US 3439459 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
W. J. SILBERKUHL CONSTRUCTION ELEMENT April 22, 1969 Sheet Filed Nov. 28. 1966 1 V5 7' 0 W/LHELM JOIMNIVES SILBEPKWI ATTORNEY April 22, 1969 w. J. SILBERKUHL. 3,439,459
I CONSTRUCTION ELEMENT Filed Nov. 23, 1966 Sheet 3 INVENTOR W/L HELM JOHAMVES .s/ussmrw/L Sheet 4 of s MVES .SILBERKUHL 8) g aw ATTORNEY p 2, 1969 w. J. SILB ERKUHL.
CONSTRUCTION ELEMENT Filed Nov. 23, 1965 April 22, 1969 W. SILBERKUHL CONSTRUCTION ELEMENT Filed Nov. 28, L966 K r TD A rrams Y United States Patent Office 3,439,459 Patented Apr. 22, 1969 US. Cl. 52-18 16 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE The invention provides, as a stress-resistant construction element for walls, ceiling and the like, a general rectangular panel of pleated sheet metal or other rigid sheet material whose pleats define a central gable portion in the for'm of a three-sided pyramid or, preferably, a pair of such gable portions with confronting bases; each base has the shape of an isosceles triangle Whose vertex forms a peak rising from the plane of a pair of mutually coplanar Webs consisting integral lateral extensions of the two flanges of a gable portion. The planes of the webs of a symmetrically pleated panel may include an obtuse angle with each other. Furthermore, a tubular reinforcing rib may extend along the longitudinal median of the panel or each half thereof, thus from the top of the respective pyramid to the vertex of its base, and may be integrally formed with the adjoining webs and gable portion from a flat strip of sheet material.
My present invention relates to a construction element adapted to be used as a stress-resistant broad-surface part of a building or similar structure, e.g., along the walls and/ or the roof thereof.
The general object of my invention is to provide a construction element of this character which resists compressive and tensile stresses in at least two dimensions, is stable against bending and buckling, and is of low weight even if made of steel or other metal.
Another object of this invention is to provide a construction element of the type referred to which can be easily and cheaply manufactured from sheet metal or other rigid sheet material (e.g., plastics).
It is also an object of the present invention to provide a construction element of this type which can be further strengthened, and/or anchored to other parts of a structure, by reinforcing or prestressing members readily securable thereto.
These objects are realized, in conformity with the invention, by the provision of a pleated panel of generally rectangular outline whose pleats, diverging from the midpoint of either or both minor sides of the rectangle, define at least one gable portion or preferably a pair of gable portions each in the form of a three-sided pyramid with a base shaped as an isosceles triangle. The vertex of the triangle forms a peak rising from the plane of a pair of mutually coplanar webs constituting integral lateral extensions of the gable portion and complementing the latter to provide the rectangular outline. In the presence of two symmetrically disposed gable portions the vertices of their bases, lying in or close to the transverse midplane of the rectangular outline, meet in a common peak. Such pleated panels will not readily buckle or bend even when subjected to considerable stress; the unit, therefore, will serve as a true construction element as distinct from paneling of a merely ornamental character.
The two halves of a symmetrically pleated panel, each with its own gable portion, may be mutually inclined so that the planes of their respective web pairs include an obtuse angle with each other. This relative inclination may be so pronounced that, in building construction, one half of a panel may form part of a wall while the other half may be an element of a sloping roof. It is, however, also possible to make the two halves nearly or completely coplanar and to mount them On a frame structure of a building wall or roof. Particularly in the latter instance it will be convenient to separate the two halves and to interconnect them by a beam or other member of the framework extending transversely between them.
My improved panel may be further rigidified by the provision thereon of an integral tubular ribextending along the longitudinal median of the rectangle, preferably on the convex side of the table portions. This rib may be so shaped, with its depth progressively increasing from the peak of the panel toward the origin of the diverging pleats, that its perimeter var-ies inversely with the combined width of the lateral webs and of the triangular flanks of the adjoining gable portion or portions so that the entire structure, when flattened, forms a planar strip of sheet material. Thus, the panel may be shaped integrally from a flat strip by a simple folding operation which in a symmetrical unit is further facilitated by the presence of a central hole at the point where the peak comes to lie; this hole may be the site of reinforcement or anchor means by which the panel is secured to some other part of the structure. Naturally, the term peak is to be understood in a relative sense since the location of this point in the final structure may be above, below or to the side of the planes of the web pairs.
If desired, the panel or parts thereof (particularly when of sheet metal) may be coated on either or each side with a layer of softer material, preferably foam plastic, serving as a resilient padding and/ or as a sound-absorbing covering. In this case it will be advantageous to perforate the panel and to allow the padding material to penetrate the perforations so that each layer will be firmly anchored to its supporting sheet. These perforations, of course, may also serve for the passage of rivets or other fastening means.
The invention will be described in greater detail with reference to the accompanying drawing in which:
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a panel embodying the invention;
FIG. 2 is a plan view, seen from above, of the panel shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is an end view of the panel shown in FIGS. 1 and 2;
FIG. 4 is a side view of the same panel;
FIG. 5 is a view similar to FIG. 1 showing a split construction element according to the invention;
FIG. 6 is an end-elevational View of a vault structure composed of an assembly of panels similar to those shown in FIGS. 1-4;
FIGS. 7, 8 and 9 are detail views illustrating different rib configurations for such panel;
FIG. 10 is a face view of a sheet-metal blank adapted for the formation of a pleated panel as shown in FIGS. 1-4;
FIG. 11 is a fragmentary cross-sectional view of a modification of the element shown in FIGS. 1-4;
FIG. 12 is an enlarged sectional detail view taken on the line XIIXII of FIG. 11;
FIG. 13 is a perspective view of part of a vault structure incorporating several arrays of elements of the type shown in FIG. 5; and
FIG. 14 is a perspective view of part of an alternate vault structure generally similar to that shown in FIG. 6.
In FIGS. l-4 I have shown a construction element 1, of rectangular outline, divided into two identical halves 1a and 1b. Each half is formed with .a pair of pleats 5 diverging from the midpoint of the respective minor side 2a, 2b of the rectangle toward the transverse mid plane P (FIG. 4) of the unit, the pleats terminating at the midpoints of the major sides. The two pleats 5 define, together with a fold line 3 in the longitudinal median plane of the element 1, a pair of triangular pyramids with isosceles bases B (FIG. 3) confronting each other across the midplane P. One side of each pyramid as well as its base is open; the other two sides 12, bounded by lines 3 and 5, are solid and integral with respective pairs of coplanar lateral webs 8 of sheet metal or other rigid sheet material, thus forming a gable-shaped extension of these webs. In the region of plane P, the two halves Ila, 1b are integrally interconnected by a trough-shaped strip 9. At the bottom of the trough 9, the rectangular panel has a hole at a point which, though shown underneath the planes P, P" (FIG. 4) defined by the two pairs of lateral webs 8, may be referred to as the peak of the unit; this peak is constituted by the adjoining vertices of the two isosceles triangles forming the bases B of the aforementioned pyramids.
Trough 9 and hole 10 may be used to accommodate reinforcement and/ or anchor means, such as a bar 4 and a stirrup 4 as indicated diagrammatically in FIGS. 1 and 4.
A tubular reinforcing rib 6, extending longitudinally over the convex side of the element along its fold line 3, is integrally formed with the sheet portions 12, its depth and cross-section progressively increasing from the peak at 10 outwardly to the midpoints of sides 2a, 2b. This progressive increase in depth is designed to compensate for the similarly increasing shear stresses sustained by the element 1 when the latter is placed as a slab on two piers supporting it at its minor sides. The rib 6 bears endwise upon marginal end flanges 7a, 7 b which, together with lateral flanges 7, are integrally formed with the webs 8 on both the major and the minor sides of the rectangle.
As most clearly shown in FIG. 4, the planes P and P" of the webs are inclined at an obtuse angle to each other. This angle (here about 165") is so chosen that, as best seen in FIG. 3, the level of the minor sides 2a, 2b of the rectangle substantially bisects the altitude of the triangular base B of each of the two pyramids.
In FIG. 10 I have illustrated a blank 1 of sheet metal divided into zones 6, 7, 8', 9 and 12' which correspond to the portions 6, 7, 8, 9 and 12 of the unit shown in FIGS. 1-4, said portions being derived from these zones by a simple bending and folding operation. The presence of hole :10 in blank 1' facilitates this operation which brings the two crease lines 3' together to form the fold line 3. It will be noted that the width of section 6' varies inversely with the combined width of sections 8 and 12' in longitudinal direction of the rectangle. If desired, the structure may be rigidified by soldering, welding, riveting etc. along lines 3' and/or at the junction of the ends of tubular rib 6 with the adjoining flanges 7a, 7b.
In FIGS. 7, 8 and 9 I have illustrated various profiles 6, 6a, 6b which the longitudinal rib may be given. In each case a seam S may be formed by the means just described to solidify the structure.
In FIG. 5 I have illustrated a similar construction element whose two halves 1a, 1b are shown separated and formed with confronting flanges 70. As illustrated in FIG. 13, in which elements of this type are shown mounted on a framework of uprights 15, longitudinal girders 116 and cross-beams 18, steel beams 16' and 18' forming part of that framework may be inserted between the confronting halves of the vertical and horizontal panels 1, respectively, to which they may be attached by bolts, rivets or other fastening means passing through the confronting flanges 70 (FIG. 5). The vault structure constituted by the panels 1 and the steel framework in FIG. 13 rest on a foundation 17 to which it may be anchored by conventional means not further illustrated.
In an alternate vault structure, illustrated in FIGS. 6 and 14, the framework is omitted and the walls are formed by panel halves 1a while the other panel halves 1b define a sloping roof. Prestressed cables indicated diagrammatically at 22 may pass through the tubular ribs 6 to hold the structure together at joints 19, 20 and to help anchor it to the ground or to a foundation such as the one shown at 17 in FIG. 13. The panel sections 1a, 117 may be welded or otherwise interconnected along their longitudinal and transverse flanges 7, 7a etc. Also, as illustrated in FIG. 14, rigid pipes 21 rising from the foundation may be stuck into the lower ends of the ribs 6 of the vertical panel halves 1a as additional anchor means. In the structure of FIG. 14, contrary to that of FIG. 6, adjoining panel sections 1a and 1b are relatively reversed so that the pyramidal gable portions of upright sections 1a project inwardly while those of roof sections 1b protrude outwardly. Owing to a suitable mitering of their triangular bases, these relatively inverted gable portions still meet in a common peak 0 which, however, is somewhat offset from the transverse midplane bisecting the obtuse angle at joint 20.
Finally, I have shown in FIGS. 11 and 12 how the sheetmetal potrions 8 and 1'2 of the panel can be coated with foam plastic or the like forming layers 11a, 11b on opposite sides thereof. The sheet-metal panes 8 and 12 are formed with perforations 13 permeated by the foam plastic. These perforations, as illustrated in FIG. 12, can be surrounded by annular edges 14 which alternately face in opposite directions and which, accordingly, may act as abutments for form boards F used in the molding and foaming of the plastic layers. The interior of rib 6 may also be filled, if desired, with plastic material 110, as shown in FIG. 11.
1. A vault structure comprising a framework and, supported thereon, an assembly of closely adjoining construction elements forming a roof and walls of the vault, each of said elements comprising a generally rectangular panel of rigid sheet material with at least one pyramidal gable portion joined to a pair of lateral coplanar webs by a pair of divergent pleats extending from the midpoint of a minor side of the rectange over at least half its length, said gable portion having a base in the form of an isosceles triangle whose vertex defines a peak rising from the plane of said pair of webs, said panel being symmetrically divided into two halves along a transverse plane through said peak, each of said halves including a respective gable portion where divergent pleats terminate at the midpoints of the major sides of the rectangle, said halves being separate bodies interconnected along confronting transverse flanges, said framework including at least one member extending transversely between the confronting flanges of several of said elements and rigidly joined to said flanges.
2. A structure as defined in claim 1 wherein the webs of said halves lie in two planes meeting at an obtuse angle.
3. A vault structure comprising two rows of closely adjoining construction elements as defined in claim 2, the elements of each row having one set of halves defining an upstanding wall and another set of halves defining a sloping roof portion, the elements of said rows being joined together along a ridge formed by the two sloping roof portions constituted by said other set of halves of each row.
4. A construction element as defined in claim 2 wherein the midpoints of the major sides of the rectangle are disposed on the side opposite said peak with reference to the plane of the minor sides and are substantially at the same distance as said peak from the last-mentioned plane.
5. A construction element as defined in claim 2 wherein said panel is formed with a transverse trough at the junction of said halves.
6. A construction element as defined in claim 5 wherein said panel has a hole at said peak midway in Said trough.
7. A construction element comprising a generally rectangular panel of rigid sheet material with at least one pyramidal gable portion joined to a pair of lateral coplanar Webs by a pair of divergent pleats extending from the midpoint of a minor side of the rectangle over at least half its length, said gable portion having a base in the form of an isosceles triangle whose vertex defines a peak rising from the plane of said pair of webs, said panel being integrally formed with a tubular rib extending on one surface thereof along the longitudinal median of the rectangle.
8. A construction element as defined in claim 7 wherein said rib passes through said peak on the convex side of said gable portion and progressively increases in depth from said peak to the origin of said divergent pleats, said rib and said gable portion being flattenable into a planar strip including said webs.
9. A construction element as defined in claim 7 wherein said rib is filled with a solid mass.
10. A construction element as defined in claim 7 Wherein said rib is formed as a fold of said gable portions.
11. A construction element as defined in claim 7 further comprising prestressing means passing longitudinally through said rib.
12, A vault structure comprising a wall-forming array of closely adjoining construction elements as defined in claim 7, the ribs of said elements rising substantially vertically from a foundation, and anchor means extending from said foundation into said ribs.
13. A construction element as defined in claim 7 wherein said panel is formed with peripheral flanges at least along the minor sides of the rectangle, said rib bearing endwise against said flanges.
14. A construction element as defined in claim 7 wherein said panel is sandwiched between two layers of relative- 1y soft material and is provided with perforations penetrated by the material of said layers.
15. A construction element comprising a generally rectangular panel of rigid sheet material with at least one pyramidal gable portion joined to a pair of lateral coplanar webs by a pair of divergent pleats extending from the midpoint of a minor side of the rectangle over at least half its length, said gable portion having a base in the form of an isosceles triangle whose vertex defines a peak rising from the plane of said pair of webs, said panel being sandwiched between two layers of relatively soft material and is provided with perforations penetrated by the material of said layers, said panel having integral annular edges surrounding said perforations and extending alternately outwardly to the surfaces of said layers.
16. A construction element as defined in claim 15 wherein said relatively soft material is a foam plastic.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,137,922 6/ 1964 Schumacher 52-630 X 3,143,194 8/1964 Hart 52-574 X 3,186,524 6/1965 Spaeth 52-86 3,239,982 3/1966 Nicosia 52-309 3,357,146 12/1967 Cartrell 52-309 FOREIGN PATENTS 221,254 1/1959 Australia.
FRANK L. ABBOTT, Primary Examiner. PRICE C. FAW, Assistant Examiner.
US. Cl. X.R.