|Publication number||US3449158 A|
|Publication date||Jun 10, 1969|
|Filing date||Oct 23, 1967|
|Priority date||Feb 27, 1963|
|Publication number||US 3449158 A, US 3449158A, US-A-3449158, US3449158 A, US3449158A|
|Inventors||Rowland William P|
|Original Assignee||Rowland Products Inc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (31), Classifications (12)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
W. F. ROWLAND KING STRIP 196 D LENTICULAR COMPOSITE TICAL EFFECTS A PH FOR June 10, 1969 METHOD OF MA Sheet of 5 Original Filed Feb. 27
INVENTO WILLIAM F? RQWL I ATTORNEY AND 3,449,158 LENTICULAR COMPOSITE AL EFFECTS June 10, 1969 w. P. ROWL METHOD OF MAKING A PHASED STRIP FOR OPTIC Original Filed Feb. 27, 1965 Sheet 2 0f5 INVENTOR.
WILLIAM R ROWLAND A TTOR/VEY June 10, 1969 P ROWLAN D METHOD OF -MAKI A PHASED LENTICULAR COMPOSI STRIP FOR OPTICAL EFFECTS Original Filed Feb. 27, 1963 F/GZ 9 FIG /0 W FIG. /3 7% INVENTOR. WILLIAM F? ROWLAND A TTOR/VE Y United States Patent US. Cl. 156209 12 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE There is disclosed a method for making synthetic plastic sheet material for producing optical effects wherein a pair of strips of synthetic plastic material is formed with a multiplicity of closely spaced formations on one side thereof. The two strips are then laminated back-to-back to provide a composite strip having lens-like formations on one surface and reflective formations on the other surface with the reflective formations phasing into and out of axial registry with the lens-like formations in at least one direction of the surface to provide varying optical effects due to variation in the angle of incidence of light rays focused by the lens-like formations onto the tapering sidewalls of the reflective formations.
The reflective formations may be coated with a reflective material or may have the sidewalls thereof tapering at an angle greater than the critical angle for reflection in the synthetic plastic material to provide reflectance of the predominant light rays impinging thereon. Phasing in and out of alignment may be effected by varying the center-to-center spacing of the lens-like formations relative to the reflective formations or by having at least one axis of the pattern of the reflective formations extending at an angle to at least one axis of the pattern of the lens-like formations.
Cross-reference to related application The present application is a division of copendng application Ser. No. 261,385, filed Feb. 27, 1963 entitled Phased Lenticular Sheets for Optical Effects now US. Patent No. 3,357,772, granted Dec. 12, 1967.
Background of the invention It has heretofore been proposed to produce reflective or optical sheets or molded articles of synthetic plastic material having lenses or lenticular formations upon one or both surfaces. Exemplary of such proposals are the United States patents to Jungersen Nos. 2,310,790 and 2,380,477; Boone No. 2,700,919; Lemelson No. 2,951,- 419; Waters No. 2,330,096; Gabor No. 2,351,034; and Chretien Reissue 19,070. However, such materials have been intended to produce a high degree of retroreflection, interference effects or to substitute for conventional lens structures.
It is an object of the present invention to provide relatively economical and facile methods for making synthetic plastic sheet material which is capable of producing a wide range of optical effects with light rays falling thereon over a wide angle of incidence.
Another object is to provide a novel and relatively economical method for making synthetic plastic sheet material for reflective purposes which is capable of producing a significant degree of retroreflection of light rays falling thereon over a wide angle of incidence and also of providing suflicient light scattering and highlights at a wide angle of light incidence thereto so as to enable observation thereof by a viewer over a wide viewing angle substantially irrespective of the angle of the light rays falling thereon.
Still another object is to provide a novel and relatively economical method for making decorative sheet material which is capable of a wide range of decorative optical pattern effects for use as display material, decorative trim and other applications where attention gathering is desirable or for use as a decorative and protective finish for elements such as building panels.
Summary of the invention It has now been found that the foregoing and related objects can be readily attained by forming a first strip of synthetic plastic material of substantial length and width dimensions with a body portion of substantially uniform thickness and a multiplicity of closely spaced curvilinear lens-like formations on one surface thereof which extend in axes perpendicular to the front surface thereof. A second strip of plastic material is formed so as to have substantial length and width dimensions with a body portion of substantially uniform thickness and a multiplicity of closely spaced reflective formations on one surface thereof extending in a perpendicular axis to such surface. The first and second strips are then laminated together to provide a strip of composite sheet material wherein the reflective formations are in a parallel plane spaced from the plane of the lens-like formations. Each of the lens-like and reflective formations diminish in cross section in all planes which include its perpendicular axis to provide sidewalls which taper inwardly from the point of greatest cross section. Each of the lens-like formations is curvilinear in cross section in all planes which include the perpendicular axis and in all planes which extend normally through the perpendicular axis.
The two strips are laminated so that the reflective formations phase in and out of perpendicular axis registry with the lens-like formations in at least one direction of their outer surfaces to provide varying optical effects due to variation in the angle of incidence of light rays focused between lens-like formations onto the tapering sidewalls of the reflective formations. The center-tocenter spacing of the lens-like formations do not deviate more than about 10 percent (10%) from the center-tocenter spacing of the reflective formations and the close spacing of the lens-like and reflective formations preclude any bands of flat surface therebetween in any direction of the surface of the composite strip. The tapering sidewalls of the reflective formations reflect the dominant portion of light rays impinging thereon and the composite prestrip is of a thickness to effect substantial focusing of light rays passing through the lens-like formations and impinging upon the reflective formations for substantial reflection thereof.
Brief description of the drawings FIGURE 1 is a fragmentary plan view to the naked eye of the pattern in a strip of plastic sheet material embodying the present invention;
FIGURE 2 is a fragmentary plan view to a greatly enlarged scale of the strip in FIGURE 1 showing the embossments on the top surface in full line and the embossments on the rear surface in dotted line;
FIGURE 3 is a cross-sectional view along the line 33 of FIGURE 2;
FIGURE 4 is a cross-sectional view along the line 44 of FIGURE 2;
FIGURE 5 is a fragmentary plan view to the naked eye of the pattern in a strip of plastic material produced in accordance with another embodiment of the present invention;
FIGURE 6 is a fragmentary plan view to a greatly enlarged scale of strip produced in accordance with still another embodiment of the present invention and showing the embossments on the top surface in full line and the embossments on the rear surface in dotted line;
FIGURE 7 is a cross-sectional view along the line 7--7 of FIGURE 6;
FIGURE 8 is a cross-sectional view along the line 8-8 of FIGURE 6;
FIGURE 9 is a fragmentary plan view to an enlarged scale of a strip of plastic sheet material produced in accordance with a further embodiment of the present invention;
FIGURE 10 is a cross-sectional view to a greatly onlarged scale of the plastic strip of FIGURE 9;
FIGURE 11 is a fragmentary plan view to the naked eye of the pattern in a strip of plastic sheet material in accordance with a further embodiment of the present invention;
FIGURE 12 is a fragmentary plan view to a greatly enlarged scale of the strip in FIGURE 11 similar to FIG- URE 2;
FIGURE 13 is a cross-sectional view to a greatly enlarged scale of a panel having still another embodiment of plastic sheet material mounted thereon;
FIGURE 14 is a diagrammatic representation of a method employed for making the plastic sheet material of the present invention; and
FIGURE 15 is a diagrammatic view showing the optical effects produced by reflector sheet material embodying the present invention.
Description of the preferred embodiments Referring now in detail to the attached drawings, FIG- URES 1-4 illustrate one embodiment of the plastic sheet material produced in accordance with the present invention and generally designated by the numeral 2. In FIG- URE 1, the apparent visual pattern to the naked eye of the sheet material 2 is illustrated as comprised of a multiplicity of spheres generally designated by the numeral 4 and arranged in a repeating hexagonal pattern. In the greatly enlarged views of FIGURES 2-4, the structure of the sheet material 2 may be seen to be comprised of a pair of layers of plastic material 6, 8 bonded back to back and each having a multiplicity of semi-spherical embossments 10, 12 similarly arranged in hexagonal patterns. The spherical embossments 10, 12 of both layers 6, 8 are closely spaced, the actual spacing having been enlarged in the drawings to facilitate illustration. Since the engraving of the embossing roll for intersecting embossments will provide pointed intersections between adjacent depressions which may fracture or wear unevenly, the surface of the roll preferably is polished slightly to remove the pointed intersections, thus resulting in slight planar spacing between adjacent embossments.
In this embodiment, the layers 6, 8 each employ embossments 10, 12 of substantially identical size and configuration but the spacing between centers of adjacent embossments 12 on the bottom surface is greater along all axes of the strip than the spacing between the top embossments 10. In this manner, the embossments 10, 12 of the top and bottom layers will phase in and out of axial registry along the several axes of the strip 2. Thus, at point A, embossments 10, 12 in the two layers are perfectly aligned. However, radially outwardly in all directions therefrom, the vertically registering pairs of embossments first increase in misalignment and then reduce therefrom until axial registry is again obtained. The rear surface of the strip 2 has a thin metallic coating or layer 14 applied thereto, conveniently by vacuum metallizing, to provide greatly increased reflection of light rays striking the rear surface over wider angles of incidence. As previously indicated, the deviation in spacing may be accomplished by use of different embossing rolls having differing patterns or by stretching or shrinking one of the layers 6, 8 to a controlled degree.
In the embodiment of FIGURE 5, the strip generally designated by the numeral 16 has an elongated pattern tit of a moire type and similarly is comprised of a pair of layers (not shown) each having substantially identical closely spaced semi-spherical embossments (not shown). The lower layer, however, has a greater spacing, on centers, of the embossments in the direction XX than in the direction YY, and the Spacing in both directions XX and YY is greater than the spacing on centers in the top layer.
In the embodiment of FIGURES 6-8, the strip generally designated by the numeral 20 is similarly comprised of a pair of layers 22, 24 each having a multiplicity of semi-spherical embossments 26, 28, and the bottom layer 24 has a reflective metallic coating 29. In this embodiment, the pattern of embossments for the two layers 26, 28 are identical but one layer is twisted to a small angle about a point prior to lamination. In this manner, the embossments 26, 28 are axially aligned at point A but phase in and out of axial alignment radially outwardly therefrom.
In the embodiment of FIGURES 9 and 10, the strip generally designated by the numeral 30 is again comprised of two layers 32, 34 but the embossments 36 at the top layer 32 are of parabolic configuration as best seen in FIGURE 9 and the embossments 38 of the rear layer 34 are of generally semi-spherical configuration. The spacing on centers of the embossments 38 is greater than the spacing of the embossments 36 so that the lens-like embossments 36, 38 will move out of axial registry along the various axes from the Point A.
In the embodiment of FIGURES 11 and 12, a different visual effect is obtained in the strip generally designated by the numeral 40 wherein the pattern to the naked eye shown in FIGURE 11 appears to be one having a multiplicity of crateror cup-like depressions generally designated by the numeral 42. The strip 40 is again comprised of two layers of plastic sheet material 44, 46 each having a multiplicity of semi-spherical embossments 48, 50. The embossments 48 of the top layer 44 are more widely spaced than the bottom embossments 50 of the layer 46 to result in the apparent image of the cup-like depressions 42.
In FIGURE 13, a rigid reflective panel generally designated by the numeral is shown as comprised of a metal substrate 62 to which has been bonded by adhesive 64 a strip of the sheet material of the present invention generally designated by the numeral 66. The adhesive 64 fills the cavities between the embossments 68 and protects the metallic layer 70 on the bottom surface of the layer 72. In this embodiment, it can be seen that the semi-spherical embossments 74 of the top layer 76 are of smaller diameter than the embossments 68 of the bottom layer 72.
A highly effective method of making the sheet material of the present invention is diagrammatically illustrated in FIGURE 14. Two strips 100, 102 of plastic sheet material each embossed on one surface and having patterns which will ensure the desired phasing are passed back to back between a pair of rubber pinch rolls 104, 106 as solvent from the supply 108 is applied to their mating surfaces to soften the surfaces for lamination by the rolls 104, 106. The rubber pinch rolls 104, 106 apply sufficient pressure to bond firmly the tacky surfaces of the two strips 100, 102 without materially injuring the embossments thereon. After lamination, the composite strip 110 is then coiled and the residual solvent is allowed to evaporate therefrom.
Referring now to the diagrammatic view of FIGURE 15 for an understanding of the operation of the present invention by reference to a single axis, the sheet material 198 is similar to that illustrated in FIGURES 14. The total thickness of the sheet material is approximately equal to the focal length of the lens-like embossments 200 of the front surface as indicated by the focal plane 1 At point A, the top and bottom embossments 200a, 2020 are in axial alignment. The pairs of embossments 2001), 202/) and 2000, 2020 are slightly out of axial alignment due to the difference in spacing, on centers, of the embossments 200, 202. At a greater distance outwardly from the point A, the embossments 200d, 202d deviate substantially from axial alignment.
Rays of light N normal to the front surface striking the axially aligned embossment 200a are refracted and focused substantially onto the center of the embossment 202a at the focal plane f and are reflected by the metallic coating 204 parallel to the original path so as to provide retroreflection. The rays of light N also normal to the front surface and striking the axially unaligned embossment 200d are refracted to an area n on the concave side surface of the embossment 202d at an angle deviating from normal to the tangent at this area. Since the focal plane f is spaced beyond the area n, the rays N are reflected to a focal area f equal in spacing thereto and from which the rays begin to diverge as indicated in broken line. Eventually the rays N exit through the adjacent embossment 2002 at an angle deviating considerably from normal to the sheet 198, thus providing illumination at an angle considerably distinct from that of the source of light. This same light scattering will occur to greater or lesser degree of angularity at other pairs of embossments within each series or phase in all axes of the sheet material 198.
However, the sheet material 198 is retroreflective not only to light rays normal to the front surface. The rays L at an acute angle thereto when refracted by the embossment 200a will not be focused into the focal plane f" of the embossment 202a but to an area 1 on the concave side surface at an angle deviating from normal to the tangent thereat. Since the focal plane f is spaced therefrom, the rays L are reflected to the focal point f" equal in spacing thereto from which the rays L begin to diverge as indicated in broken line.
However, rays L striking the embossment 200d at the same angle to the normal as that of the rays L are refracted and focused to the area 1 on the concave side surface of the axially displaced embossment 202d. The rays L strike the concave surface at an angle normal to a tangent thereat and are reflected back along parallel paths to produce retroreflection.
Since rays at substantially any given angle will similarly focus and strike the concave surfaces of the reflective rear embossments of a series or phase normal to a tangent thereat, retroreflection will be provided thereby while other reflective rear embossments will provide light scattering so as to :make the sheet material visible over a wide viewing angle deviating from the angle of the light source.
In the instance of sheet material not having a reflective coating on the rear surface, this same wide variation in the angle of incidence of parallel light rays striking various portions of the sloping surfaces of the rear embossments at various angles of incidence will provide areas wherein the angle of incidence is greater than the critical angle so that the light rays are totally reflected to produce highlights and light scattering.
Indicative of the eflicacy of the present invention is the following specific example.
EXAMPLE An embossing roll was prepared having substantially hemi-spherical cavities therein of about 0.016 inch diameter arranged in a hexagonal pattern substantially as shown in FIGURES 1-4 with a spacing between centers of about 0.018 inch. Cellulose butyrate sheet material was extruded into the nip between the embossing roll and a rubber backup roll to provide an embossed strip of about 0.013 inch thickness substantially as shown for the top layer in FIGURE 2. The focal length of the embossments was determined to be about 0.026 inch.
A portion of the strip was stretched both longitudinally and transversely about 4 percent (4%) which resulted in a strip substantially as shown for the bottom layer in FIGURES 2-4. Acetone was applied to the back or unembossed surfaces and the two strips were laminated together between rubber rolls. Subsequently, the surface formed by the stretched layer was provided with a vacuum metallized coating of aluminum and then a protective coating of lacquer was applied thereto.
The resultant sheet material had a brilliant pattern of apparent spheres arranged in a hexagonal pattern substantially as shown in FIGURE 1.
It will be appreciated that the sheet materials produced by the present invention and the actual techniques employed may assume other specific forms. Although concave depressions might be used to provide the lenslike and reflective formations, they are subject to obje-ctions because of the divergence of the light rays produced thereby and the tendency to become fouled readily by dust and contamination as well as because of reduced retroreflective action. However, convex lens-like embossments, i.e. having a convex vertical cross section, have proven highly effective in providing convergence of light rays and a relatively high degree of retroreflection as well as exhibiting a reduced tendency toward fouling by dust and other contamination. It will be readily apparent that multiple-stage formation may locate the reflective formations in a plane parallel to the front surface and spaced therefrom but within the body of the sheet material. From the standpoints of ease of production and operability when no reflective coating is employed, it is generally desirable to produce the reflective formations as embossments on the sheet material at least initially, although they may, in some instances, thereafter have additional plastic material placed thereon either after a reflective coating has been applied thereto or in a fashion to maintain substantially the air interface and reflective action.
By providing a reflective coating on the reflective formations instead of relying entirely upon the critical angle for reflection, the sheet material may be rendered more highly reflective and even more optically interesting due to accentuation of highlights and due to accentuation of reflection of incident light rays. However, either the critical angle for reflection or a reflective coating where such critical angle is not employed or the combination thereof may be utilized to provide reflection of the predominant portion of the light rays impinging upon the tapering sidewalls of the reflective embossments. The passing in and out of axial alignment of the lens and reflector formations within each node or phase of the pattern produces a multiplicity of areas of dazzling brightness due to reflection of the light in bundles of parallel rays and also eifetcively ensures a number of lens and reflector combinations to retroreflect light rays over a wide angle of incidence.
As will be readily appreciated, the synthetic plastic sheet material of the present invention may include dyes to impart various colors or tones thereto. Alternatively, the reflective coatings may be applied.
Generally, the lens-like embossments are each of a configuration which will focus substantially the light rays entering thereinto from various directions and, accordingly, have a curvilinear convex periphery and horizontal cross secti0ni.e., they are curvilinear in cross section in planes which include the perpendicular axes of the embossments and in planes which extend through such perpendicular axes. Although parabolic configurations are the more highly eflicient focusing elements, major segments of spheres, preferably approximating hemispheres, have also proven highly effective. Since some distortion of the spherical configuration may occur and be tolerated in the present invention, the term spheroidal is used herein to encompass both spherical configurations and those configurations deviating somewhat therefrom. Although the embossment on the other or rear surface may be prismatic or conical in configuration, it is far more preferable to employ lens-like embossments to obtain considerably greater optical activity and greater reflection as well as retroreflection. When the rear surface is not metallized, the sidewalls of the embossments on the rear surface should taper steeply to ensure a high degree of reflection of the light rays impinging thereon. When the rear surface has a reflective coating and lens-like embossments are employed on the rear surface, the convex sidewalls of the rear embossments may taper more gradually to obtain greatest reflection from the center of the lens-like embossments forming the mirrors.
The embossments must be of relatively small width and closely spaced so as to obtain the repetitive phasing in and out of axial registry within relatively short distances. Generally, the embossments must be less than about 0.040 inch in width to achieve the desired effect and preferably less than about 0.025 inch. To maintain close spacing and to minimize flats between embossment a hexagonal pattern of embossments is desirably employed.
To phase the embossments of the rear surface in and out of axial registry with the lens-like embossments of the front surface, the vertical misalignment of the two embossments must progressively vary along any given line or horizontal axis of the sheet material. This may be effected by variation in the relative spacing between centers of adjacent embossments in the two surfaces, by the combination of shape and spacing of the embossments on the two surfaces, or by arranging patterns of similar embossments along different or diverging linear axes of the sheet. However, the spacing between centers of embossments on one surface should not deviate from the spacing between centers of embossments on the other surface by more than about 10 percent (10%) and preferably not more than about 7 percent (7%), in order to maintain relatively large linear length to a single node or complete phase and also to ensure optimum reflection or retroreflection over a wide angle of light incidence. By having greater spacing, on centers, on the rear surface, the pattern appears to be one which stands out of the sheet material whereas greater spacing, on centers, of the embossments in the top surface presents an appearance of concavity or depth. By variation in differential spacing in the major axes, a moire or diffuse pattern can be obtained.
The thickness of the sheet material is largely dependent upon the focal length of the lens-like embossments of the front surface (and of the rear surface when lens-like embossments are employed thereon). For purely decorative effect, the total thickness of the sheet material may vary from about one-half to two and one-half times the focal length of the lens-like embossments on the front surface. For retroreflective purposes with lens-like embossments and a reflective coating on the rear surface, the thickness of the sheet should be substantially equal to the focal length of the lens-like embossments on the front surface causing the light rays to focus at about the centers of the reflective embossments or to the sum of the focal lengths of the lens-like embossments on the front surface and the lens-like mirrors on the rear surface, the former being optimum for maximum retroreflectivity. However, a measure of variation and deviation is tolerable in the present invention since constant axial phasing over the axes of the sheet will result in refracted light rays striking and focusing at various points along the convexly curved surfaces of the rear lens-like projections of each period or phase so as to achieve a significant amount of retrorefiection from one or more combinations of embossments in various degrees of axial registration in a single phase or period of the pattern.
Various synthetic plastics may be used for the plastic sheet material of the present invention, including acrylic acid esters such as methyl methacrylate, cellulose acetate, cellulose acetatebutyrate, cellulose propionate, vinyl chloride and copolymers thereof, polystyrene, polycarbonates, cellulose nitrate, polypropylene and polyethylene. Laminates may be desirable to provide more highly weatherand abrasion-resistant surfaces such as by use of very thin surface films of polyethylene terephthalate.
The reflective coating on the rear surface is preferably a metallic coating applied by chemical deposition or by vacuum metallizing, although the reflective coating may be provided by a metallized synthetic plastic film lami- 8 nated or bonded into intimate overall surface contact with the rear surface of the sheet material. When a metallic coating is applied, it is highly desirable to provide protection therefor by a superposed coating of laquer, plastic film or other means.
Although the sheet material of the present invention may be used per se for various purposes such as decorative or reflective elements in planar state or by forming it into non-planar forms, it may also be mounted upon or laminated to substrates of various types for a wide range of uses such as building panels, rigid reflector elements and rigid or moving signs. When the sheet material is laminated or bonded to a substrate, it is desirable to employ a synthetic plastic material which will fill the spaces about the embossments on the rear surfaces without injuring or distorting the sheet material or its optical properties. In this manner, distortion of the rear embossments may be avoided. However, where the rear surface has not been metallized, then substantial destruction of reflective power of the rear embossments should be avoided as by maintaining substantially the air interface by merely bonding the peaks of the embossments to the substrate. Similarly, a protective facing of transparent material may be bonded to or spaced from the peaks of the lens-like embossments of the front surface to preclude dust, dirt and other contamination from the minute, lens-like embossments and greatly reduce their optical properties.
Although it is possible to emboss the two surfaces of a single sheet by a pair of embossing rollers, there is considerable difliculty in obtaining good flow and formation of the synthetic plastic of the relatively thin sheeting in the engraved recesses of the rollers so that well-formed embossments which are substantially identical across each surface are obtained. Moreover, some difiiculty may also be experienced due to surface slippage and flow in maintaining the desired degree of non-registry of the embossing patterns to obtain the desired phasing along the several axes of the sheet material. It has been found that optimum formation of the embossments, and particularly the lens-like embossments, and practical control of the nonregistry so as to obtain readily variable patterns may be obtained by techniques of the present invention wherein there are laminated back-to-back two strips of sheet material each embossed on one surface under conditions which produce no significant distortion of the embossments, the lamination being conveniently effected by use of solvent for the sheet material and relatively light pressure applied by rubber pinch rolls. The desired phasing of the embossments can be assured by use of two different embossing rolls having different patterns by reason of embossments which are of different spacing and/or in patterns along different axes. Alternatively, the same embossing roll may be used for both strips and then one of the strips may be stretched or shrunk to a controlled degree which will generally elongate or shrink the web in the spacing between embossments due to the thinner section. Various techniques for stretching and shrinking synthetic plastic sheet material are known in the art including those techniques disclosed in the following United States patents: Peterson 2,759,217; Vandierendonck 3,124,834; Bottoms et al. 2,918,696; Koppehele 3,078,504; and Dayen et al. 3,081,571. Also, the pattern of the embossments on a single roll may be at a predetermined angle to the axis thereof so that the reversal of two strips produced thereby will result in embossed patterns running along differing or diverging axes.
For unusual and striking displays or signs, printing or designs may be applied on the surface having the lens-like embossments and the image will appear to stand out from or lie within the body of the sheet material depending upon the relative spacing of the top and bottom embossments. When the reflective surface has no metallic reflective coating, the printing may be applied thereto with generally similar effect. The image will also appear to move about the surface as the viewing angle is changed. Because of the excellent reflective properties of the preferred sheet material, it is an optimum reflective material for emergency or street signs since illumination from substantially any source will be retroreflected in part and scattered in part to provide illumination of the sign over a wide viewing angle. Moreover, during the daytime or when light is striking the surface from a number of sources or over a wide angle such as in daylight, the sheet material nevertheless will produce highlights to attract attention.
By mounting on panels sheet material employing more subdued patterns, ideal structural units can be provided wherein the plastic sheet material will not only be ornamental but also serve as a protective surface. Various other applications for such material will be readily apparent in view of the wide range of optical effects which may be obtained thereby.
Thus, it can be seen from the foregoing detailed specifi-- cation that the present invention provides a facile and economical method for making sheet material which is capable of a wide range of optical effects with light rays falling thereon over a wide angle of incidence and which may be used not only for highly effective decorative purposes but also for very useful and relatively economical reflectors since it enables observation over a wide viewing angle substantially irrespective of the angle of the light rays. The sheet material may be used in combination with substrates to provide relatively rigid panels such as for construction.
Having thus described the invention, I claim:
1. In the method of making synthetic plastic sheet material for producing optical effects, the steps comprising: forming synthetic plastic sheet material with a body portion of substantial length and width dimensions and of substantially uniform thickness and having a multiplicity of closely spaced curvilinear lens-like formations on one surface thereof each projecting in an axis perpendicular thereto, each of said formations diminishing in horizontal cross section outwardly from said body portion in all planes which include its perpendicular axes to provide side walls tapering inwardly from said body portion toward each perpendicular axis; assembling and laminating in back-to-back relationship two strips of said synthetic plastic sheet material with the formations on the outer surfaces thereof to provide a composite strip, said strips being assembled so that the formations of one strip phase in and out .of axial registry with the formations of the other strip in at least one direction of said surfaces, the formations of at least one strip being curvilinear in all planes which include its perpendicular axis and in all planes which extend normally through its perpendicular axis to provide lens-like configuration, said phasing in and out of axial registry providing varying optical effects due to variation in the angle of incidence of light rays focused by the lens-like formations of said one strip onto the tapering side walls of the formations of the other strip which thereby function as reflective formations, the center-tocenter close spacing of said lens-like formation of one strip deviating not more than 10 percent from the center-to-center close spacing of the formations of the other strip, said strips of said material providing a combined thickness to the composite strip which effects substantial focusing of light rays passing through said lens-like formations and impinging upon said formations of said other strip for substantial reflection of the light rays.
2. The method of claim 1 wherein a reflective coating is applied to said one surface of said other strip to form a reflective coating on said formations thereof providing said reflecting of the predominant portion of light rays impinging thereon.
3. The method of claim 1 wherein said formations of said other strip have sidewalls tapering at an angle greater than the critical angle for reflection in said synthetic plastic to provide said reflecting of the predominant portion of light rays impinging thereon.
4. The method of claim 1 wherein said lens-like formations are substantially parabolic in cross section in planes including said perpendicular axes.
5. The method of claim 1 wherein said formations of said other strip are of curvilinear lens-like configuration similar to the configuration of said lens-like formations on said one strip.
6. The method of claim 1 wherein the center-to-center spacing of the lens-like formations differs from the center-to-center spacing of the formations of said other strip in at least said one direction of said surfaces to provide the phasing in and out of axial alignment in said one direction.
7. The method of claim 1 wherein said strips are assembled with the formations on the outside surfaces and solvent is applied to their mating surfaces and then laminating pressure is applied thereto.
8. The method of claim 1 wherein one of said strips is initially embossed with the same pattern as the other of said strips and is thereafter altered in dimensions so as to produce a differential in spacing between the center-to-center distance of the formations thereof and the center-to-center distance of the formations of the other strip.
9. The method of claim 1 wherein said formations are arranged in patterns having at least two axes and wherein said strips are assembled with at least one axis of said pattern of said one strip extends at an angle to at least one axis of said pattern of said other strip to provide the phasing in and out of alignment of said lens-like and reflective formations.
10. The method of claim 1 wherein the axial distance between the opposite outer surfaces of said lens-like and reflective formations in the composite strip is substantially equal to the focal length of said lens-like formations so as to provide a thickness for said material effecting said substantial focusing of light rays passing through said lens-like formations and impinging upon said reflective formations for substantial reflection thereof.
11. The method of claim 2 wherein the distance between the outer surfaces of said lens-like and reflective formations is substantially equal to the sum of the focal length of said lens-like formations and the focal length of said reflectively coated reflective formations.
12. The method of claim 9 wherein said first and second strips are embossed with the identical pattern and assembled with one of said strips pivoted about an axis of its pattern prior to lamination.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,351,034 6/1944 Gabor 350-167 2,614,953 10/1952 Anglada.
3,081,571 3/1963 Dayen et a1 156-84 XR 3,073,736 1/1963 Lange 156-307 3,264,164 8/1966 Jerothe et a1 156-209 XR PHILIP DIER, Primary Examiner.
U.S. Cl. X.R.
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|U.S. Classification||156/209, 359/542, 156/229, 264/1.9, 156/280, 428/29, 264/1.6, 264/2.7|
|International Classification||B44F1/00, B44F1/10|