|Publication number||US3440777 A|
|Publication date||Apr 29, 1969|
|Filing date||Dec 8, 1967|
|Priority date||Dec 8, 1967|
|Also published as||CA978717A, CA978717A1|
|Publication number||US 3440777 A, US 3440777A, US-A-3440777, US3440777 A, US3440777A|
|Inventors||Otis M Martin|
|Original Assignee||Kough John K, Otis M Martin, Silas N Miller|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (25), Classifications (10), Legal Events (2)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent 3,440,776 AIR DELIVERY APPARATUS FOR AIR SUPPORTED STRUCTURES Donate M. Fraioli, 15 Rowland Ava, Clifton, NJ. 07109 Filed Nov. 2, 1967, Ser. No. 680,212 Int. Cl. E04b 1/34; F16] 5/00 US. Cl. 52-2 6 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE through the fabric tube is terminated.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Field of the invention The present invention relates to air supported structures of the type formed of a shell of flexible sheet material supported by above atmospheric pressure within the structure wherein the pressurizing air is delivered to the interior of the structure through a tube of flexible material.
Description of the prior art Air supported structures of the foregoing type are generally made in the form of hemispheres, or horizontally oriented semi-cylinders, or a combination of these shapes. The walls of such structures are generally vertical where they meet the ground and arch upwardly and inwardly from there. Structures of this type are normally inflated by means of an electrically driven blower positioned on the ground outside of the structure and connected to the structure through an air delivery tube. Two blowers and air delivery tubes are normally provided. Both of these are used to initially inflate the structure and to maintain the pressure in the building during periods when the doors of the building are in use. When the doors of the building are locked, for example during the night, one blower is used to maintain the internal pressure while the second serves as a standby in case of trouble.
In the earlier structures, the air delivery tube was normally of light gauge metal and was positioned parallel with the ground so that it entered an opening in the lower portion of the structure and the air flow was directed along the ground within the structure. This arrangement was found to be unsatisfactory. The drafts created caused discomfort to personnel working in the structure and care had to be taken not to block the opening when storing goods within the structure.
It then became become practice to extend the air delivery tube upwardly at angle of about 45 degrees with the horizontal so that the air entered the structure at a higher portion thereof and was directed toward the ceiling of the structure. This arrangement requires the use of a longer delivery tube which must be supported at one end by the fabric shell of the structure. Because of the weight factor, it became common practice to use fabric air delivery tubes.
The fabric used for the delivery tubes was the same as that used for the shell of the structure, that is, nylon coated with a plastic such as vinyl resin or neoprene. Although the structures had a useful life of ten years or more, the air delivery tubes deteriorated in one year.
3 ,440,776 Patented Apr. 29, 1969 Another disadvantage of air delivery apparatus used in the past was that air within the structure could flow out through a non-operating blower unless manually operated doors at the outlet of the blowers were closed. In the past, it had been found that the need for closing these manually operated doors Wes frequently forgotten when locking the building for the night. As a result the air within the building would rush out through the non-operating blower at a rate greater than could be handled by the one operating blower. Thus, in the morning the building would be completely deflated.
The manually operated blower doors have still another disadvantage. In the event an electrical power interruption occurred, causing the blowers to stop functioning, the air in the building would rush out through the now non-opcrating blowers and allow the structure to collapse in a very short time. Even if personnel were on hand to close the blower doors, a great deal of the internal pressure would be lost before this operation could be completed, and the building could collapse before repairs could be made or an auxiliary power source could be brought into operation.
Still another disadvantage of air delivery apparatus used in the past was that the air inlet openings were completely unobstructed and rubbish such as coffee containers and soda cans were frequently tossed into these openings. This rubbish rolled down the air delivery tube into the blower and in time interferred with or prevented operation of the blower.
SUMMARY Accordingly, an object of the present invention is to provide air delivery apparatus for air supported structures which is not subject to the foregoing difficulty.
Another object is to provide such apparatus which extends the useful life of a fabric air delivery tube.
Another object is to provide such apparatus which minimizes air loss from the structure.
Another object is to provide such apparatus which is protected against clogging and damage.
Another object is to provide such apparatus which directs a quite diffused flow of air into the structure.
Other and further objects of the invention will be obvious upon an understanding of the illustrative embodiment about to be described, or will be indicated in the appended claims, and various advantages not referred to herein will occur to one skilled in the art upon employment of the invention in practice.
In accordance with the present invention the foregoing objects are generally accomplished by providing improved air delivery apparatus for an air supported structure including a generally arcuate shell formed of flexible sheet material and supported by above atmospheric air pres sure within the structure, the air delivery apparatus comprising in combination means in the shell providing an inlet zone for admitting pressurized air, air pump means positioned outside of the shell, an air delivery tube of a flexible sheet material capable of being adversely effected by vibration during use extending from the air pump means to the inlet zone and terminating at the shell, the outer periphery of the inlet zone being defined by the intersection of the tube and the shell with the tube meeting the shell at an angle so that the inlet zone is of substantially larger area than the cross-sectional area of the tube, the inlet Zone being provided with a plurality of perforations having a total area smaller than the area of the zone to an extent whereby vibration of the tube is prevented.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS A preferred embodiment of the invention has been chosen for the purpose of illustration and description, and
April 29, 1969 I m 3,440,777
SHAKE STRIP ASSEMBLY FOR ROOFING OR SIDING Filed Dec. 8, 1967 Sheet L of 2 I 1 NVENTOR- 07/: M. MART/N United States Patent M Cahf.
Filed Dec. 8, 1967, Ser. No. 689,144 Int. Cl. E04d 3/362, 1/36, 13/00 US. Cl. 52-94 8 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A roof or side of a building is covered with self-gauging shake strip assemblies which provide their own sheathing. Each shake strip assembly comprises a base strip covered by a membrane with a first course of sawn shingles secured thereto and covered by a second, superposed course of shakes. The upper ends of the shakes are in downwardly spaced relation from the upper edge of the base strip, while their lower ends extend a selected distance below the lower edge of the base strip. The upper ends of the shakes serve as a gauge for positioning the base strip of a next higher shake strip assembly. While not essential, a metal clip or other means may be provided to interconnect and seal the abutting ends of shake strip assemblies of the same row, and to insure against water leakage therebetween. A preferred means for this purpose is to provide a blank space at each end of the course of shakes on each shake strip assembly, and to close these blank spaces by means of shutter shakes applied after the shake strip assemblies have been attached to a roof or wall.
Prior art Many prior attempts have been made to provide a shake-like roofing or siding which would permit application without the necessity of bundling the shakes, transporting them in easily damaged bundles to the site, applying sheathing, applying waterproof membrane, hoisting the bundles of shakes to the roof or scaffold, breaking the bundles, and then applying the shakes, one at a time. While some of these prior shake-like structures have provided substantial cost savings over a real shake roof, some of them have not been sufficiently weather tight to permit them to be used on roofs, while many of them have not had the appearance of a real shake roof.
Objects An object of the present invention is to provide a selfgauging shake strip assembly, which, when used to cover the roof or side of a building, will have the appearance and other advantages of a real shake roof or siding.
Another objects of the invention is to provide a shake strip assembly having a blank space at each end thereof to receive a shutter shake, which covers and seals the joints between endwise adjacent shake strip assemblies.
Another object of the invention is to provide an improved shake strip assembly with means for sealing the joints between endwise adjacent shake strip assemblies.
The foregoing objects and advantage of the invention will be apparent from the following description and the accompanying drawings, wherein:
FIG. 1 is a fragmentary, perspective view showing the end portions of two shake strip assemblies embodying the invention and a joining and sealing clip therefor, the shake strip assemblies being separated endwise from each other.
FIG. 2 is a fragmentary, vertical, transverse, sectional view in enlarged scale taken through the eaves of a building roofed with the shake strip assemblies.
3,440,777 Patented Apr. 29, 1969 FIG. 3 is an exploded view in side elevation drawn to substantially the same scale as FIG. 1, and showing the elements of a shake strip assembly separated from each other.
FIG. 4 is a perspective view of one of the shake strip assemblies as it appears with two other shake strip assemblies in endwise abutting assembled relation therewith, a shutter single being shown in elevated offset relation thereto.
FIG. 5 is a fragmentary, vertical, plan view showing the abutting end portions of two of the shake strip assemblies joined to each other by a sealing clip.
Referring to the drawings in detail, the roof or walls of a building can be covered with what appears to be natural wood shakes by means of a plurality of pre-assembled shake strip assemblies A, which can be applied in a uniform and symmetrical manner by any roof or carpenter, or even by an amateur having no special training or high degree of skill.
Each shake strip assembly A comprises a base strip 10, which may be a board, but preferably is of plywood. Each base strip 10 is covered with a membrane 11 of suitable material, such as tarred felt, which is co-terminal with the ends of the base strip 10, extends upwardly above the upper edge of the base strip a selected distance, and projects below the lower edge thereof, preferably the same distance as do superposed courses of sawn shingles 12 and shakes 13 which are laid thereon in the following manner:
Upon the membrane 11, with their upper ends aligned, and spaced downwardly a selected distance from the upper edge of the base strip 10, is laid a course of conventional, sawn shingles 12. These shingles 12 are of random width, and are flush with both ends of the base strip 10.
Upon each course of the sawn shingles 12 is laid a course of shakes 13, which like regular or conventional shakes, have one side thereof formed by splitting and the other side formed by sawing. The shakes 13 and shingles 12 are attached to the base strip in any suitable manner, for example by nails 16. The shakes at both ends of each course thereof preferably are spaced inwardly from the ends of the base strip 10 9. selected distance, for example two inches, so as to leave a blank space 14 at each end of the shake course on each shake strip assembly A. To insure weather tightness, the joints between adjacent sawn shingles 12 and those between the superposed shakes 13 should be broken or staggered by at least 1% inches, or such other minimum distance as may be required by the building code of the locality where the shake strip assemblies are to be used.
In making conventional shakes, wood blocks of random width, and usually 24 inches long, have shake blanks split therefrom varying in thickness from /2 inch to 1% inches. These shake blanks are then sawn in two, usually free hand, by a diagonal band saw cut running from one end of the blank to the other. This saw cut divides each blank into two shakes, each shake having a feather edge of substantially zero thickness at one end thereof, and the full thickness of the blank at the other. Any waviness in this diagonal saw cut results in a thin spot in one of the shakes and a corresponding thick spot in the other.
In making the shakes 13 of the present invention, how. ever, the shake blanks need not be as long as is the case with regular shakes, since the shakes 13 are only 15 inches long. Also, the shake blanks are all approximately only one inch in thickness, and are cut in two medially of their thickness by a straight saw cut parallel to one side of the blank, since the shakes 13 are of even thickness throughout their length. These are important simplifying, cost reducing and safety factors in the manufacture of the shakes, since it is a dangerous and exacting job to make the free-hand diagonal cuts which produce regular shakes, while the illustrative shakes 13 can be made on automatic or semi-automatic machinery, using a fence parallel to the plane of the saw blade as a guide.
With the sawn shingles 12 and the shakes 13 in superposed courses on the base strip 10, and their lower ends projecting downwardly a selected distance below the lower edge of the base strip, the assemblies are secured together by suitable attaching means, such as nails 16, driven through both courses and into the base strip 10.
The portion of the shakes which are exposed to the weather can be varied by varying the width of the base strip 10 and the spacing of the upper ends of the shakes 13 from the upper edge of the base strip. Suitable dimensions are as follows:
The lower edge of the membrane 11 and the lower ends of the shakes 13 and sawn shingles 12 superposed thereon project inches below the lower edge of the base strip 10, the shakes and shingles each being 15 inches long. The base strip is /2 inch thick, and 12 inches wide, and the upper ends of the shakes 13, which serve as a gauge for positioning the next row of shape strip assemblies, are spaced 2 inches from, and parallel to, the upper edge of the base strip 10 upon which they are laid. The membrane 11 extends one inch above the upper edge of the base strip 10, which makes the width of the membrane 18 inches, the width of a half-roll of the material. While these measurements are not limiting, they provide satisfactory siding or roofing, with 10 inches of the shakes exposed to the weather.
The length of the shake strip assemblies A is not material and can be varied at the option of the manufacturer or contractor. However, a satisfactory length is 6 or 8 feet, which makes for easy and convenient handling.
For securely interconnecting the abutting ends of endwise adjacent shake strip assemblies A, and for sealing the joints therebetween, a plurality of clips may be provided. Each clip 15 is of suitable material, such as weather resistant sheet metal, and has a reversely bent, rectangular hook 17 formed in its upper end. This book 17 is of a size to fit snugly over the upper edges of the abutting ends of two base strip assemblies as shown in FIG. 4, the reversely extending portion of the hook 17 being of a length less than the spacing of the upper ends of the shakes 13 and sawn shingles 12 from the upper edge of the base strip 10.
In using the invention, for example on a roof structure B as shown in FIG. 2, a starting strip 18 of suitable width and thickness is laid adjacent the lower ends of the rafters 19. Since the required position of the lower ends of the shakes 13 and shingles 12 of the lowermost row A1 of shake strip assemblies may be varied from one job to another. depending upon such variables as whether or not a gutter is to be provided, and the appearance desired by the architect or builder, the starting strip is located as desired, or as set forth in the drawings or specifications of each individual job. With the starting strip 18 nailed to the rafters 19, the first or lowermost row A1 of shake strip assemblies is laid, end-to-end, preferably starting at one end of the roof, with the lower edge of the base strip 10 of each shake strip assembly of this first row abutting the upper edge of the starting strip 18. and the projecting lower ends of the shakes and shingles overlying the starting strip.
The shape strip assemblies are nailed to the rafters 19 by nails 20, driven through the shape strip assemblies in the area thereof above the portion of the shakes which are to be exposed to the weather. A roofer or carpenter will be able to judge this area without marking, but for amateur installation, or if desired, a line not shown marking the lower edge of the nailing zone may be marked on the shakes during manufacture of the shake strip assemblies.
Joint clips 15, if desired, may be fitted in the manner described previously herein to the abutting ends of the base strips of endwise adjacent shake strip assemblies. The shake strip assemblies A of the second row A2 thereof are similarly nailed to the rafters 19 by nails 20 driven through the aforementioned nailing Zones.
While any leakage in the joints between endwise adjacent shake strip assemblies would be minimal, even without sealing means, a preferred structure for sealing these joints is shown in FIGS. 1, 4 and 5. Here the shakes 13 are spaced from both ends of the base strip 10 and the course of sawn shingles 12 by a desired distance, for example 2 inches, and a shutter shake 22, of a width to fit into the blank space 14 thus provided, is fitted therein and nailed in lace as shown in FIGS. 4 and 5.
After the lowermost row A1 of shake strip assemblies has thus been laid, nailed to the rafters, and provided with the shutter shakes 22, a second row A2 of shake strip assemblies is laid, as best shown in FIG. 2, with the lower edge of the base strip 10 of each shake strip assembly of the second row overlapping the upper edges of the base strips of the first row, and the lower edges of the base strip 10 of the second row A2 abutting the upper ends of the shakes 13 of the first row A1. The shakes 13 of the first row A1, therefore, thus act as a gauge or guide for the shake strip assemblies of the second row A2. The joints between endwise adjacent shake strip assemblies in each row must be staggered or broken so as not to lie between the same two rafters or other supports as those of the row therebelow or thereabove.
Subsequent rows of the shake strip assemblies are similarly laid on and attached to the rafters, joined by end clips 15 or provided with shutter shakes 22 or other joint sealing means, as desired, until the roof is completely covered.
Gutters, hips, valleys, etc. may be made in conventional ways, or otherwise as desired.
While illustrated and described herein as for roofing, it will be obvious that the present invention can also be used for siding, and the terms roof, roofing, and the like as used herein are intended to include siding.
The invention provides an easily manufactured, easily transported and easily applied roofing and siding material which can be applied directly to studding or rafters, or over existing roofing, and has the appearance, strength weather resistance and durability of a real shake roof. The sawn singles 12 can be of much lower quality than those ordinarily used for roofing, and still be adequate, since they are shielded by the superposed shakes. The shakes, also, being shorter, are less expensive than ordinary shakes and since they are sawed to a guide, and are of uniform thickness, they will have a long and uniform life.
While I have illustrated and described a preferred embodiment of the present invention, and have described the invention as employing shakes and shingles made of wood, it will be understood, however, that various changes and modifications may be made in the materials, for example composition, asbestos, etc., and other details thereof without departing from the scope of the invention as set forth in the appended claims.
1. A shake roof structure comprising a plurality of shake strip assemblies, each shake strip assembly comprismg a base strip of selected length and width,
a course of sawn shingles laid along each base strip, the
lower ends of the shingles projecting a selected distance below the lower edge of the base strip,
a course of shakes superposed on the course of sawn shingles, the upper ends of the shakes being spaced uniformly from the upper edge of the base strip, and the lower ends of the shakes projecting a selected distance below the lower edge of the base strip, the upper ends of the shakes being of suflicient thickness to engage the lower edge of the base strip of a next succesive shake strip assembly, and
the width of the base strip, the length of the shakes,
and the distance the upper ends of the shakes are spaced from the upper edge of the base strip upon which the shakes are mounted being such that when successive rows of shake strip assemblies are laid on a supporting structure with the lower edge of one shake strip assembly overlapping the upper edge of a next lower shake strip assembly, and abutting the upper ends of the shakes of such next lower shake strip assembly, selected portions of the shakes of such next lower shake strip assembly will be exposed to the weather below the lower ends of the shakes of said one shake strip assembly.
2. A shake roof structure as claimed in claim 1 wherein a blank space of selected width is left at each end of the course of shakes on each base strip, and a shutter shingle is provided for each shake strip assembly of a width approximately twice the width of each such blank space for fitting into the blank space between the ends of the courses of shakes of two endwise adjacent shake strip assemblies.
3. A shake roof structure as claimed in claim 1 wherein the course of shingles on each base strip terminates substantially flush with the ends of the base strip.
4. A shake roof structure as claimed in claim 1 wherein a membrane is interposed between the base strip and the course of shingles thereon of each shake strip assembly.
5. A shake roof structure as claimed in claim 3 wherein the membrane projects below the lower edge of its base strip approximately the same distance as the lower ends of the shingles.
6. A shake roof structure as claimed in claim 1 wherein a starting strip of selected Width and thickness is Secured in place along the lower edge of a portion of a building covered by the roof structure, and the shake strip assemblies of the lowermost row thereof are.laid with the lower edges of their base strips abutting the upper edge of the starting strip, and the projecting lower portions of their shakes and shingles overlapping the starting strip.
7. A shake roof structure as claimed in claim 1 Wherein the joints between endwise abutting shake strip assemblies in the same row are provded with interconnecting sealing clips, each clip being of still, strong sheet material and comprising a fiat clip portion underlying one such joint, and a reversely bent clip portion fitted snugly over the upper edge portions of the base strips of the adjacent shake strip assemblies.
8. A shake roof structure comprising a plurality of shake strip assemblies laid in overlapping rows on a roof framing structure, each shake strip assembly comprising a base strip of selected length, width and thickness, a
selected lower edge portion of each base strip, except those in the lowermost row, being superposed on an upper marginal edge portion of a next lower base strip,
a waterproof membrane covering the base strip and projecting below the lower edge thereof a distance sufficient to overlap the membrane and a selected uppper portion of the shakes of a next lower shake strip assembly,
a course of sawn shingles laid along each base strip and superposed on the membrane thereon, the lower ends of the shingles projecting below the lower edge of the base strip a distance substantially equal to that of the membrane,
a course of shakes superposed on the course of sawn shingles, the upper ends of the shakes being spaced downwardly by a uniform selected distance from the upper edge of the base strip, the shakes being of a length to project below the lower edge of the base strip a distance not less than that of the underlying course of sawn shingles on the same base strip.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,192,810 3/1940 Angier 52545 2,328,977 9/1943 Hansenburger et a1. 52520 X 2,384,686 9/1945 Kraus 52-540 3,095,671 7/1963 Fink et a1. 52-560 X 3,333,384 8/1967 Brady 52-540 X FRANK. L. ABBOTT, Primary Examiner.
S. D. BURKE, Assistant Examiner.
US. Cl. X.R.
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|U.S. Classification||52/94, 52/547, 52/560, 52/478, 52/551, 52/461|
|International Classification||E04D1/00, E04D1/26|
|Mar 25, 1985||AS02||Assignment of assignor's interest|
Owner name: MARSHALL MANUFACTURING, INC., A CA CORP.
Owner name: MARTIN, OTIS M.
Effective date: 19830401
Owner name: MILLER, SILAS
Owner name: ROBINSON, ARCHIE
|Mar 25, 1985||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: MARSHALL MANUFACTURING, INC., A CA CORP.
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNORS:MARTIN, OTIS M.;MILLER, SILAS;ROBINSON, ARCHIE;REEL/FRAME:004378/0881
Effective date: 19830401
Owner name: MARTIN, OTIS M. SAN JOSE, CA.
Owner name: MILLER, SILAS N. SARATOGA, CA.
Owner name: ROBINSON, ARCHIE S. SARATOGA, CA.
Free format text: ASSIGNS TO EACH ASSIGNEE THE PERCENTAES OPPOSITE THEIR RESPECTIVE NAME;ASSIGNOR:SHAKE & SHINGLE PANELS, INC.;REEL/FRAME:004378/0876
Effective date: 19850302