides a camming surface to engage said sec- 49-324 and catch member and guide said second member into and out of engagement with said first member.