US 3452701 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
July 1, 1969 F. B. LANE 3,452,701
BOAT RUDDER WITH INSERTED HEAT EXCHANGER Filed Nov. 28, 1967 INVENTOR FRANK B. LANE a, My
HIS ATTORNEY United States Patent 3,452,701 BOAT RUDDER WITH INSERTED HEAT EXCHANGER Frank B. Lane, Dayton, Ohio, assignor to United Aircraft Products, Inc., Dayton, Ohio, a corporation of Ohio Filed Nov. 28, 1967, Ser. No. 686,123 Int. Cl. B63h 25/38 US. Cl. 114-162 7 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE This invention relates to boat rudders, and particularly to a rudder incorporating in its sructural form a heat exchanger for the cooling of engine coolant and like purposes.
Fresh water cooling in boat engines is desirable but as heretofore known has required extensive equipment including internal heat exchangers, expansion tanks, raw water filters and similar apparatus. Efforts to place heat exchangers outside the boat in order to avoid bringing raw water to interiorly located equipment have met with little success due to structural complications and for created hydrodynamic problems.
An object of the present invention is to enable fresh water cooling using a heat exchanger which is in continuous, intimate contact with environmental water but which offers no structural or hydrodynamic problems.
Another object of the invention is to incorporate a heat exchanger in the boats rudder to be a part thereof in such manner that the heat exchanger serves a combined hydrodynamic and thermodynamic function.
A further object of the invention is to enable the rudder to be built to any particular size and configuration required by boat design while retaining an ease of incorporation of a heat exchanger therewith.
Still another object of the invention is to provide heat exchangers according to a modular concept in which a heat exchanger of standard size may be selected for installation in a rudder without requiring change in the rudder form, it being an attendant object in this connection to provide that the heat exchanger will be selected in accordance with heat transfer requirements only while the rudder into which it is built will be selected only with reference to marine handling considerations.
Other objects and structural details of the invention will appear from the following description, when read in connection with the accompanying drawings, wherein:
FIG. 1 is a fragmentary view, partly diagrammatic, of a rudder in accordance with a first illustrated form of the invention mounted to a boat hull;
FIG. 2 is a view in cross section, taken substantially along the line 2-2 of FIG. 1, and relatively enlarged; and
FIG. 3 is a fragmentary view, partly diagrammatic, of a rudder an accordance with a second illustrated form of the invention.
Referring to FIGS. 1 and 2, a fragment of a boat hull is shown within which is an engine 11. The latter drives shaft means 12 extending through and beneath the hull 10 and terminating in a propeller 13. Adjacent to and in the slip stream of the propeller 13 is a relatively large and irregularly shaped rudder 14. Along what may be considered its leading edge 15 the rudder 14 is suitably fixed to a post 16. Post 16 extends upwardly through a bearing 17 in hull 10 into the boat where at its upper end a tiller 18 is made fast. The arrangement, proportions and configuration of parts is that of a sailing yacht with auxiliary engine but it will be understood that the invention is not limited to this embodiment but may be used in any rudder equipped boat.
In accordance with the invention the rudder is formed with a rectangular cutout area or recess 19 opening through the leading edge thereof and extending toward but short of the opposite or trailing edge. Installed in the recess 19 in a manner substantially to interfit therein is a heat exchanger 21. The rudder post 16 is hollow and has flexible fluid conducting lines 22 and 23 therein. At their one ends the lines 22 and 23 project through respective openings 24 and 25 in post 16 and communicate through one edge of the heat exchanger 21 with the interior thereof. At their opposite ends the lines 22 and 23 extend out of the post 16 within hull 10, and are connected to the cooling system of engine 11, as by attaching to coolant outlet and inlet fittings 26 and 27. As will be understood, in the operation of engine 11, engine coolant is pumped under pressure to the heat exchange 21, by way of line 22, and returns to the engine by way of line 23.
The heat exchanger 21 may be conventionally formed for flow of the coolant therethrough. In the illustrated instance it is comprised of spaced apart flat plates 28 and 29 of substantial surface area forming the sides of the unit. A U-shaped bracket or frame 31 is received in recess 19 with its open end limiting against post 16. In bridging relation to the open end of frame 31 is a vertical end member 32 defining with the frame a marginally enclosed space corresponding approximately to the dimensions of plates 28 and 29. The plates are received in such space, with all parts being united to one another in a water tight manner, as by brazing, welding or soldering. Intermediate its ends, the end member 32 contacts the post 16 and may, like the ends of frame 31, be bonded thereto. At its opposite ends, at locations opposite openings 24 and 25, member 32 is bent inward and has installed relatively projecting inlet and outlet tubes 33 and 34. Fluid conducting lines 22 and 23 attach respectively to the tubes 33 and 34.
Within the assembly so defined and disposed in vertically spaced relation between the inlet and outlet tubes 33 and 34, are baifie members 35 serving the dual purpose of supporting the plates 28 and 29 on their inner surfaces and of constraining fluid entering inlet boss 31 to follow a serpentine path in reaching outlet 32. The bafiles are fastened alternately to member 32 and to the base of frame 31 to define such path. The material of which the parts of the heat exchanger are made is corrosion resistant, with at least plates 24 and 25 being made of a material readily conducting heat.
The heat exchanger 21 may be held against displacement from recess 19 in any convenient manner as for example by overlapping brackets, fibre glass strips or the like fastened to the rudder. In the illustrated instance, however, the U-shaped frame is formed on one side with a flange 36 to limit against the side of the rudder adjacent the margins of recess 19. Screws 37, inserted through the flange and driven into the rudder, held the heat exchanger removably in place. Sides of the flange 36 may be tapered to a feather edge, for hydrodynamic reasons, with side plates 28 and 29 substantially conforming to the sides of the rudder.
The width of the heat exchanger unit, as defined by the spacing between plates 28 and 29, approximately corresponds to the thickness of the rudder at the location of recess 19. Accordingly, sides of the heat exchanger unit approximately align with and form continuations of the sides of the rudder. The result is that the heat exchanger is effectively built into the rudder, becoming a part thereof and complementing the surface area of the rudder in carrying out the hydrodynamic functions thereof. At the same time, and in accordance with its dual function, the heat exchanger exposes opposing planar sides to intimate contact with environmental water for effective cooling of the fluid flowing through the heat exchanger unit. Side plates 28 and 29 may be made thin for most effective heat transfer without weakening the rudder at the location of the heat exchanger since the plates are supported by baffles 35.
In the practice of the invention, the rudder may take any particular size and outline form as required by boat design and marine handling considerations. The heat exchanger unit similarly may be selected solely in accordance with heat transfer requirements. A limited number of standard sizes of heat exchanger units may be supplied as required. A rudder in which a particular heat exchanger is to be installed is constructed with a recess 19 of appropriate size, or, in the case of installation in existing rudders, a recess 19 may be cut therein according to necessary dimensions.
The heat exchanger finds particular utility incorporated in the rudder since this provides a convenient protected place of installation and use. Moreover, since the rudder is disposed in the propeller slip stream there is always a flow of water over the surfaces of heat exchanger plates 28 and 29 even at low running speeds. The heat exchanger could, however, be similarly incorporated in. to be a part of other under Water portions of a boat, for example a skeg or stabilizer.
According to a feature of the invention, the heat exchanger and associated parts may be supplied in kit form to be installed in an existing new or old rudder, obviating the need for special rudders. The opening 19 may readily be cut in the rudder to receive the heat exchanger which is held therein by the flange 36 and screws. Fiber glass or like holding strips may if desired be applied to the opposite side of the rudder.
In the form of the invention shown in FIG. 3, a thick and tapered rudder 38 has a pair of heat exchangers 39 and 41 installed in a recess 40. Constructed substantially like the heat exchanger 21, the units 39 and 41 are connected respectively to incoming and outgoing hose lines 42 and 43 and interconnected by a coupling 44. The pair of heat exchangers accordingly are in series relation. Coolant from the engine flows first to unit 39, by way of line 42, flows through unit 39 and then by way of coupling 44 to unit 41 and back to the engine by way of line 43. The heat exchange units are set at an angle to conform to the tapered outer surface of the rudder, the concept of completing the rudder in a hydrodynamic sense while achieving a thermodynamic function being retained, as in the case of heat exchanger 21. In both instances opposing sides of a heat transfer means are presented for performing the dual purpose. Coupling 44 is preferably flexible and of sufiicient length to allow positioning of the pair of heat exchangers varying distances from one another, and at different angles.
What is claimed is:
1. A boat rudder having a size and outline form required by boat design and cut away to define a through opening from side to side thereof, heat transfer means installed in said opening presenting opposing sides complementing sides of the rudder and serving a combined hydrodynamic and thermodynamic function, and means for circulating a fluid to be cooled through said heat transfer means, said through opening having the form of a recess opening through one edge of the rudder as well as through the sides thereof, said circulating means comprising fluid conducting lines reaching said heat transfer means through the open edge of said recess.
2. A rudder according to claim 1, characterized by a hollow post adapted to be installed in to depend from a boat hull, the rudder being attached along said one edge thereof to said post, said fluid conducting lines extending to and from the rudder through said post.
3. A rudder according to claim 2, characterized in that said rudder is formed with leading and trailing edges in reference to a normal direction of movement of a boat of which it is a part, said rudder attaching along said leading edge to said rudder post, said post being in a closing relation to the open edge of said recess, said recess extending from said leading edge inwardly of the rudder toward said trailing edge, said heat transfer means being complementary to the balance of the rudder structure to complete a rudder configuration.
4. A boat rudder having a size and outline form required by boat design and cut away to define a through opening from side to side thereof, and heat transfer means installed in said opening presenting opposing sides complementing sides of the rudder and serving a combined hydrodynamic and thermodynamic function, said heat transfer means including a heat exchanger generally rectangular in configuration installed on edge in said through opening, said heat exchanger having a width conforming approximately to the thickness of the rudder at the location of said opening and being closed at its sides and edges, one edge being formed with an inlet and an outlet for the fluid to be cooled and its sides being made of a material readily conducting heat, the fluid flowing within said heat exchange in heat transfer relation to said sides, said sides being exposed on their outer surfaces to direct contact with environmental fluids.
5. A rudder according to claim 4, characterized by means attaching to the rudder and overlapping edges of said through opening to hold said heat exchanger positioned within said through opening.
6. A boat rudder incorporating a kit for the fresh water cooling of marine engines, said kit including a heat exchanger of modular design having thermodynamic properties selected to suit heat transfer requirements of a given engine, said heat exchanger being adapted to be inserted into new or existing rudders selected to suit hydrodynamic properties and requirements to be in contact with environmental water without altering hydrodynamic properties'or requirements of the rudder according to the rudder and boat design, said rudder having a through opening from side to side thereof and the heat exchanger being mounted on edge in such opening, the heat exchanger having a width corresponding approximately to the thickness of the rudder at said location and being closed at its sides, said sides representing continuations of the sides of said rudder and being exposed on their outer surfaces to direct Contact with environmental water, said kit further including connections to bring fresh Water to and from said heat exchanger.
7. A kit according to claim 6, wherein said heat exchanger is in plural form to comprise two heat exchangers inserted in a rudder in generally side by side relation, each presenting a wall in substantially flush relation to a respective side of the rudder, the kit further including a coupling establishing a series relation between said heat exchangers, said coupling being flexible for positioning of said heat exchangers relatively to one another to achieve said flush relation to the rudder sides.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,386,803 10/1945 Jutte 1l4162 ANDREW H. FARRELL, Primary Examiner.
U.S. Cl. X.R. 5