US 3451393 A
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June 1969 s. J. SARNOFF AUTOMATIC INFUSION DEVICE f f 3 m 0 f W m 0 I a mx QR 5 c w m QQ 3. 9 9 A4 8 ///V \H\ mm Q w 7. Wm M QM Q m H ATTORNEY June 24, 1969 1 5, s o 3,451,393
AUTOMATIC INFUS ION DEVICE Filed Feb. 7. 1966 Sheet 2 of 3 u: 0 N3 g E Q, Q m :3 is
I'll 1 1' HW I! M I NVENT OR Slan/ey J. Sarnaff ATTORNEY 5 June 24, 1969 5. J. SARNOFF 3,451,393
AUTOMA'I IC INFUS ION DEVICE Filed Feb. 7. 1966 Sheet 3 of 3 FIG. 5
INVENTOR Slam/ e y J. Sarnoff ATTORNEYS United States Patent 3,451,393 AUTOMATIC INFUSION DEVICE Stanley J. Sarnoff, 7507 Hampden Lane, Bethesda, Md. 20014 Filed Feb. 7, 1966, Ser. No. 525,399 Int. Cl. A61m /14 US. Cl. 128-214 11 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE An automatic infusion device comprises a pair of cylinders with a medication in one cylinder and a diluent in the other, said cylinders each containing at one end thereof a piston under spring pressure to move toward the other end of the piston, the cylinders at the other end having an intercommunicating duct to enable transfer of contents from one cylinder to the other. A valved branch conduit having a hypodermic needle at the end thereof enables the commingled materials to be ejected from the needle.
This invention relates to an automatic infusion device. In particular, it relates to an infusion device which can be utilized to administer a medicament to a patient with a minimum of attendance and under universal conditions.
There are circumstances when a large number of individuals are exposed to conditions which require the im mediate administration of large dosages of a medicament over an extended period of time, as one-half hour. This administration may be necessitated by reason of inhalation of poisonous crop control insecticides, or other poisonous gases, the latter perhaps occurring on a battlefield. This medication may have to be administered to a .large number of patients with few medical or other qualified personnel to administer the same.
It is an object of this invention to provide an automatic infusion device, the medicament from which can be administered to a patient, under pressure, but with fixed means, tailored in accordance with the tolerance of a patient and the medicament employed, to restrict the maximum rate of injection of the medication into the patient.
It is another object of this invention to provide an automatic infusion device, the medicament from which can be quickly administered to a patient and which may then be left unattended until the infusion is completed.
It is a further object of the invention to provide such a device which needs no pendant support and which device may be laid on the ground alongside of a patient or on the body of a patient.
Another object of the invention is to provide a twopart automatic infusion device, one of which may contain a dry powdered medication or a liquid medication, and the other a diluent for that powder or liquid, with means to force the diluent, under pressure, into the part containing the powder or liquid in order to ensure turbulent and effective mixing or dissolving of the powder in the diluent, or mixing of the diluent and liquid.
Other objects of the invention will become apparent after a consideration of the following specification, when taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawing, in which:
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of the infusion device, the
. cover being displaced, for greater clarity in viewing two barrels within a casing, the infusion device being in cocked position ready for administration of the medicament;
FIG. 2 is a perspective view of the casing and its contents with the diluent from a first barrel of the device forced into admixture with the medicament in the second barrel;
FIG. 3 is a perspective view of the casing and its contents, showing the medicament as it is being forced out of the second barrel and through a hypodermic needle, also forming part of the device;
FIG. 4 is a longitudinal cross-sectional view through the two barrels of the device, and showing additional appurtenant parts;
FIG. 5 is an enlarged cross-sectional detail of one end of a barrel; and
FIG. 6 is a view of a single barrel automatic infusion device with a predetermined restricted orifice in the feed line bet-ween the barrel and the needle.
For a better understanding of the invention, attention is directed to the following detailed description.
The infusion device comprises, in general, a casing 10 and its cover 12, the casing having a vertical partition wall 14 therein dividing the easing into two compartments. In one of the compartments is a first barrel 16 containing a cartridge 18 with a diluent 20 therein and in the other is a second barrel 22 containing medication, here shown in the form of a powder 24 within a cartridge 26. Joining the two barrels is a cross duct 28 and connected as a branch line to the cross duct is a tubing 30 provided with a shut-off and regulator valve 32. When the valve is closed and drive mechanism within barrel 16 is released, diluent is forced through the duct 28 into the cartridge 26 and mixes with the contents of the second cartridge or dissolves its contents. Now, when the regulator valve 32 is opened, and the drive mechanism in the second barrel 22 is released, the medication will be forced out through the tubing 30 and the hypodermic needle 34 at the end of the tubing.
Referring more in particular to FIG. 4, it will be noted that the first barrel 16 is comprised of an outer cylinder 36, preferably of transparent glass or plastic, shouldered intermediate its ends as indicated at 38 and the inner cartridge 18 is seated against the shoulder and comprises a transparent wall 40, the cartridge containing the diluent 20 being normally retained in the cartridge by a piston 42 at one end of the cartridge and a stopper 44 at the other end thereof. The stopper is provided with a thin diaphragm 46 which, when the piston 42 is operated, exerts a pressure on the diluent and which in turn causes the diluent to transmit a pressure to the diaphragm, thereby distending and finally bursting it. Piercing pins, as pins 48 in FIG. 5., forming part of the cartridge end stopper 44 may be provided to ensure bursting of the diaphragm when the same is distended and impinges on the pins. Further amplification of this feature will be found in the continuation application of Sarnoff 700 299, filed J an. 24, 1968. The cartridge is held within the outer cylinder by an end cap 52 having a split skirt 54, as at 55, FIG. 5, the inner portion of the skirt having a recess 56 circumferentially of the inner wall to spring over arcuate beads 58 on the wall of the cylinder 36. To retain the split skirt in place and preventing the spread of the skirt portion of the cap, there is provided an internally tapered sleeve 60, frictionally slipped over the skirt portion of the cap. The duct 2-8 passes in liquid tight relationship through the cap and has its inner end flanged as at 62 to prevent outward dislodgement of the duct from the stopper.
To effect the distension of the diaphragm, its bursting and to drive the liquid out of the cartridge, there is provided a plunger 64 on the end of a plunger rod 66, the rear end of the rod passing through an aperture 68 larger in diameter than the diameter of the rod and located in a second end stopper 70, of hard material. The end stopper acts as a firing seat and is fixed in place in the barrel 16 in any desired manner as by the provision. of pins or screws 69 passing through the barrel wall and engaging in the material of the stopper. The stopper 70 in the cocked position of parts is engaged by a notch 74- in the rod and thus prevents the rod and plunger 64 from moving under the influence exerted thereto by a heavy spring 76 reacting between the plunger and the inner face of stopper 70. A safety device is provided in the form of an angled safety pin 78 which when engaged in the aperture 68 of the stopper holds the notch in the rod in engagement with the stopped and prevents inadvertent lateral freeing movement of the rod. With the safety pin 78 Withdrawn from the aperture, the rod may be moved laterally, effecting release of notch 74 from the stopper. The spring 76 is now effective to drive the fluid out of cartridge 18.
The second barrel 22 and associated parts are fairly similar to the barrel 16 and its parts. A distinction between the two may be in the strength of the spring 76 compared with spring 80 in barrel 22. The spring 76 can be of such strength as to exert a greater force when it is fully expanded within the barrel 16 and cartridge 18 than when the spring 80 is fully compressed in barrel 22 and the cartridge 82 within the barrel.
This is so since it may be desirable to prevent retrovert action of the fluid when the spring 80 is released and to expel all of the contents of the cartridge 82 into the duct 28 rather than into cartridge 18 in barrel 16. However, this is not absolutely necessary since, even if fluid be driven back into cartridge 16, it will be eventually expelled by the action of spring 76. Preferably, the springs are alike. The design of the mechanism for sealing off the contents of the cartridge 82 from the duct 28 may also be different. Since initially a fluid is forced into the cartridge 82, the opening in the duct to said cartridge may be sealed off by a thin membrane 84. Behind the membrane and within the cartridge is placed the medication here shown as a powder tablet 86, but the medication may be a fluid. Against the medication is a frictionally held stopper or piston 88. When the safety pin 78 of barrel 16 is withdrawn, plunger rod 66 in barrel 16 can be released to the action of spring 76 by thrusting the plunger rod to one side to disengage notch 74 from the stopper and the liquid in the cartridge 18 will be caused to flow with considerable velocity into the cartridge 82, causing a thorough admixing of the medicament with the fluid or a dissolving of the medicament in the fluid. The frictionally held stopper is then driven back. Because of this arrangement, no air is admixed with the liquid introduced into cartridge 82. When the safety pin of the second barrel 22 is removed and the rod thrust aside to free the notch in the rod from the end stopper in that barrel, the contents of cartridge 82 will be expelled via the duct 28 into the tubing 30.
During the transfer of the fluid from cartridge 18 to cartridge 82, the regulator valve 32 is closed. During transfer of fluid from cartridge 82 and possibly from cartridge 18 to tubing 30, the regulator valve is opened to the extent desired for appropriate administration of the medicament to a patient.
fln the line of tubing between the regulator valve and the needle there may be placed a sight or drop meter 90 to visibly show the rate of flow of the medicament through the tubing.
Also in the line leading to the drop meter as between the flow regulator and the drop meter there is interposed a flow rate restriction element. For the purposes of illustrating this invention, the element is shown in a most simple form. 'It comprises a nipple 92 with intermediate external flange 94 to enable hose sections to be attached to the nipple, the orifice 96 through the nipple being of a size predetermined in accordance with the medicament to be administered and the maximum rate of flow which could be tolerated by the patient. It is obvious that other permanent forms of orifice restrictive devices may be used as by molding a restriction in the tubing.
After the barrels have been loaded or reloaded with the cartridges, by preliminarily cocking the springs, and by removing the end caps on the barrels and replacing them, the two barrels may be laid within the casing 10 provided therefor. The casing is preferably made of transparent plastic material slotted in an end Wall as indicated at 98 for accommodating the branch passage of the duct. The opposite end wall of the casing is provided with vertical slots 100 to accommodate the cocked plunger rods and the safety pins 78. 'Overlying the casing and in frictional engagement therewith is the skirted cover 12 of material similar to that of the casing.
In the use of the assembly, the loaded casing may be placed at any convenient location close to a patient and one need not suspend the equipment as in gravity fed dispensers. Thereafter flow of medicament to the patient having been initiated and regulated, the device may be left unattended since the flow to and through the needle will take place so long as a spring in a barrel is expanding, and because of the nipple, never at an excessive rate.
In the modification of the invention shown in FIG. 6, a single barrel syringe 102 is disclosed. This syringe may be of the same construction as the righthand one of the pair shown in FIG. 4, and the diluent is replaced by the medicament, which may be in solution or be an admixture of medicament and diluent, as is conventional in the art. To this syringe there is directly attached the tubing 50, regulator 32, nipple 92, drop meter and needle 34 in the same arrangement as may be employed in conjunction with the multibarrel infusion device.
What is claimed is:
1. In an automatic infusion device, a hollow infusion needle, a pair of containers, a conduit interconnecting the containers, a substance in one container and a diluent in the other, drive means under stored potential energy in one of the containers for transfer of the contents of of one of the containers via the conduit to the contents of the other for commingling said contents, other conduit means in fluid communication with the conduit and the infusion needle, and drive means under stored potential energy in said other of the containers to expel the corn mingled contents from said other container through the other conduit means and infusion needle.
2. The structure of claim 1 in which the means for transfering the contents and the means for expelling the commingled contents are springs under compression acting on pistons.
3. The structure of claim 2 wherein the spring in the diluent container is stronger when expanded in that container than the spring in the other container where it is fully compressed. v
4. The structure of claim 1 wherein a valve is provided for said other conduit means.
5. The structure of claim 4 wherein a nipple with orifice of predetermined side is interposedin the other conduit means.
6. The structure of claim 4 wheerin a drop meter is interposed between the valve and the needle. 7
7. The structure of claim 6 wherein a nipple with orifice of predetermined side is interposed in the other conduit means between the containers and the drop meter.
8. The structure of claim 1 wherein the container having a diluent is provided with a burstable diaphragm, said diaphragm being in the path of movement of the diluent from its container to the substance in the other container.
9. The structure of claim 1 wherein the substance in the other container is confined between a ruptura'ble dia: phragm adjacent the commingled content expelling end of said container and a frictionally held stopper moveable in said other container as the diluent is driven into said other container.
10. The structure of claim 1 wherein the injection needle is provided at the end of the other conduit means.
11. The structure of claim 1 wherein a container comprises a barrel with a circumferential shoulderinteriorly thereof intermediate its ends, a cartridge being seated within the barrel against the shoulder, said cartridge hav' ing a rupturable end stopper, and a piston is provided with material between the stopper and piston, a spring impeled plunger being operative on the piston to drive the cartridge contents therefrom through the bursta'ble diaphragm and there is further provided a removable end cap at an end of the barrel for holding the cartridge in place, said spring impeled plunger forming one of the drive means.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS J 6 1/1955 Raiche 128-216 7,1951 Hall 123F272 XR 1/1959 Ratclitf m1 ..128-234XR 8/1962 Gran 128-214 10/1964 Beall et a1. 123-214 FOREIGN PATENTS 8/1957 Sweden. 10/1925 Germany.
RICHARD A. GAUDET, Primary Examiner. MART'IN F. MAJESTIC, Assistant Examiner.
U.S. Cl. X.R.