US 3446249 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 27, 1969 L. R. WELLMAN WEAVING MACHINE SYSTEM Sheet Filed May 12, 1986 Li I: l W, I I ,i: M
IN VEN TOR esier B, lllellman May 27, 1969 L. R. WELLMAN WEAVING MACHINE SYSTEM File May 1966 1969 L. R. WELLMAN WEAVING MACHINE SYSTEM Sheet Filed May 12. 1966 May 27, 1969 L. R. WELLMAN WEAVING MACHINE SYSTEM y 1969 L. R. WELLMAN 3,446,249
wEAvING MACHINE SYSTEM Filed May 12. 1966 Sheet 5 of 7 42 24 7 G4 12 I8 70 2 4 p 40 ,44 40 30 PEG. 14
May 27, 1969 L. R. WE LLMAN WEAVING MACHINE SYSTEM Sheet Filed May 12, 1966 FIG. 15
y 27, 1969 1.. R.-WELLMAN 3,446,249
WEAVING MACHINE SYSTEM Filed May 12, 1966 Sheet 7 of? Fire: 19
United States Patent Oflice 3,446,249 Patented May 27, 1969 U.S. Cl. 139-11 22 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE In a weaving machine, longitudinal threads are interwoven with transverse threads in a weaving plane, the transverse threads being moved along the weaving plane by their ends, and for a length of travel are restricted in all but a forward direction, the ends of alternate threads being moved forward in diverging directions through wave paths extending above and below the weaving plane forming side openings, thus controllably compacting thread spacing at the restriction area and longitudinal threads being inserted through said side openings and trapped progressively outwardly toward the ends of the transverse threads, the longitudinal threads being trapped by the crossing alternate transverse threads to form a woven web moving generally along the weaving plane.
This invention relates to a unique construction and method suitable for use in the weaving of materials. The invention is particularly directed to a weaving machine which is capable of combining threads in woven patterns whereby lengths of material can be produced in a highly economical and efiicient manner.
It is a general object of this invention to provide a weaving machine system comprising a construction and method which is uniquely suitable for the efficient production of lengths of material.
It is an additional object of this invention to provide a weaving machine construction which is characterized by a unique operating arrangement permitting the formation of woven material at exceptionally high speeds and with exceptional reliability.
It is a more specific object of this invention to provide a weaving machine construction which employs structural arrangmeents characterized by highly reliable operation whereby the weaving can proceed without encountering expensive down time for threading or mechanical failure.
It is a still further object of this invention to provide a system of the type described which is characterized by great versatility from the standpoint of the types of woven material that can be produced, which can be easily adjusted for purposes of accommodating different production rates and different types of materials, which can be produced at low initial cost and maintained at low cost, and which requires little supervision during a production run.
These and other objects of this invention will appear hereinafter and for purposes of illustration, but not of limitation, a specific embodiment of the invention is shown in the accompanying drawings in which:
FIGURE 1 is a side elevational view illustrating the basic nature of the weaving machine construction of this invention;
FIGURE 2 is a schematic plan view taken about the line 22 of FIGURE 1;
FIGURE 3 is a fragmentary perspective view illustrating the arrangement of threads at the entry end of the construction, alternate threads being broken away near their center where they engage the guide rods;
FIGURE 4 is an enlarged detail view illustrating the operation of the guide means employed at the entry end;
FIGURE 5 is an enlarged fragmentary side elevation of a section of the thread interchange mechanisms of the machine;
FIGURE 6 is a detail illustration of one method of accomplishing thread transfer employed in the machine operation;
FIGURE 7 is a cross-sectional view of a conveyor belt and associated thread holding hook;
FIGURE 7A is an end view taken about the line 7a-- 7a of FIGURE 7;
FIGURE 8 is a top view of the arrangement shown in FIGURE 7;
FIGURE 9 is a detail illustration of a thread locking sleeve employed in conjunction with the thread holding hook;
FIGURE 10 is an enlarged cross-sectional view taken about the line 1010 of FIGURE 7;
FIGURE 11 is a bottom view of the arrangement shown in FIGURE 7;
FIGURE 12 is a cross-sectional view of the weaving zone of the construction near the entry end;
FIGURE 13 is a cross sectional View of the weaving zone near the exit end;
FIGURE 14 is an enlarged cross-sectional view illustrating the thread transfer mechanism;
FIGURES 15 through 17 comprise schematic illustrations of mechanisms adapted to be employed for achieving pick-up of threads by the conveyor belts;
FIGURE 18 is a fragmentary view, partly in section, taken at a transfer point and illustrating a suitable drive mechanism for the construction;
FIGURE 19 is a side view taken about the line 19-19 of FIGURE 18; and,
FIGURE 20 is a sectional view taken 2020 of FIGURE 18.
General machine operation The weaving machine construction of this invention generally comprises conveyor means which are adapted to carry rows of threads through the weaving zone of the machine. The threads carried by the conveyor means extend transversely across the machine, and these conveyOr means releasably hold the treads at the ends of the threads.
Means are provided for carrying the conveyors whereby the conveyors define an undulating path whereby the ends of the threads held by the conveyors will also define an undulating path. The conveyors are such that upper and lower transverse rows of threads are presented to the machine, and the ends of each of these upper and lower rows define the undulating paths, and these undulating paths periodically meet in the weaving zone.
The means carrying the conveyors and the conveyors are designed whereby the ends of the threads held by the respective conveyors are exchanged as the conveyors meet. The threads held by an upper conveyor are transferred to the lower conveyor while the threads held by the lower conveyor are transferred to the upper conveyor.
Immediately before this transferring operation, longitudinal threads are introduced periodically or at specific points discretely along the length of the weaving zone. These longitudinal threads are introduced into spaces defined between the conveyors and, due to the periodic transferring action above described, the longitudinal threads become trapped by or woven into the threads carried by the conveyors. The machine operation is such that the longitudinal threads are woven into the material in the direction of movement of the machine while the transverse threads are disposed substantially perpendicular to the direction of movement of the machine.
about the line FIGURE 1 illustrates the general nature of the machinec'onstruction. The machine includes conveyors consisting of separate belts riding over support rolls 12. The belts are adapted to pick up transversely oriented threads 14 from feeders 16.
As best shown in FIGURES 3 and 4, the threads 14 are secured .to the belts 10 by means of hooks 18. The belts are adapted to carry the threads into the entry end of the machine, and the belts then engage a first pair of pulleys-22. The belt pass around this first pair of pulleys onto the first set of guide pulleys 24. The belts are then moved downwardly over transfer pulleys 26 and back to the next set of guide pulleys 24. The belts thus define an undulating path along the entire weaving zone of the construction to the exit end 28.
FIGURE 2 illustrates the manner in which additional threads 30:, when fed into the weaving zone, become associated with the transverse threads 14. The first threads introduced extend longitudinally along the center line of the weaving zone. As these additional threads accumulate, the threads introduced are progressively located nearer the edge ofthe material whereby the completed fabric 32 is produced. A bolt 34 of material is then collected on the roll 36 beyond the exit end of the construction.
The weaving operation FIGURES 3, 4, 5, 12 and 13 best illustrate the manner in which the weaving action is accomplished. As noted, the pulleys 24 and 26 cause the conveyor belts to undergo an undulating action during their movement through the weaving zone. This results in the formation of openings or cone-like configurations of transverse thread travel all along'the length of the weaving zone at the sides of the zone.
In the central section of the zone, there are provided a pair of guide rods 38. These rods engage the threads entering the weaving zone and hold the threads in a plane at the center of the weaving zone. Accordingly, the closed and flattened end of a vortex is formed which extends into an opening of fixed shape at the outer edges of the zone,1e ach upper and lower half of the vortex being a standing wave.
Supply tubes 40 are adapted to be inserted into each of these vortex openings. Spools 42 supply threads for these tubes, and the ends 46 of the tubes extend to points adjacent-the end of the vortex openings. In this manner, the additional threads 30 are delivered in the manner shown in FIGURE 2. Obviously, other mechanical means can be employed for guiding the threads, for example, by the use of pulleys at the ends of the tubes 40. The threads can also be blown in or other non-mechanical means can be employed.
' The actual weaving action results due to the fact that the transfer pulleys 26 include means for transferring the hooks holding the thread ends. For example, all of the hooks carried by the lowermost conveyor belt 10 shown in FIGURE 5 will be transferred to the uppermost conveyor belt 10 by the action of the first pair of transfer pulleys 26. At the same time, the hooks from the upper belt 10 are transferred to the lower belt. As the belts again meet at the second pair of transfer pulleys 26, the reverse action takes place whereby the upper hooks move to the lower belt, and the lower hooks move to the upper belt.
Thread transfer mechanisms The transfer of the threads is accomplished due to the design of the hooks 18 carrying the threads, the design of the belts 10 carrying the hooks, and the design of the transfer pulleys 26. The design of the hooks 18 and belts 10 is best illustrated in FIGURES 7 through 11.
The hook includes a recess 44 at its outer end for receiving a thread 14. Bends 47 are preferably formed in the hook in order to prevent rotation about its own axis and thereby to insure alignment of the hook with respect to the belt 10. As shown in FIGURE 8, grooves 48 can be formed in the edges of the belt at each hook position whereby the bends 47 will fit within the grooves and thereby maintain the hook in proper alignment. The grooves only loosely guide the hooks to avoid binding as the belts separate.
The head of the hook comprises a shank portion 50 and an enlarged end 52. The shank 50 is adapted to fit into an elongated recess 54 formed in the belt 10. The head 52 fits into a channel 56 extending along the length of the belt whereby the hooks will always be maintained in a constant position with respect to the belt.
The belt also includes teeth 58 which are employed for achieving intermeshing of adjacent belts whereby precise alignment of the recesses 54 can be accomplished. Openings 60 are defined by the belts in the area of the shank portions 50 of the hooks 18.
A sleeve 62 can be located around the outer portions of the hook 18 for purposes of securing the threads 14 to the hooks. The sleeve 62 includes an end 64 having the corners cut off to permit some give whereby pressure can be applied against threads 14. Recesses 70 and 72 are located in the sleeve 62, and corresponding recesses 74 and 76 are formed in the hook 18. As will be explained, these recesses permit engagement of devices to efiect sliding movement of the sleeve relative to the hook for gripping and releasing a thread 14..
The design of the transfer pulleys 26 is best illustrated in FIGURES 5, 6 and 14. Each of the pulleys 26 is mounted for rotation about the shaft 82. Cams 84 are fixed to the shaft within the confines of the pulleys 26. Thus, the pulleys 26 rotate relative to stationary earns 84.
Each of the pulleys 26 carries a plurality of pins 86. These pins are slidably received in openings 88 defined by flanges 90 of the pulleys. As shown in FIGURE 14, the pins 86 are adapted to engage the edges 92 of the stationary cams 84.
As shown in FIGURE 5, the pins remain in the same position on the surface 92 for the majority of their rotation about the cam 84. However, the surface 92 includes a cam rise area 94, and as the pins move around the cam, they are caused to ride up this rise 94.
As illustrated in FIGURES 6 and 14, the cam rise 94 causes the pins 86 to move into the openings 60 defined by the belts 10. The pins engage the portion 50 of the hooks and thereby force the hooks out of association with one belt 10 and into the openings 54 of the adjacent belt 10. Restoration of the pins can be accomplished by any suitable means, for example, as described with reference to FIGURE 18.
The means for mounting the pins 86 shown in FIG- URES 18 and 20 comprise a mounting disc 96 holding the stems 98 of the pins 86. The disc 96 rotates about the shaft 82 and, accordingly, the disc rotates relative to the stationary cam 84. The stems 98 act as spring members whereby the pin ends 86 will continuously bear against the cam surfaces so that the pins will be automatically restored when they fall off the cam rise 94.
It will be noted that in FIGURE 18, the cam 84 is tied to the shaft outwardly of the confines of pulley 26. With this arrangement, the stem 98 bears against the cam surface rather than the pin portion 86. This comprises a suitable alternative to the arrangement shown in FIGURE 14.
It will be noted that the pins 86 are alternately positioned on any two adjacent transfer pulleys 26. Thus, a pin from one side is adapted to push a hook to the other side, and on this other side, the opening 60 is empty so that there will be no interference during the transfer of the hook. In this connection, the resilient character of the belts allows spreading of the entry to the openings 54 for easy transfer. Also each is firmly backed up by the opposing pulley surfaces.
Drive mechanisms It is extremely important to provide reliable drive means for the belts and pulleys since proper synchronization is critical to the operation of the system. The teeth 58 are formed in the belts so that the belts will mesh with each other in the vicinity of the hook transfer as shown in FIGURE 6. The interconnection of the pulleys and belts as shown in FIGURE 14 is also susceptible to a meshing relationship whereby positive synchronization can be accomplished. Thus, the elements 78 and 80 may comprise a tooth and corresponding recess to provide positive meshing alignment.
A suitable drive mechanism is illustrated in FIGURES 12, 18 and 19. This drive mechanism involves the use of sprockets 100 attached to the shaft 82 which carries transfer pulleys 26. The sprockets may be formed integrally with the pulleys or they may comprise separate members attached to the bushing.
As shown in FIGURE 19, the peripheral edges of the sprockets define recesses 102 which receive pins 104 of the drive chain 106. With this arrangement, a highly desirable synchronization of the sprocket movements can be achieved since the single chain 106 drives both the upper and lower sprockets and thereby the upper and lower transfer pulleys. Obviously, the chain 106 can extend along the entire length of the weaving zone. It will be apparent, however, that the drive sprockets need not be placed at every position. It will be apparent that with a single drive mechanism of the type described, the production speed can be easily regulated by varying the speed of the drive chain.
The drive means referred to eliminates longitudinal strain on the belts, and it will be noted that both sets of pulleys can be positionally adjusted to pull outwardly on the belts for increasing or relaxing the transfer thread tension without altering the other operations.
When referring to FIGURES 12 and 13, it will be noted that the angle of the threads 14 changes as the width of the woven production increases. A corresponding change in the deposition of the pulleys 24 is preferred. Suitable driving action can be accomplished even with this change where the belts are designed in the manner illustrated in FIGURES 7 through 11. Specifically, the belt may be manufactured with slits 103 formed between each hook holding position. The belts are actually secured together only at their ends 110. A reinforcing web 112 may be embedded in the belt ends to provide added strength. With this arrangement, the belts can readily flex to accommodate any arc forced by angling of the pulleys between the pulleys 26 and 24.
The particular drive means described is not intended to limit the coverage of the instant invention. Obviously, other suitable drive means may be utilized to accomplish the movement of the belts through the weaving zone.
Transfer thread pick-up mechanism As noted, the transverse threads could be attached to the hooks 18 in any desired manner including attachment by hand. This latter technique would, however, considerably limit operating speed, and it is, therefore, preferred to provide an automatic loading technique whereby the threads can be automatically attached to the books at high speed, for example, from a scrim making machine.
Scrim making equipment of the type manufactured by the Cybernetics Corporation, Nashua Paper Company or by Union Carbide. Such machines are designed whereby rows of transversely disposed thread can be continuously presented to the conveyor belts 10. In the typical operation of such known machines, the threads are presented at intervals of /2 inch. If five such machines are employed on each side of the apparatus as shown in FIGURE 1, then the combination of the upper and lower flights of conveyors will be carrying threads per inch of conveyor length at the entry end 20 of the construction.
A fender element 118 engages the hooks which have been picked up by the lifting elements 116 carried by wheel 114. As noted in FIGURE 17, the fender elements 6 engage the hooks near the outer ends whereby the opposite ends of the hooks are still held by the belt 10.
As the hooks rise on the fender element, the threads 14 presented by the scrim making equipment, or by other conventional means, are engaged by the recess 44 of the hooks. At this point, a plate is received by the recess 74 in the sleeve 62 as the hooks continue their travel along the fender 118. This plate acts as a cam whereby the sleeve 62 will move forward and grasp the thread 14. The plate 120 may be mounted on a vibrating member 122 whereby the camming action of the hook will be facilitated by the vibrating action.
With the threads 14 grasped by the hooks, continued movement of the belts will bring the ends of the hooks to the end of the fender 118 whereby the hooks can travel to the entry end of the construction. It will be apparent that the provision of the recess 72 in the sleeve 62 will permit release of the thread ends at the opposite end of the weaving zone.
The woven product As the threads 14 move into the weaving zone, the upper and lower threads combine whereby 10 threads per inch pass between the entry pulleys 22. At this point, the ends of the threads commence their undulating movement while the centers of the threads, restrained by the rods 38, are maintained in the same level plane. This results in bunching of the threads at the center, and if, for example, the belt travel exceeds the distance of travel at the center by five times, then the density of threads at the center will increase to 50 threads per inch. Obviously, the number of threads per inch in the finished product can be readily controlled by varying the number of threads fed into the machine. It should be noted, however, that the pulleys 24 can be adjusted relative to the pulleys 26 so as to increase or decrease the distance of movement of the belts relative to the distance of movement of the center of the threads. Such adjustments will automatically vary the density of the threads in the finished product.
It is to be particularly noted that the mechanisms employed for attaching the threads to the hooks carried by the belts do not form a part of this invention. Conventional equipment is available for this purpose; however, various other means could be devised for locating transverse rows of threads between the hooks on the outside flights of the respective conveyors. Obviously, this could even be accomplished by hand, although this would slow down the production rate.
Where automatic equipment is employed, the transverse threads can be attached to the hooks while the belts are moving at the rate of 50 feet per minute. This will provide a production rate of 10 feet per minute if a 5:1 ratio of belt speed to center line speed is maintained in the weaving zone. It is contemplated, however, that much higher speeds could be employed since there is no speed limiting factors as in the case of typical looms where the time-consuming insertion of transverse threads is necessary, plus the intermittent motion of the web.
There are also no limitations with respect to the width of material which can be handled, and it is obvious that the weaving of dual, treble and quadruple threads can readily be accomplished by controlling the thread trans fer at various locations and by inserting any desired number of threads through the guide tubes.
The operating characteristics of the construction described provide other extremely valuable features when compared with conventional looms. Specifically, the operation of this system is continuous since the supply of both the transverse and longitudinal threads can readily be undertaken in a continuous fashion. In the event of any breakage in the threads, the machine operation can simply continue without interruption since the defective area can be readily cut out of the finished product. It is contemplated that the longitudinal threads supplied by the tubes 7 40 can be blown in, and it will be obvious that if the threads should be broken, then only a small area of the total product will be affected.
In order to achieve a woven product of sufficient width, it is quite possible that as many as 800 of the guide tubes 40 will be associated at the sides of the construction. Since this would result in a construction of considerable length, it is conceivable that the construction will be formed in a plurality of folds whereby sufficient operating length can be achieved by using vertical space. In this connection, it will be apparent that proper functioning of the machine does not depend upon the orientation of the machine with the horizontal, and various curves and other modifications are clearly possible without disrupting the basic operating features.
It will be understood that other changes and modifications may be made in the above described construction which provide the characteristics of this invention without departing from the spirit thereof, particularly as defined in the following claims.
That which is claimed is:
1. A weaving machine construction comprising conveyor means adapted to carry rows of transverse threads through the machine, means releasably connecting the ends of said transverse threads to said conveyor means, said threads extending transversely across the machine in a direction substantially perpendicular to the direction of movement of said conveyor means, said conveyor means comprising separate conveyors located on opposite sides of the machine, means for carrying said conveyors into the weaving zone of the machine, means for moving the respective conveyors vicinity of the ends of said transverse threads while the conveyors are in said weaving zone, and wherein the conveyors periodically meet within said weaving zone, and means for transferring the ends of said transverse threads from one conveyor to an adjacent conveyor during the time said conveyors meet in said weaving zone whereby said ends are alternately carried by the separate conveyors, and including means supplying longitudinal threads at points along said weaving zone, said supplying means alternating with the meeting points of said conveyors, said longitudinal threads being taken up by the transverse threads carried by said conveyors and being positioned substantially perpendicular thereto for travel in the direction of movement of said conveyors, said longitudinal threads being woven into said transverse threads as a result of the transferring action of said conveyors.
2. A construction in accordance with claim 1 wherein said conveyor means comprises a pair of flexible conveyors on one side of said machine for releasably carrying each end of transverse threads on said one side, and a corresponding pair of flexible conveyors on the opposite side of said machine for releasably carrying each end of the transverse threads on said opposite side, and wherein said pairs of conveyors bring the respective transverse rows into converging relationship at the beginning of said weaving zone and increasing the row density of said transverse threads.
3. A construction in accordance with claim 2 wherein the centers of said converging transverse rows are held in a substantially constant line of travel whereby the undulating action imparted to the ends of said transverse threads by said conveyors results in the formation of a plurality of cone-like configurations of transverse threads along the path of travel of said conveyors.
4. A construction in accordance with claim 3 wherein said supplying means feed said longitudinal threads into said cone-like configurations to the flattened ends of the configuration, and wherein said flattened ends are formed at the meeting points of said conveyors whereby said longitudinal threads are trapped by the transverse threads as they are transferred at said meeting points so that the longitudinal threads can be carried through the machine.
5. A construction in accordance with claim 4 wherein through an undulating path in the guide means employed for delivering longitudinal threads from said supplying means to said flattened ends, the guide means at the leading end of said portion of travel delivering said longitudinal threads to the center of said rows, and said guide means becoming progressively shorter as said longitudinal threads build up transversely across the machine.
6. A construction in accordance with claim 2 wherein said conveyors comprise elongated belts, and wherein the means for releasably carrying the ends of said transverse threads comprise gripping hooks, and including recesses formed in said belts for resiliently holding said hooks.
7. A construction in accordance with claim 6 wherein said belts define teeth which are adapted to enter into meshing relationship at said meeting points whereby the movement of opposed belts can be synchronized.
8. A construction in accordance with claim 6 including transfer pulleys for carrying said belts at said meeting points, cam means associated with said pulleys, and means acted on by said cam means for engaging said hooks and for thereby forcing said hooks out of one belt and into releasable engagement with an opposed belt.
9. A construction in accordance with claim 8 wherein said belts define openings communicating with the recesses holding said hooks, and including pins carried by said transfer pulleys, said cam means being adapted to force said pins into said openings in said belts to thereby force said hooks out of said recesses.
10. A construction in accordance with claim 9 wherein said transfer pulleys define flanges which form an open interior in the pulleys, said cams comprising stationary members located within said interiors, and said pins being located in openings extending through said flanges whereby one end of said pins is adapted to ride on said cams while the other end of said pins is provided for engagement with said hooks.
11. A construction in accordance with claim 10' wherein said hooks are carried in every other recess on said belts, and wherein the pins in said pulleys are spaced apart by a distance corresponding to every other recess in said belts, the pins in any two opposed pulleys being adapted go alternately engage the successive hooks carried by said elts.
12. A construction in accordance with claim 6 including projecting means defined by said hooks, and means defined by said belts for receiving said projecting means whereby said hooks are maintained in alignment as they transfer from one belt to another.
13. In a weaving process in which longitudinal threads are interwoven with transverse threads in a weaving plane, the steps of advancing a plurality of transverse threads along the weaving plane by ends of the transverse threads and moving the ends of alternate threads in diverging directions through wave paths above and below said weaving plane forming side openings which plane is generally the center line of the openings thus formed, and inserting longitudinal threads through said openings and in an advancing direction to be trapped by the crossing alternate transverse threads to form a woven web moving generally along said weaving plane.
14. The process of claim 13 in which said longitudinal threads are interwoven with transverse thread ends progressively approaching said openings through the trapping action of the crossing of transverse threads.
15. The process of claim 13 in which at entry the transverse threads are confined in said Weaving plane and the ends of alternate transverse threads are moved in wave paths at the opposite sides of said weaving plane to form side openings and into which longitudinal threads are inserted and trapped by the changing position of alternate transverse threads and drawing said longitudinal threads forwardly, thus forming a woven web in said weaving plane.
16. The process of claim 13 in which the longitudinal threads are interwoven first with said middle portions of said transverse threads and then progressively outwardly toward outer portions of said transverse threads.
17. The process of claim 13 in which the longitudinal threads may be introduced through openings following the openings through which said longitudinal threads already interwoven with portions of said transverse threads were inserted.
18. A method for weaving a length of material, comprising the steps of continuously supplying separately-held transversely arranged threads, moving a portion of the threads into compacted relationship, moving the threads through a weaving zone while maintaining a portion of said threads at substantially the same plane of movement, moving both ends of said threads forward in diverging directions through undulating paths extending above and below the weaving plane forming side openings whereby the successive ends meet and cross periodically through the length of said weaving zone, introducing longitudinal threads into the vortex formed by rows of transverse threads at spaced points along said weaving zone, and exchanging the ends of said transverse threads at said meeting points whereby additional longitudinal threads are presented to be trapped and woven into the transverse threads, the trapped threads being thus drawn along and disposed longitudinally in relation to said transverse threads.
19. A method in accordance with claim 18 wherein repetitive cone-like configurations are defined by the transverse thread ends and therein said longitudinal threads are introduced into the opening of the cone-like configurations repeated along the weaving zone whereby said longitudinal threads are trapped by the crossing transverse threads.
20. In a weaving process in which transverse threads are compacted, the steps of advancing a plurality of said transverse threads over similar lengths of forward travel,
moving both ends of said threads in diverging directions through weave paths extending above and below the weaving plane forming side openings and restricting the central portions of said transverse threads in all but forward movements while moving the ends of said threads through longer paths at greater speed.
21. The process of claim 13 in which the ends of unwoven portions of the transverse threads are made to travel through successive undulating paths above and below the Weaving plane While the resulting wave forms maintain the same distance from the edge of the Weaving plane whereby even tension is maintained on said transverse threads.
22. The process of claim 13 in which the longitudinal thread ends are positioned in the crossing points of said transverse threads which are made to alternately cross, thereby trapping the longitudinal threads and drawing them along with their forward movement so that the crossing of the following transverse threads continuously interweaves longitudinal threads.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 579,312 3/1897 Arnold 139-11 1,541,086 6/1925 Wheeler 13911 2,000,643 5/1935 Morton 6685 2,392,489 1/ 1946 Martin 139-28 2,742,058 4/1956 Gentilini 139-28 2,948,302 8/1960 Bejeuhr 13911 3,030,786 4/1962 Mauersberger 66-84 3,156,027 11/1964 Wellrnan 281 FOREIGN PATENTS 583,830 10/1958 Italy. 112,278 10/ 1964 Czechoslovakia.
JAMES KEE CHI, Primary Examiner,