US 3442455 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 6, 1969 c. H. sMALE JET DEFLECTING NOZZLE Filed July '7, 1967 ATTORNEY .n mi@ MH 5 um W HT I May 6, 1969 C. H. SMALE 3,442,455
JET DEFLECTING NOZZLE Filed July v, 1967 sheet 3 of 3 4 I y l May 6, 1969 c. H. SMALE 3,442,455
JET DEF'LECTING NOZZLE Filed July v, 1967 sheet 5 of s ATTORNEY United States Patent O 3,442,455 JET DEFLECTING NOZZLE Charles H. Smale, Indianapolis, Ind., assignor to General Motors Corporation, Detroit, Mich., a corporation of Delaware Filed July 7, 1967, Ser. No. 651,906 Int. Cl. B64c 15 /06; B64b 1/36; F02k 1/24 U.S. Cl. Z39-265.39 4 Claims ABSTRACT F THE DISCLOSURE A vectoring jet nozzle, Ifor a lift jet engine or the like, having a square outlet on the jet pipe with a trapezoidal main leaf hinged at each side of the jet pipe. Actuating means can swing these leaves either inwardly or outwardly about the hinge axis. The sides of the leaves at the corners of the nozzle are connected by corner leaves extending from the main leaf, each corner leaf being hinged to the corner leaf extending from the other main leaft` at the same corner of the nozzle.
My invention relates to vectoring jet nozzles for reaction engines, Iby which is meant jet nozzles having means to vary the direction of the propulsive or lift jet. The preferred embodiment of the invention is intended for application to lift engines in which the axis of the engine is vertical and the nozzle may be actuated to deflect the jet either forward or backward or to either side for maneuvering the aircraft or to control aircraft yaw. Preferably, the nozzle is of a convergent type, but it is applicable to divergent nozzles and to nozzles for engines for purpose other than direct lift.
The principal object of my invention is to improve the performance of vertical lift engines. Another object is to provide a simple easily controlled nozzle vectorable about two crossed axes. A more specific object of the invention is to provide a polygonal jet nozzle in which jet containing and deflecting leaves are mounted at each side of the polygon and are connected by hinged structures which amount, in effect, to extensions of these leaves and connect them to provide a closed nozzle, the walls of which may be moved collectively or independently to vary the characteristics of the nozzle.
The nature of my invention and the advantages thereof will be clear to those skilled in the art from the succeeding detailed description 0f the preferred embodiment of the invention and the accompanying drawings thereof.
FIGURE 1 is a partial elevation view of lift jet engine including a deilecting nozzle according to the invention.
FIGURE 2 is a bottom view of the same.
FIGURE 3 is an elevation view corresponding to FIG- URE 1 with the nozzle operated to deflect the jet to provide forward thrust.
FIGURE 4 is a view on a plane at right angles to that of FIGURE 3 showing the nozzle deflected to provide lateral thrust.
FIGURE 5 is a fragmentary sectional lview taken on the plane indicated by the line 5 5 in FIGURE 4 showing the interconnection between the main and corner leaves.
FIGURE 6 is an aXonometric view of the nozzle.
Referring first to FIGURES 1 and 6, the jet deflecting nozzle is shown as attached to the lower or exhaust end of a reaction engine E, which may be a lift turbojet or turbofan engine. A jet pipe 9 provides a transition from circular to rectangular and terminates in a rectangular outlet 10 which is preferably square. Four main jet deflecting leaves 11 are mounted at the end of the jet pipe, one at each side, the leaves being pivotably mounted by ice hinges 13. The leaves are of trapezoidal form, having edges 14 converging in the direction away lfrom the hinge. An actuating arm 15 extending from each leaf 11 is coupled to the piston rod 17 of an actuating cylinder 18 suitably anchored by means (not illustrated) to the engine so that the leaf 11 may be swung inwardly or outwardly by the cylinder 18. Each main leaf is coupled to an individual actuating cylinder. The leaves 11 are of a light weight cellular double-walled construction, as illustrated in FIGURE 5, comprising an outer sheet 19, an inner sheet 20, and cellular or honeycomb material 21 (FIG- URE 5) filling the space lbetween and bonded to the sheets.
There is, of course, a wide gap Ibetween the edges 14 of adjacent main leaves. The rectangular nozzle is completed yby four corner closures 24, one at each corner of the nozzle, each corner closure comprising two corner leaves 25 connected by a corner hinge 26. Each corner hinge includes a hinge pin terminating in a head 27 which has an opening universally connected to the jet pipe 9 by a ball-headed stud 29 extending from the jet pipe. The corner leaves lie against the outer face of the main leaves 11 and, in effect, constitute variable extensions of the side edges of the main leaves 11. Like the main leaves, the corner leaves are of double-walled structure as shown in FIGURE 5, comprising outer and inner sheets and a honeycomb bridging the space between the sheets.
Means are provided to couple the corner leaves to the main leaves so as to allow the former to rotate about an axis at each upper corner of the main leaf perpendicular to the plane of the main leaf. The main and corner leaves are connected by rollers operating in tracks of the corner leaves so that this extension and retraction orf the corner leaves may take place with a minimum of friction. The corner leaf is made is two parts, an upper and a lower part, which are joined together by an arcuate track piece 35 (FIGURES 1 and 5) strengthened by gussets or stiffeners 36. The track piece has double-flanged edge portions 37 and 38, the two flanges of vwhich are welded or brazed to the outer and inner walls of the corner leaf. One portion of the track piece defines a way or track 39 which receives a roller 41 rotatably mounted on a boss 42 extending from the main leaf 11. The track piece also denes a second way or track 43 which cooperates |with two rollers 44 rotatably mounted on angle bosses 45 extending from the main leaf 11. The rollers are in position to engage both faces of the tracks, which extend on both sides of the rollers; thus, a restraint is provided between the main and corner leaves in both the direction axially of the nozzle and that radially of the nozzle.
The mode of operation of the nozzle should be clear to those skilled in the art, but may be described briefly. As shown in FIGURES l and 2, the nozzle is in what may be considered the normal slightly convergent centered configuration, with no deflection of the jet. The angle of all of leaves 11 to the axis of the nozzle is the same. In FIG- URE 3, which is a side view, the forward main leaf 11 has been deflected rearwardly and the rear main leaf 11 has likewise been deilected rearwardly so that the jet will issue from the nozzle with a substantial rearward component of motion to provide forward thrust on the airframe in addition to the lift. FIGURE 4 is a rear view of the engine in which the right-hand main leaf has been moved toward the nozzle axis and the left-hand main leaf away from the axis, so that the engine thrust has substantial component to the right for movement of the aircraft to the right, or yawing of the aircraft by cooperation of the two such engines with the thrust oppositely deflected.
With the structure shown, it is possible to open the nozzle into a divergent configuration, putting the throat at the hinge line rather than the exit of the nozzle. However,
in the preferred embodiment as a lift engine nozzle such operation is not contemplated. The structural arrangement of main and corner leaves is adaptable to polygonal nozzles of three or more sides, -but a rectangular nozzle is preferred. Preferably, the nozzle outlet area is maintained constant during vectoring, but it can be varied if desired. Any suitable control can be used to coordinate the leaf actuators as desired.
The detailed description of the preferred embodiment 4 of the invention for the purpose of explaining the principles thereof is not to be considered as limiting the invention, since many modifications may be made by the exercise of skill in the art without departing from the scope of the invention.
1. A jet nozzle for a reaction engine operable to deflect the jet comprising, in combination,
a jet pipe having a polygonal outlet bounded by three or more sides extending to a common hinge plane,
a main leaf corresponding to each side, each main leaf being hinged `to one side of the jet pipe at the said plane, the leaves being of trapezoidal form with edges converging in the direction away from the hinge,
a corner leaf at each said edge of each main leaf extending substantially in the plane of the corresponding main leaf,
means connected each corner leaf to the corresponding main leaf for rotation about an axis perpendicular Ato the main leaf at the corresponding end of the hinged side of the leaf and maintaining the corner leaf parallel to the corresponding main leaf,
means defining a pivotal connection `between the two corner leaves at each corner of the jet pipe outlet, the main and corner leaves thus dening a nozzle of polygonal cross section with all bounding walls pivotable to deflect the jet, and actuating means effective to rotate each main leaf about its hinge axis. 2. A nozzle as recited in claim 1 in which the nozzle is rectangular.
3. A nozzle as recited in claim 1 in which the means connecting the corner leaf to the main leaf comprises track means on one leaf and roller means on the other leaf engaging the track means. 4. A nozzle as recited in claim 3 in which the track means includes two tracks and the roller means includes rollers engaging each track,
one track and roller set having the roller axis at right angles to that of the other set.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,651,172 9/1953 Kennedy Z39- 265.37
FOREIGN PATENTS 874,496 8/ 1961 Great Britain.
EVERETI W. KIRBY, Primary Examiner.
U.S. Cl. X.R. -232; 244-52