US 3439088 A
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United States Patent Ofice 3,439,088 Patented Apr. 15, 1969 Int. Cl. A61k 7/02 US. Cl. 42463 9 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A hydrocarbon solvent having at least 85 wt. percent isoparaffins and having a boiling range of about 360 F. to 428 F. in combination with cosmetic powders and waxes produce a high quality facial cosmetic composition. The function of a hydrocarbon solvent in a cosmetic composition is to aid in the application of powders and waxes to desired areas of the skin. The solvent then evaporates leaving the cosmetic ingredients on the face in the desired amounts. Heretofore, solvents used for this pur pose had unwanted odors and did not evaporate in a reasonable length of time. The solvent of this invention is superior to those previously known in that it is odorless, non-iritating and evaporates quickly upon application.
The present invention is concerned with high quality cosmetic compositions and is particularly concerned with the use of particular hydrocarbon solvents for the preparation of these cosmetic compositions. The invention is particularly concerned with facial cosmetic formulations which contain a major quantity of a hydrocarbon solvent having a very high concentration of isoparafiinic constituents. The solvent used in accordance with the present invention is characterized by being completely odorless, non-irritant and non-greasy, and by having a gradual rate of evaporation. These properties make it eminently hypoallergenic and advantageous in cosmetics for application on live skin.
It is well known in the art to prepare various cosmetic compositions using various types of solvents. Some of these solvents function to aid the application of the desired constituents and then evaporate, leaving the desired active ingredient on the hair or face, as the case may be. One difficulty of the solvents hitherto used is that many of them are not odorless, which detracts from their use. Or if they are odorless, they do not evaporate in a reasonable time. The highly isoparafiinic solvent of the present invention has a relatively narrow and critical boiling range and is highly purified, which renders it particularly adapted for cosmetic formulations.
It has now also been discovered that if a highly refined and highly isoparafiinic solvent be used having a particular boiling range, unexpected desirable results are secured. The solvent is of the type which has at least 85% isoparaffins, preferably in excess of 95%, and most preferably at least 99% by weight of isoparafiins. The preferred compositions are those isoparafiinic hydrocarbon corn positions wherein the contents of unsaturated hydrocarbons, such as aromatics and olefins are less than about 1%, and more preferably less than 0.1% by weight and the contents of cyclo and normal paraffins are less than 10%, and preferably less than about by weight. The preferred compositions are those wherein the total concentrations of non-hydrocarbon impurities such as peroxides, acids, carbonyls, alcohols or other oxygenated compounds are present below about 0.01% by weight, and preferably below 0.001% by weight. In ultimate analysis, the contents of all other elements, particularly S, N and Cl. must be less than 0.0005 by weight.
These highly isoparaffinic compositions may be secured by distilling an alkylate, which is made by reaction between isobutane and an olefin of 3 to 5 carbon atoms, to secure the desired boiling range. The desired cut may be hydrofined and then treated with caustic and adsorbents such as silica gel, alumina, activated char or zeolite to secure the desired purity. These highly isoparaffinic, highly purified fractions may also be secured by the hydrogenation of unsaturated branched olefins of the appropriate boiling range. Isoparaflins constituting this solvent include chiefly tetramethyl hexanes, tetramethyl heptanes and tetramethyl octanes, such as 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl hexane, 2,3,3,5-tetramethyl heptane and 2,2,4,6- tetramethyl octane.
The boiling range of the solvent of the present invention is such that the initial boiling point is higher than about 365 F. and the dry point lower than 428 F., preferably in the range from about 370 to 418 F., and most preferably 374 to 410 F., by ASTM Method D 1078. It is essential that the highly isoparafiinic solvent have an initial boiling point in the range between 360 and 380 F.
The following inspections are typical for this isoparaffinic solvent.
Table I Solvency: Solvent Aniline point, F. (ASTM D-611) 187 Kauri butanol value 26.9 Solubility parameter 1 7.3 Composition, wt. percent:
C isoparaffins 19 C isoparaffins 62 C isoparaffins l9 rr-Paraffins and cycloparafiins 4.6 Aromatics 0.2 Olefins 0.2 Average molecular weight 165 Volatility:
Flash point, F. (ASTM D-56) 144 Vapor pressure 100 F., p.s.i.a. 0.2 Distillation, F. (ASTM D1078):
Initial boiling point 372 5% distilled a-t 374 10% distilled at 375 50% distilled at 379 distilled at 392 distilled at 399 Dry point 406 General:
Specific gravity, 60/60 F. 0.767 Viscosity, centipoise 25 C. 1.541 Refractive index 20 C. 1.4274 Copper corrosion, /2 hr. BP 2 Bromine index (ASTM D-1491) Color, Saybolt +30 Ofiieial Digest of Federation of Societies for Paint Technology, page 726, October 1955.
In the absence of a solute, it tends to evaporate more quickly than mineral spirits of comparable boiling range that are derived from natural petroleum naphtha, as shown by the following data:
TABLE II Minutes elapsed at 25 C. for- Percent evaporated Isoparaflinic Petroleum mineral solvent of 372 to spirits of 361 to 409 F. range 409 F. range ltssurfacetension in air at 25 C. is about 23 dynes/cm,
which is quite low; and its interfacial tension with water at 25 C. is about 49 dynes/cm., which i quite high. These properties make it exceptionally valuable in cosmetic formulations for spreadability. There are no solvents or vehicles available to the cosmetic formulator which have these characteristics. In addition to being odorless and non-irritating, making it safe to use, the viscosity, the non-greasy feel, and the evaporation rate make it particularly distinctive. Other vehicles, such as ethyl and isopropyl alcohol, have a similar viscosity, but evaporate much too quickly for some applications and also have a high odor value. Vehicles such as the fatty acid esters of isopropyl alcohol also have a low odor value and low viscosity, but will never evaporate in any reasonable length of time. In the present invention, these properties confer a distinct advantage to cosmetic face makeup products. They do not leave the skin oily and shiny, but evaporate off leaving the skin with a natural looking matte finish. The solvent evaporates slowly enough so that there is time for the user to be able to evenly distribute the make-up to her face.
The present invention is concerned with a novel cosmetic formulation which, in essence, comprises the highly isoparafiinic solvent described above, a dry powder and a wax. The amount of isoparafiinic solvent present is in the range from about 50-70% by weight, preferably in the range from 55-65% by weight. The amount of dry powder present is in the range from about 15-40% by weight, preferably in the range from about 25-35% by weight. The dry powder is preferably a mixture of talc and titanium dioxide, but other powders, such as zinc oxide, calcium carbonate, kaolin and colloidal silica may be used.
The amount of wax present is in the range from about 4-15% by weight, preferably about 8% by weight. A preferred wax is carnauba wax. Other waxes, such as beeswax, ceresin, ozokerite, microcrystalline wax, parafiin wax, and spermaceti and the like may be used. Other materials may be used in conjunction with the basic composition, such as up to 10% of lanolin, up to 10% of colored pigment or dye and a perfume up to 0.5% by weight.
A number of formulations were prepared having the following compositions:
Table III 'WAX R O U G E Ingredients: Parts by wt. Solvent: Mixed isoparaffins (3704l0 F.) 65.7
Carnauba wax 8.8 Lanolin 4.0 California talc 6.0 Titanium dioxide 12.0 Lake Color, DC Red No. 30 3.0
Perfume, pts. by vol. 0.5
FOUNDATION MAKE-UP d t Formulation In e ients w ercent;
P D E F Solvent:
Mixed isoparaffins (370-410" F.),
solvent X 54. 53. Isopropyl myl'i tote 63.5 Solute:
Carnauba wax 7. 0 5. 0 5. 0 Lanolin 3.0 Beeswax 1.0 1.0 Solids: Dry powder 35. 5 40. 0 40. 0 Perfume 0. 5 0. 5 0. 5
The dry powder contains the following ingredients in wt. percent:
Talc 43.9 Colloidal clay 18.7 Chalk 24.95 Titanium dioxide 9.95 Color mix (blended to desired shade) 2.5
Three comparable formulations, A, B and C, of wax rouge were prepared with 33.8 parts by weight of total solute and 0.5 part by volume of perfume as in the wax rouge shown in Table III, and with 67.5 parts by weight of three different solvents as shown in Table IV.
Formulation C is a standard reference according to the prior art. Formulation B has solvent X replacing the isopropyl myristate of the standard reference. Formulation A has solvent X, isoparafiinic solvent (370-410 F.) as the sole solvent. The three formulations were tested on womens faces.
Formulation C gave the oiliest film, which was objectionably shiny. Formulations B and C rubbed off easily. Formulation A, made in accordance with the present invention, was creamier and therefore applied moreeasily than B or C. Formulation A developed a desirably dul or matte finish and was not easily rubbed off.
In Table III, Formulation F is a standard reference foundation make-up according to the prior art. Formulation E applied as smoothly and as easily as F, but was a little chalkier on the skin. Formulation D, containing no beeswax, was subjected to half-face tests by a fivemember panel of women in direct comparison with three widely advertised commercial brands of make-up. Three of the five panel members preferred FormulationD, because it was not greasy and left a more natural matte finish. The only objection the other two panel members had to Formulation D was that it didnt spread easily; but the fact that it went on sparingly was considered a positive advantage by one of the other three panel members. All five panel members thought it necessary to use powder on the half-faces with the commercial brands of make-up because they were shiny; but none of the five panel members thought it necessary to use powder on the half-faces with Formulation D.
The present invention is a composition of matter suitable for use as a facial cosmetic and comprising a major proportion of a predominantly isoparaffinic hydrocarbon solvent boiling in the range of 360-428 F a minor proportion of 5 to 15% of organic binder selected from the class of waxes and fats, and a minor proportion of 10 to 43% of inorganic powder selected from the class of fillers and pigments.
What is claimed is:
1. Cosmetic composition which comprises in combination from about 50 to by weight of a hydrocarbon solvent, from about 15 to 40% by weight of a powder and 4 to 15% by weight of a wax, said solvent being characterized by boiling in the range from about 360 to 428 F. and being further characterized by having an isoparaffin concentration greater than about by weight.
2. Composition as defined by claim 1 wherein the isoparaffinic content of said solvent is greater than about by weight and wherein the unsaturated content of said solvent is less than about 1% by weight.
3, Composition as defined by claim 1 wherein said powder is selected from the class of fillers and pigments and wherein said wax is a hydrocarbon wax.
4. Composition as defined by claim 1 wherein the isoparafiinic content of said solvent is greater than about 99% by weight, wherein the unsaturated content is below about 0.1% by weight and wherein the initial boiling point of said solvent is in the range from about 360 to 380 F.
5. Composition as defined by claim 3 wherein said powder is selected from the class consisting of talc, colloidal clay, chalk and titanium dioxide.
6. Composition as defined by claim 5 wherein said wax is a carnauba wax.
7. Composition as defined by claim 6 wherein from about 2 to by weight of lanolin is utilized in said composition.
8. The composition as defined by claim 1 wherein the isoparaflinic content of said solvent is greater than about 99% by weight, wherein the unsaturated content is below about 0.1% by weight and wherein the initial boiling point of said solvent is in the range from about 360 to 380 F.; the powder is selected from the class consisting of talc, colloidal clay, chalk and titanium dioxide; and the wax is carnauba wax.
9. A water-free cosmetic composition which comprises in combination from about to by weight of a hydrocarbon solvent, from about 15 to 40% by weight References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,211,618 10/ 1965 Karnbersky 167-90 FOREIGN PATENTS 1,134,797 8/ 1962 Germany.
OTHER REFERENCES Larson et al., Official Digest, January 1954, pp. 45-48 (photocopy in 167-85), (copy of above in Group Sagarin, Cosmetics Science and Technology, September 1957, PP. 262-270 (p. 263 relied upon), TP 983 S25c. (Copy in Group 120.)
ALBERT T. MEYERS, Primary Examiner.
D. R. MA-HANAND, Assistant Examiner.
U.S. Cl. X.R.