US 3440785 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 29, 1969 1, M, DENNY ET Al.
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION WITH NTERSECTING WALLS Sheet Filed Feb. l5, 1963 NTORS. @7177?,
April 29, 1969 1 M, DENNY ET AL BUILDING CONSTRUCTION WITH INTERSECTING WALLS Sheet 2 Filed Feb. l5, 1963 INVENTORS. 7277765 /fewrzz- V67? /7 k7/95a FNJ: Visi April Z9, gg 1 M, DENNY ET Al. 3,440,785
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION WITH INTERSECTING WALLS Filed Feb. 15, 1965 sheet 3 of 3 United States Patent O 3,440,785 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION WITH INTERSECTING WALLS James M. Denny, Norcross, Ga., and Sven A. Carlsson,
Detroit, Mich., assignors to Security Aluminum Company, Detroit, Mich., a corporation of Michigan Filed Feb. 15, 1963, Ser. No. 258,813 Int. Cl. E041) 2/00 U.S. Cl. 52-275 2 Claims This invention relates broadly to new and useful improvements in building constructions and more particularly to a building having walls made from unique preformed and interlocking metal parts.
An important object of the invention is to provide a building wall construction in which the wall components can be made relatively inexpensively 'by conventional stamping and forming operations and wherein the components can be stacked compactly for shipment or transportation to the building site.
Another object of the invention is to provide a building construction of the above-mentioned character having a relatively small number of preformed metal parts that are adaptable to substantially all of the conditions normally encountered in building designs so as to minimize time and labor in construction.
Still another object of the invention is to provide a building construction of the above-mentioned chracter wherein the formed metal parts of the building wall can be easily and quickly assembled and interlocked on the site and wherein the wall thus formed has excellent heat insulating and sound deadening properties.
Yet another object of the invention is to provide a building construction of the above-mentioned character wherein the wall components can be modified and arranged in different ways to provide versatility of construction and ready adaptation to different building forms and designs.
A further object of the invention is to provide a building construction of the above-mentioned character wherein the formed metal parts of the building walls are uniquely combined and correlated to assure adequate strength using relatively thin gauge metal and securely interconnected to resist wind loads and other forces.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will be apparent during the course of the following description:
In the drawing, forming a part of this specification, and wherein like numerals are employed to designate like parts throughout the same:
FIGURE l is a perspective view of a building utilizing the novel wall construction of this invention and particularly illustrating a door in the wall and the manner in which the roof loads are transferred through the wall to the foundation of the building;
FIG. 2 is a perspective view of a wall construction similar to the one in FIG. 1 but showing a window opening and particularly illustrating the manner in which two walls are joined together at an angle;
FIG. 3 is an enlarged, fragmentary, horizontal sectional view taken on the line 3-3 of FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 is an enlarged, fragmentary, transverse sectional View taken on the line 4-4 of FIG. 1; and
FIG. 5 is an enlarged, fragmentary, horizontal sectional view through the wall at Va window opening and particularly illustrating a modified window frame and frame mounting construction.
FIGS. 1 and 2 show a building constructed according to the present invention having suitable walls 10 on a foundation 12 and supporting a suitable roof structure 14.
The wall comprises spaced, parallel, inner and outer wall portions 16 and 18 connected by intermediate studs 3,440,785 Patented Apr. 29, 1969 ICC 20. Both of the wall portions 16 and 18 are formed from a plurality of skin panels 22 of sheet metal, plastic or the like. These panels 22 normally extend the full height of the wall and are arranged in edgewise butting relation with the joints between the outer wall panels opposite corresponding joints between the inner wall panels. The studs 20 are disposed at the joints between the wall panels 22, and each stud comprises inner and outer cleats 24 and 26 connected by rigid webs 28. As shown, the cleats 24 and 26 hold the panels 22 together and also close the joints between the panels to prevent passage of moisture through the wall at the joints.
The cleats 24 and 26 also normally extend the full height of the wall, and it is a particular feature of the invention that the cleats are load-supporting members which act together with the skin panels 22 to transfer the roof load to the foundation 12. The manner in which the cleats 24 and 26 and the skin panels 22 cooperate and function jointly to share and uniformly distribute `the roof load and to sustain wind loads and other forces to which vertical external building walls normally lare subjected permits the skin panels to be made relatively thin and indeed this also is true of the studs 20 so that material costs are kept sufficiently low to compete economically with other forms of low cost building constructions while maintaining adequate strength and regidity of construction and utilizing the long life and other desirable physical characteristics of metal. This question of material costs is particularly cogent from a commercial point of view when the wall components are made of a metal such as aluminum, for example.
As suggested, it is contemplated that any suitable material such as plastic, galvanized iron or aluminum be used in the manufacture of the wall parts, and particularly in the skin panels 22, but aluminum is the preferred material as its light weight and rust-free characteristics make it desirable in all climates and under all building conditions. Further, aluminum is 'attractive and can be painted any desired color prior to fabrication of the building by conventional anodizing or baking processes.
The space between the inner and outer wall portions 24 and 26 preferably is lled with a monolithic filler 30. Any suitable material such as plastic or concrete can be used for this purpose, but regardless of the material used in the filler it preferably is foamed or expanded for maximum heat insulating effect. Conventional procedures and techniques for foaming can be used for this purpose and the filler preferably is poured and foamed in situ after the wall has been erected and before the roof 14 is constructed. Concrete is particularly suitable as a filler as it also provides a food fire barrier and has good sounddeadening properties. However, concrete having a lightweight aggregate is preferred in order to minimize weight and to prevent distortion of the wall panels and other destructive effects from impact forces resulting when the concrete is poured into the wall. Expanded shale, clay or slate; expanded slag; cinders, pumice, perlite, and vermiculite are typical examples of suitable lightweight aggregate. In this connection it will be observed that the webs 28 of the studs 20 are spaced apart so that the poured filler 30 extends as a monolithic mass through the entire wall of the building and completely surrounds the webs and contains most of the cleats 24 and 26. In practice, the filler 30 forms a hard durable core which together with the skin and stud components provides an exceedingly strong rigid finished structure. In the drawings, the iiller 30 is not shown in all parts of the walls 10 in order to illustrate certain structural features of the latter, but it will be understood that in practice the filler preferably extends through and completely fills all of the walls.
As suggested, the panels 22 preferably are relatively narrow and those used in the main body of the wall are uniform in length and extend the full height of the wall. Since the cleats 24 and 26 extend continuously the full length of the panels 22, each pair of opposed panels and the connecting studs at opposite sides thereof form an open box section of great strength. The narrow width of the panels 22 is desirable not only from the standpoint of structural strength but also to enable the panels to withstand hydrostatic pressure exerted by the freshly poured filler material without bowing or buckling. This is particularly important in the case of a relatively heavy filler such as concrete, for example. Experience has demonstrated that a panel width of from 5 to 8 inches is best for this purpose. A panel of this width can be made of essentially thin gauge sheet metal and for all practical purposes it remains at when the filler material is poured.
In order to interlock the studs 20 with the panels 22, the longitudinal-edge portions of the panels are bent back upon themselves to define re-entrant marginal flanges 32 and the latter are spaced slightly from the main body of the panel as shown in FIGS. 3-5. The inner and outer cleats 24 and 26 of the studs 20 are identical and a detailed description of one cleat only therefore will suffice. The cleats also preferably are formed of relatively thin gauge sheet metal and each cleat has a medial ange 34 formed by bending the metal strip from which the cleat is made longitudinally and folding the two halves back upon themselves to provide a double thickness of metal. At the forward edge of the ilange 34, the two halves of the metal strip are bent outwardly in opposite directions to provide lateral rear flanges 36 and 38 and the latter are bent forwardly and inwardly to provide front flanges 40 and 42. Inwardly rolled beads 44 and 46 are provided along the inner edges of the front flanges 40 and 42.
At assembly, the reversely bent edge flanges 32 of adjacent panels 22 are slid longitudinally behind adjacent front anges 40 and 42 of the connecting cleat (FIG. 3), and it will be observed that the beaded edges of the anges 40 and 42 are spaced apart to just accommodate the panels. It is desirable that panels 22 not be loose in the cleat but some come and go is necessary to allow for eX- pansion and contraction of the metal with changes in temperature and to compensate for differences in the coeflicients of expansion of the metal and filler component In this connection it will be observed that the interlocking connections between the studs 20 and the panels 22 are suiciently springy and resilient to allow expansion and contraction movements to occur without permanent distortion of the parts and without changing the appearance or relative positions of the parts. Also, these resilient connections compensate adequately for different expansion and contraction rates of the inner and outer wall panels which may be exposed to widely different temperatures, particularly in the case of an outside wall. Manifestly, any slight separation of the panels 22 due to contraction or other causes does not let moisture penetrate the wall or otherwise affect its integrity or effectiveness as the cleats 24 and 26 close and seal the joints between the panels at all times and under all conditions. It will be observed that the rolled beads 44 and 46 are dimensioned to just accommodate the re-entrant marginal flanges 32 between the beads and the lateral rear ange portions 36 and 38 so that the panels are held not only butted together but ush with each other.
The webs 28 are fastened securely to the medial flanges 34 of the cleats 24 and 26 in any suitable or conventional manner as by sheet metal screws, rivets or metal stitching. Rivets 48 are here shown by way of illustration. The ller 30 is a relatively efficient heat barrier and, in order to prevent transmission of heat through the wall at the studs, a heat insulating material 50 preferably is interposed between the webs 28 and the flanges 34. Any suitable material may be used as the thermal barrier 50. Various plastics are satisfactory for this purpose, and a mixture of cold asphalt and asbestos fibers also is effective.
Special inner and outer corner panels 52 and 54 are provided for joining two right angularly related walls as shown in FIG. l. An enlarged view of the outside corner panel 54 and its mode of attachment to the adjacent wall panels 22 is shown in FIG. 4. It will be observed that the panel 54 is bent longitudinally at the middle thereof to provide right angularly related portions 56 and 58 and the latter have reversely bent marginal ange portions 60 and 62, respectively, which intert with adjacent stud cleats in the same manner as the wall panels 22. However, a special stud 64 is used at this point having right angularly related cleats 66 and 68 interconnected by diagonal webs 70. In all other respects, the corner stud 64 interts with the outer skin panels 22 of the wall in the same manner as the studs 20 hereinabove described. The inner corner panel 52 is similar to the outer corner panel 54 but the reentrant marginal flange portions thereof are bent in a reverse direction to interfit properly with adjacent standard wall studs 20 as shown in FIG. 1.
Manifestly, any desired angular relation between walls at the corner of the building can be achieved by using specially formed corner pieces which are identical to the one shown at 52 and 54 except for the angular relation between the side portions thereof. Also, the corners can be made sharp and square as shown or rounded simply by modifying the shape of the corner pieces 52 and 54.
Also, it will be readily apparent that the wall can be formed on a uniform radius by using narrower wall panels at one side of the wall and the length of the arc can be controlled by varying the relative widths of the inner and outer wall panels in the curved section of the Wall. All of this of course can be accomplished without changing the basic structure of the wall; viz., each outer wall panel 22 is disposed opposite a corresponding inner wall panel 22, the joints between the outer panels are opposite corresponding joints between the inner wall panels, and in every instance the panels are interconnected by studs 20 located at the joints.
All of the above features, which are inherent in the instant wall construction, provide for almost endless variation in the nature and configuration of the wall and permit the builder to adapt the basic wall structure to many different building forms.
By modifying and adapting the wall components hereinabove described, it is possible to extend and attach an auxiliary or secondary wall 72 at right angles to the main or primary wall 10, as shown in FIGS. 2 and 3. It is contemplated that both of the walls 10 and 72 be outside walls or that one be an outside wall and the other an inner partition wall, but the arrangement shown is particularly suitable for attaching inner partition walls to the outside walls of the building. In any event, however, the wall 72 is attached to the wall 10 by a pair of half cleats 76 and 78 (FIG. 3) formed simply by shearing or trimming the inner medial ange 34 of a full cleat, such as the one shown at 26, for example, at the longitudinally free edge thereof. The two separate halves of the cleat formed by the shearing operation are then available for use as shown at 76 and 78. Alternatively, the half cleats 76 and 78 can be roll formed or otherwise fashioned independently, if desired. In any event, the two half cleats 76 and 78 are attached to one of the wall panels 22 at any convenient location on the primary wall 10 by sheet metal screws 80, or the like. If desired, the half cleats 76 and 78 can be attached to the Wall 10 after the concrete ller 30 has been poured and hardened so that the ends of the screws 80 extending beyond the metal panel 22 also penetrate and engage and are held by the hardened concrete. The cells of the partition walls 72 also preferably are lilled with a monolithic concrete material 30 to provide a solid wall having effective sound deadening characteristics.
As suggested, the panels 22 and studs 20 are uniform in lengthand extend the full height of the wall where the latteris solid or uninterrupted. However, they obviously lfnnot do this at window and door openings. Shorter panels and studs are used above door openings as shown in FIG. l and above and below window openings, as shown in FIG. 2, but the vconstruction is otherwise the saine.
Any des'jred size window opening can be provided in the wall."Special preformed wall panels and studs of uniform rela'tjyely short length can be used for this purpose or, alternatively, full length wall panels and studs can be cut to a suitable length using conventional metal cutting saws or shears. In any event, the lower edge of the raw window opening preferably is first covered by a stool channel 812:"and the window opening is then framed by a suitable extruded or rolled bottom sill piece 84, side jamb pieces 86'f'and an upper header 88. The AYsill and header members and '88 preferably are fastened to the wall by suitable sheet metal screws or the like and the screws tha`.`t fasten the sill piece also hold the stool channel securely;- in place. The side jamb pieces 86 preferably are suitablyfyformed to interlock with studs y at opposite sides of the', window opening as shown in the drawing, l
(FIG. 2) Manifestly, all of the window frame pieces may be varied in shape to accommodate any desired or conventional forr'n` of window and/or to accommodate both prime andfstorm windows.
FIGURES shows a modified window mounting arrangementmtilizing a pair of special wall corner panels 100 and 102each having right angularly disposed portions 104 and y10,6. The two portions 104 of panels 100 and 102 havefreversely bent marginal iiange portions 108 which interiit with the cleats of adjacent studs 20 in the same manner as the wall panels 22. The two portions 106, on the otherv hand, extend toward each other to face off the side of the window opening and they also have reversely bent marginal ange portions 110 which are spaced sligh ly apart and interiit with a full cleat 112 which is similar in all respects to the cleats 24 and 26 hereinabove described. A special extruded generally channel shapedwindow jamb piece 114 overlays the joint between the-fwall portions 106 and a rearwardly extending medial ange 116 formed thereon extends into the joint and between the two sides of the medial stud flange 34. |It may be 'necessary to drive the flange 116 into the stud flange 34. However, once the parts have been assembled in this manner, the mounting ilange of the jamb piece 114 is held securely not only by the stud ange 34 but also by the rolled edges of the corner panel walls 106. Manifestly, this arrangement provides a secure mounting for the window frame pieces and it does so in a way that utilizes to maximum advantage the basic wall components of this invention.
Similarly, door jamb pieces 90 are provided at opposite sides of the door opening and, as in the case of the window jamb pieces 86 hereinabove described, they can be either extruded or rolled. In any event, they preferably are adapted to interft with adjacent wall studs 20. More specifically, a. lintel 92 is provided at the top of the door opening and a sill 94` at the bottom thereof according to conventional practice.
All of the walls conveniently are attached to the foundation 12 by suitable rolled or extruded inner and outer angle members 96 as perhaps best shown in FIG. l. In
the case of a concrete slab, for example, the angle members 96 are fastened to the foundation by expansion bolts or concrete nails and to the wall by sheet metal screws, or the like. On the other hand, if the walls are mounted on oor joists, the angle members 96 are simply nailed to the joists. Also, it is a preferred practice to provide a suitable plastic or asphaltic. sealant between the foundation 12 andthe angle members 96 preferably also between the angle members and the side walls 10 to assure an airtight and vermin proof construction.
The raw top edge of the wall is covered by a stool channel 82 similar to the one shown on the bottom of the window opening (in FIG. 2), and the ceiling joists 98 which lay on these channels are fastened in place by angle brackets or the like. Suitable metal or wood screws or nails are used to fasten the mounting brackets 100 to the stool channels `82 and ceiling joists 98. The stool channels 82 in turn are fastened to the wall panels 22 by metal screws or the like.
Any suitable or conventional roof structure is mounted on and secured to the walls 10 and ceiling joists 98 ac cording to conventional practice. Manifestly, the weight of the roof structure is imposed vertically on the walls 10 through the stool channels and the full weight of the roof is sustained jointly by the wall panels 22 and the cleat portions 24 and 26 of the Istuds 20. By making the cleat portions of the studs 20 load supporting in the manner described, it is possible to use relatively light gauge metal in both the studs and the wall panels 22. -In effect, the wall at the studs forms a series of I-beams which transfers the roof load to the foundation on which the wall is supported. The finished structure is exceedingly strong and Well able to withstand wind loads and lift forces to which the side walls and roof structures of buildings conventionally are subjected.
Having thus described the invention, we claim:
1. In a wall construction for buildings,
two walls arranged with one wall extending transversely to and b-utting against the other wall,
each of said walls having spaced inner and outer wall portions including a plurality of skin panels having reversely bent longitudinal edge portions extending the full height of the walls and arranged in edgewise butting relation with the joints between the outer wall panels opposite corresponding joints between the inner wall panels,
studs holding said butting panels together and fixed to opposite corresponding butting panels,
said studs comprising spaced inner and outer cleats each including a medial ange of interconnected double thickness material and a pair of opposed channel members,
each said channel member extending laterally of one edge of said medial flange and each channel member connected to a respective one of said thicknesses of said double thickness material, said pair of opposed channel members interlocking said reversely bent panel edge portions,
at least one web member interconnecting the medial flanges of the spaced inner and outer cleats,
a pair of half cleats joining the transversely extending butting walls, each said half cleat being indentical in form with one of said channel members and one of said thicknesses of said double thickness material of each of said inner and outer cleats,
the channel member of said pair of half cleats engaging the reversely bent edge portions of the end panels of the inner and outer wall portions of said one wall, respectively, and the single thickness medial flanges of said pair of half cleats abutting and iixed to said other wall.
2. In a wall construction for buildings,
two walls arranged with one wall extending transversely to and butting against the other wall,
each of said walls having spaced inner and outer wall portions including a plurality of skin panels having reversely bent longitudinal edge .portions extending the f-ull height of the walls and inwardly thereof and arranged in edgewise butting relation with the joints between the outer wall panels being opposite corresponding joints between the inner wall panels,
studs positioned wholly within said walls and holding said butting panels together and to opposite corresponding butting panels,
said studs comprising spaced inner and outer cleats each including an interconnected double thickness material medial flange and a pair of opposed channel members,
each said channel member extending laterally of said medial flange and each channel member connected to a respective one of said thicknesses of said double thickness material, said pair of opposed channel members interlocking said reversely bent panel edge portions,
at least one web member interconnecting the medial ilanges of the spaced inner and outer cleats,
a pair of half cleats joining the transversely extending butting Walls,
each said half cleat being identical in form with one of said channel members and one of said thicknesses of said double thickness material of each of said inner and outer cleats,
the channel member of said pair of half cleats engaging the reversely bent edge portions of the end panels of the inner and outer wall portions of said one wall and positioned wholly within said one wall and the medial anges of said pair of half cleats each extending inwardly of the channel member and abutting and fixed to said other wall.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS FOREIGN PATENTS Great Britain. Great Britain. Great Britain.
ALFRED C. PERHAM, Primary Examiner.
U.S. Cl. X.R.