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Publication numberUS3444020 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 13, 1969
Filing dateJul 16, 1965
Priority dateJul 16, 1965
Publication numberUS 3444020 A, US 3444020A, US-A-3444020, US3444020 A, US3444020A
InventorsKalwaites Frank
Original AssigneeJohnson & Johnson
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method and apparatus for cross-laying fibrous material
US 3444020 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

y 3, 1969 F. KALWAITES 3,444,020

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CROSS-LAYING FIBROUS MATERIAL Filed July 16, 1965 Sheet of 4 INVENTOR. 5P4)? 414414411755 ATTORNEY y 3, 1969 F. KALWAITES 3,444,020

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CROSS-LAYING FIBROUS MATERIAL Filed July 16, 1965 Sheet 2 of 4 IN V EN TOR. /P4/v/( 124 #44/725 ATTORNEY y 1959 F. KALWAITES 3,444,020

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CROSS-LAYING FIBROUS MATERIAL INVENTOR. P4 gym AZ: 1444/ 75s ATTOR NE Y United States 3,444,020 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CRUSS- LAYING FIBROUS MATERIAL Frank Kalwaites, Somerville, N..I., assignor to Johnson & Johnson, a corporation of New Jersey Filed July 16, 1965, Ser. No. 472,503 Int. Cl. B32b /12 U.S. Cl. 156-169 7 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Method and apparatus for manufacturing a layer of cross-laid fibrous material by forming a series of horizontal loops of material and conveying these loop-s in a straight path. The leading edge of each loop is raised out of the plane of the trailing edge and the leading edge is gripped at two points on the loop in close proximity to each other. The loops are out between the gripped points and the cut ends moved in a diverging path to open the loop and form a flat strand.

This invention relates to methods and apparatus for cross-laying fibrous material. The invention concerns itself with new and improved methods for taking fibrous material either in web, strand, thread, yarn, etc., form and laying it at an angle, preferably of approximately 90 degrees, to a moving surface to form a layer of material having its primary strength in the cross direction which is most suitable for reinforcing standard materials, such as fibrous webs, paper, warp yarns, etc.

In many industries, especially the nonwoven fabric and paper industry, the products made have good strength in the longitudinal direction; however, these same products have poor strentgh in the transverse or cross direction. One technique to improve cross-strength is to reorient fibrous material into a crosswise direction by either cutting the standard nonwoven fabric or fibrous web and placing it at 90 degrees to the cut direction and laminating it with another fibrous web to form a reinforced product. Still another method is to take yarns and lay these crosswise to the longitudinal direction of paper in order to reinforce the paper.

There are numerous techniques and machines for crosslaying fibrous material. Most of these are quite complicated and operate at slow speeds. The more simple mechanisms usually do not cross-lay the material at exactly or substantially 90 degrees, but rather at some other angle, such as 45 or 60 degrees.

I have developed a new method and new apparatus for carrying out this method for simply and economically cross-laying fibrous materials, either yarns, strands, webs, etc., at virtually any angle up to and including 90 degrees to a moving surface. My cross-lay material may then be readily laminated to other material-s as is well known in the art.

In accordance with the present invention, the material to be cross-laid is formed into a series of connected successive loops preferably with each loop having substantially the same diameter. The successive loops are gripped at two points in close proximity to each other on the circumference of a loop. The points on all loops are aligned and the loops are then cut between these gripping points. If desired, each loop may be gripped at four points, that is, two points in close proximity on the circumference of the loop, and two other points exactly opposite the first two, to form two cross-laid strands from each loop or even more points correctly spaced may be used. After being cut the gripping points are conveyed away from each other, that is, in a diverging path to spread each of the loops into a series of successive fiat strands. A layer of cross-laid material is thus formed which may then be laminated to other materials to form the final product or to reinforce a product.

In carrying my invention int-o practice, it is preferred that the fibrous material to be cross-laid be rotated to form a series of loops. The loops are fed to a conveying surface to form a series of successive loops. Gripping means, such as a pair of yarns having an adhesive coating are passed in the same direction and at the same rate of speed as the successive loops and contact each of the loops at two points in close proximity to each other on the circumference of each loop, with these points thus being aligned on each loop, if desired other gripping means may also be used, such as a pair of thermoplastic yarns which may be heated and softened and allowed to grip the loops or a conveyor having clamps which grip each loop or other suitable gripping mechanisms. The loops are then out between the grip points and the gripping means conveyed away from each other in a diverging path to successively open each loop and form a flat strand. This layer of opened, cross-laid material may then be laminated to paper, nonwoven fabric, warp yarns or various other materials well known in the art by any of the standard laminating procedures which also are well known in the art.

The invention will be more fully described in conjunction with the following drawings wherein:

FIGURE 1 is a plan view of one form of apparatus for carrying out the present invention;

FIGURE 2 is a cross-sectional view taken along line 22 of FIGURE 1;

FIGURE 3 is a cross-sectional view taken along line 33 of FIGURE 1;

FIGURE 4 is a side elevation view of the apparatus of FIGURE 1;

FIGURE 5 is a side elevation view of another embodiment of apparatus for carrying out the present invention;

FIGURE 6 is a front elevation view of the apparatus shown in FIGURE 5;

FIGURE 7 is a plan view of still another embodiment of apparatus in accordance with the present invention;

FIGURE 8 is a view in elevation of the apparatus shown in FIGURE 7;

FIGURE 9 is a cross-sectional view taken along the line 9-9 of FIGURE 8; and

FIGURE 10 is a cross-sectional view taken along the line 1010 of FIGURE 9.

Referring to FIGURES 1 through 4 of the drawings, there is shown a rotating platform 20. The rotating platform is mounted from suitable framing 21 by means of a vertical shaft 22 mounted in bearings in this framing. The entire platform is rotated in a horizontal plane by means of the drive 24. Mounted on this platform are the creels or bobbins 26 of yarn 27 which will be cross-laid. Mounted beneath and extending slightly under the circumference of the platform is an endless conveyor 28. Yarn from the creels or bobbins are led through the guide eyes 29 mounted on the guide tubes 30 mounted from the rotating platform. The yarn then passes down to a pair of guide rolls 31 mounted on frames 32 extending from the platform and mounted for rotation in these frames. The guide rolls rotate along with the platform. These guide rolls pass over the endless conveyor and lay one end of the yarn on the conveyor. The conveyor moves this end of yarn forward while the rotating platform takes the other end of the yarn around in a circular path and brings it back to the conveyor to form a full circle or loop of yarn. When the end of this loop is placed on the conveyor, the rotating platform in its circular motion will form another loop allowing the first loop to drop or fall and fully encircle the conveyor. Also mounted from the frame are a pair of gripping yarns 35, such as thermoplastic yarns or yarns covered with adhesive or some other type of gripping yarns. These yarns are mounted on creels 36 mounted on the frame and are fed in parallel relationship down and under a roll 37 mounted for rotation from framing. The roll contacts the conveyor forming a nip therewith and under which the loops are passed. The parallel gripping yarns are also fed so that they contact the loop and by heating the roll or if adhesive yarns are used, by simple pressure, the gripping yarns are adhered to each loop at gripping points spaced in close proximity on the circumference of each loop. Immediately thereafter the slitting mechanism 39 also mounted from the frame slits each loop between the points at which it has been gripped by the gripping yarns. If desired, vacuum or suction means 40 may be placed underneath the conveyor to control the loops as they are laid on the conveyor, keep them evenly spaced and place them in good position to be contacted by the gripping yarns.

The gripping yarns are then conveyed in a diverging path by means of the pair of rollers 41 mounted for rotation in suitable framing. The gripping yarns are conveyed away from each other to such an extent as to fully open the loop and form a cross-laid yarn 43, thereby forming a layer of cross-laid yarns the selvages of which are the gripping yarns.

In FIGURES and 6 there is shown another embodiment of apparatus for carrying the present invention into practice. Mounted for rotation from suitable frame 50 is a horizontal platform 51. On this platform there are mounted yarns 52 either on creels or bobbins 5-3. Extending downwardly from a portion of the circumferential edge of the platform is a pair of endless conveyors 54. These conveyors are close together nearest the point of the platform and follow diverging paths as they extend away from the platform. Also mounted beneath the circumference of the platform and opposite the pair of conveyors area second pair of endless conveyors 57 which are in contact along their full flights to form a nip. Yarn is led from the creels through suitable guide eyes 58 down through feed tubes 59 mounted on the circumference of the platform. The yarn is then led onto one of the diverging conveyors where it is gripped by this diverging conveyor either by pins 60 or adhesive or other suitable means on the surface of the conveyor. As the platform with the creels on it is rotated, in the direction shown, yarn is fed off in circular manner. When the platform has made half a revolution, the yarn passes between the nip formed by the opposite pair of endless conveyors. It is gripped by this nip and the platform continues to rotate and to complete a revolution and the yarn is again gripped by the other endless diverging conveyor forming a circle being gripped by the diverging conveyors at two points in close proximity to each other and controlled at a point on the circumference of the circle approximately opposite said gripped points. As the diverging endless conveyors move in the direction of the arrows shown, they travel in a direction towards the nip at which the opposite point is held. The loops are slit by the slitter 61 between the two points being held by the diverging endless conveyors. The diverging conveyors follow their diverging path until the opposite end of the loop is released by the opposite conveyors at which point the loop falls free and the diverging conveyors continue to diverge and spread the loop into a substantially cross-laid configuration. Beneath the di verging endless conveyors is a wide width conveyor 62 traveling in the direction of the arrow shown. As the diverging conveyors reach the end of the flight, they drop off each yarn onto the conveyor 62 in a direction transverse to the conveyor. The transverse yarns 63 may then be incorporated in various other materials. For example, a nonwoven fabric or paper may be fed onto the bottom conveyor and the yarns deposited thereon, and then a second fabric or web laminated on top of the yarns to form a cross-reinforced laminated fabric.

Referring to FIGURES 7 through there is shown another embodiment of the present invention which is more suitable for laying wide fabric in a cross-laid manner, such as, card ribbon or even card webs. The material to be cross-laid, such as the highly compacted ribbon 70 shown, is mounted from the framing 71 so that it will rotate in a horizontal plane. A plural number of rotating supply packages may be used, such as the two shown, or even more if desired. If a highly compacted ribbon is used mounted for rotation beneath the rotating supply will be a set of drafting rolls 72 to take the thick ribbon and draft it to a very light-weight ribbon. If desired, the supply material may already have been drafted and these drafting rolls eliminated, or instead of using the narrow width ribbon, fairly wide-width card web may be used or packages of spread continuous filaments. Directly beneath the rotating packages is an endless conveyor 73 moving in the direction of the arrow shown so that the rotating packages deposit a series of overlapping loops 74 or circles onto the endless conveyor, these circles being in a horizontal plane. Also mounted from the frame but being stationary are a pair of gripping yarns 75, such as thermoplastic yarns or pressure-sensitive adhesive yarns, etc. These yarns are fed down through a stationary tube 76 in the center of the rotating supply and are directed underneath the leading edge of the loops. Beneath the conveyor suction or vacuum may be placed to control these loops and keep them in a relatively fiat plane.

Spaced just above the top flight of the conveyor and downstream from where the loops are placed on the conveyor is a delaminating chute 78, more clearly shown in FIGURE 10. This is sheet material constructed with a slanting front portion. The gripping yarns are first placed on the conveyor and allowed to be carried along the conveyor and then are brought up from the conveyor along the front portion of the chute and along the surface of its delaminating chute. Hence, in operation when loops are laid onto the conveyor the leading edge of each loop will be on top of these gripping yarns while the trailing edge of each loop will be beneath these gripping yarns. As the loops and gripping yarns pass with the conveyor, the leading edge of each loop is carried along by the gripping yarns up onto the delaminating chute.

On the front portion of the delaminating chute is a sealing roll 79 which when thermoplastic yarns are used, may be heated to adhere the gripping yarns to each loop. Immediately after this sealing roll is a slitter 80 to slit each loop between the gripping yarns. The gripping yarns are then conveyed in a diverging path and each loop opened up into a web 81 of cross-laid material with the selvages being the gripping yarns.

In all of the rotating supply packages shown, the yarns are fed off the outer edge of the rotating mechanism; however, this need not necessarily always be the case. If desired, the rotating mechanism may be an annular ring with a vertical conveyor coming up the center of the ring so that the supply packages on this ring may be led off into this circle about the vertical conveyor and conveyed downwardly in the form of a series of circles.

Various materials may be cross-laid in accordance with the present invention and with the apparatus of the present invention, examples of such material are yarns, threads, ribbons of fibers, continuous filaments fibrous webs, webs of continuous filaments, and similar other materials.

The cross-laid materials may be laminated with various other materials to form desired end products. For example cross-laid yarns might be laminated between two pieces of paper to produce reinforced paper or cross-laid Webs may be laminated to other standard webs or fibrous materials to produce fabrics having excellent strength both in the long and cross direction, or cross-laid yarns may be laminated to standard fibrous webs or nonwoven fabrics to reinforce these fabrics in the cross direction or various other modifications may be made.

Although all the various motors, pulleys, belts, gears, or like mechanical means including suitable framing, etc., have not been illustrated in the drawings or described in the specification for driving or supporting the various rotating cylinders, rolls, platforms in their desired or required speeds or with the rotation indicated by their direct arrows, it is to be appreciated that such elements have been omitted to keep the drawings and the description succinct, and to avoid the introduction of matters which are well-known expedients in the art. The mechanical driving means and the various frames which are used are conventional and merely involve the application of well-known mechanical principles.

The above-detailed description of this invention has been given for clearness of understanding only. No unnecessary limitations should -be understood therefrom as modifications will be obvious to those skilled in the art.

What is claimed is:

1. A method of forming a layer of cross-laid fibrous material comprising: (a) forming a series of connected, successive, horizontal loops each loop having substantially the same diameter, (b) raising the leading edge of each loop out of the plane of the trailing edge of the loop, (c) gripping each of said successive leading edges at two points in close proximity to each other and in line with two gripping points on adjacent leading edges, (d) cutting said successive leading edges between said gripped points, and (e) conveying the gripping points away from each other to spread suucessive loops into a series of successive, fiat strands.

2. A method according to claim 1, wherein said flat strands are laminated to a layer of material to reinforce said material.

3. Apparatus for producing a layer of cross-laid fibrous material which comprises: (a) means for forming fibrous material in a series of horizontal uniform successive connected loops; (b) means for conveying said loop in a straight path; (c) means for raising the leading edge of each loop out of the plane of the trailing edge of the loop; (d) means for gripping the leading edge of each of said loops in succession at at least two points in close proximity to each other on the circumference of each loop and aligned with similar points on adjacent loops; (e) means for cutting successive loops between said points; and (f) conveying means for conveying the cut ends of each loop in a diverging path to open the loop and form a fiat strand.

4. Apparatus for producing a layer of cross-laid fibrous material which comprises: (a) means for rotating fibrous material to form a series of horizontal uniform successive connected loops; (b) means for conveying said loops in a straight path; (c) means for raising the leading edge of each loop out of the plane of the trailing edge of the loop; (d) means for gripping the leading edge of each of said loops in succession at at least two points in close proximity to each other on the circumference of each loop and aligned with similar points on adjacent loops; (e) means for cutting successive loops between said points; and (f) conveying means for conveying the cut ends of each loop in a diverging path to open the loop and form a flat strand.

5. Apparatus for producing a layer of cross-laid fibrous material which comprises: (a) means for rotating fibrous material to form a series of horizontal uniform successive connected loops; (b) means for conveying said loops in a straight path; (c) means for raising the leading edge of each loop out of the plane of the trailing edge of the loop; (d) means for gripping the leading edge of each of said loops in succession at at least two points in close proximity to each other on the circumference of each loop and aligned with similar points on adjacent loops; (e) means for cutting successive loops between said points; (f) conveying means for conveying the cut ends of each loop in a diverging path to open the loop and form a flat strand; and (g) laminating means for laminating said flat strands to a layer of fibrous material to reinforce the same 6. Apparatus for producing a layer of cross-laid fibrous material which comprises: rotating means for carrying the supply of fibrous material to be cross-laid, an endless conveyor spaced beneath said rotating means on which fibrous material from said rotating means is deposited in a series of successive loops, a delaminating chute spaced above said endless conveyor, guide means for guiding the leading edge of each loop formed up over said chute While allowing a trailing edge of each loop formed to pass beneath said chute, said guide means being a pair of adhesive yarns, means for adhering said pair of yarns to the leading edge of each successive loop at at least two points in close proximity to each other on said leading edge and aligned with similar points on adjacent loops, means for cutting successive loops between said points and conveying means for conveying the cut ends of each loop in a diverging path to open the loop to form cross-laid fibrous material.

7. Apparatus for producing a layer of cross-laid fibrous material which comprises: rotating means for carrying the supply of fibrous material to be cross-laid, an endless conveyor spaced beneath said rotating means on which fibrous material from said rotating means is deposited in a series of successive loops, a delaminating chute spaced above said endless conveyor, guide means for guiding the leading edge of each loop formed up over said chute while allowing a trailing edge of each loop formed to pass beneath said chute, said guide means being a pair of continuous, thermoplastic yarns, a heated roll forming a nip with said chute through which the leading edge of each loop and the pair of yarns pass whereby said yarns are adhered to the leading edge of each successive loop at at least two points in close proximity to each other on said leading edge and aligned with similar points on adjacent loops, means for cutting successive loops between said points and conveying means for conveying the cut ends of each loop in a diverging path to open the loop to form cross-laid fibrous material.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,902,395 9/1959 Hirschy et al. 156291 XR 2,954,816 10/1960 Havernann 156-427 XR 1,323,212 11/1919 Bulley 156-174 XR EARL M. BERGERT, Primary Examiner. M. E. MCCAMISH, Assistant Examiner,

US. Cl. X.R.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1323212 *Oct 27, 1916Nov 25, 1919 Method op producing bias fabric tape ob strip
US2902395 *Sep 30, 1954Sep 1, 1959Kimberly Clark CoAbsorbent wiping sheet
US2954816 *Jan 31, 1956Oct 4, 1960St Regis Paper CoApparatus and method for reinforcing sheet material
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3903575 *Jul 5, 1972Sep 9, 1975Plaskett Clyde AMethod and apparatus for making reoriented reinforcing layer for multi-ply products
US3905736 *Dec 26, 1973Sep 16, 1975Beloit CorpSheet web generation via a tubularly formed web
US4089719 *Dec 23, 1976May 16, 1978Olof SundellMethod and apparatus for feeding reinforcing strand when making a tubular product
US4302494 *Apr 26, 1973Nov 24, 1981Horton Robert CPile weatherstripping
US4867825 *Feb 23, 1988Sep 19, 1989Bay Mills LimitedMachine and process for forming crosswise filaments for non-woven fabric and product of the process
US5000806 *Sep 13, 1989Mar 19, 1991Paper Converting Machine CompanyMethod and apparatus for applying an elastic strand to a disposable diaper
US5296080 *Apr 19, 1988Mar 22, 1994Paper Converting Machine CompanyApparatus for applying an elastic waistband to a disposable diaper
Classifications
U.S. Classification156/169, 156/426, 156/177, 28/101, 156/174
International ClassificationD04H3/02, D04H3/04
Cooperative ClassificationD04H3/04
European ClassificationD04H3/04