|Publication number||US3456136 A|
|Publication date||Jul 15, 1969|
|Filing date||Sep 26, 1966|
|Priority date||Sep 26, 1966|
|Publication number||US 3456136 A, US 3456136A, US-A-3456136, US3456136 A, US3456136A|
|Inventors||Pierro John J|
|Original Assignee||North American Rockwell|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (9), Referenced by (24), Classifications (7)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
31 8 1 3 5 unuoo nLrnLnvx.. ,5U-mun uw July 15, 1969 J. J. FIERRO 3,456,135
LINEAR ELECTRIC MOTOR Filed Sept. 26, 1966 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 F/EZ . A i /0 23 A'. l 5': y e
22 l: :i i y!! July 15, 1969 J. J. FIERRO LINEAR ELECTRIC MOTOR 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Sept. 26, 1966 F/QEQL/EA/CV (OA/VERTE@ O O O O INVENTOR. J'OH/V J: p/EPQO 3,456,136 LINEAR ELECTRIC MOTOR John J. Pierro, Inglewood, Calif., assignor to North American Rockwell Corporation, a corporation of Delaware Filed Sept. 26, 1966, Ser. No. 581,946 Int. Cl. H02k 41 /02 U.S. Cl. 310--12 9 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A linear synchrondus motor having linear stator and l'ield pole structures spaced from a relatively movable linear rotor structure having a plurality of spaced apart interdigitated salient magnetic poles providing separate excitation tlux paths between the stator and lield pole structures. Energization of the stator and eld coils sets upa travelling stator magnetic ux iield that interacts with the fixed magnetic tlux field set up in the linear rotor structure by the field coil to develop amagnetomotive force between the stator and linear rotor structure.
The invention relates to a linear electric motor, and more particularly to a new and improved linear synchronous motor.l
Linear induction motors are well known in the art. Like any induction motor, a linear induction motor 'has inherent disadvantages such as poor speed control, high starting current, low starting torque, lowpower factor, .and low efficiency at low speeds. Synchronous motors are also well known in the art as constant speed machines that have no starting torque. Under the conditions of starting, the synchronous motor must operate as an induction motor.
Accordingly, it is a primary object of the invention to provide a new and improved linear synchronous motor.
It is also an object of the invention to provide a linear synchronous motor having a new and improved linear rotor.
'A further object of the invention is to provide a newl and improved linear synchronous motor having a high starting torque or thrust.
Another object"L of the invention is to provide a new and improved liriar synchronous motor that can operate at variable speeds.
Yet another object of the invention is to provide a new and improved linear synchronous motor that can operate at a high efliciency even with variable airI gaps.
Likewise an object of the invention is to provide a new and improved linear synchronous motor that is relatively insensitive to variable air gaps.
It is also an object of the invention to provide a linear synchronous motor that can operate at a high efiiciency at all speeds.
An additional object of the invention is to provide a linear synchronous motor having increased eiciency at Ilow speeds.
A further object of the invention is to provide a linear synchronous motor having improved speed control.
Another object of the invention is to provide a linear synchronous motor that can operate at near -unity power factor.' Y t Yet another object of the invention is to provide a new and improved linear synchronous motor that has a simplilied design with attendant reliability potential at a vrelatively low initial cost and low maintenance cost.
Briefly, in accordance with one form of the invention, a newpand improved linear synchronous motor is provided having a stator means and a lield means, both co- United States Patent 3,456,136 Patented July 15, 1969 the statormeans is suitably energized to set up a travelling flux tield that interactswith the lixed magnetic eld, a magnetomotive force is developed between the stator means and the rotor means.
The new and improved linear synchronous motor can find use, for example, to propel transportation vehicles such as trains, automobiles, trucks, marine vessels, submarines, and the like. It can also find use wherever a mechanical force is required such as, for example, conveyor belts, Winches, machine tools, antenna drives, and the like.
Further objects, features, and the attending advantages of the invention will become apparent when the following description is read in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which:
FIGURE 1' is a perspective view, partly sectional, of one form of new and improved linear synchronous motor of the invention;
FIGURE 2 is a sectional view of the linear synchronous motor of FIGURE l along the line 2 2;
FIGURE 3 is a perspective view, partly broken away, of the linear rotor of the linear synchronous motor of FIGURE 1;
FIGURE 4 is a plan view, partly broken away, of another linear rotor for the linear synchronous motor of the invention;
FIGURE 5 s a block diagram of one f orm of variable speed controlsystem for the linear synchronous motor of the invention; and
FIGURE 6 `is a schematic representation of typical wave forms developed by the linear synchronous motor of the invention.
Referring to FIGURE l, one form of the linear synchronous motor 10 of the invention has a `stator means 12 cooperating with a lield pole means 14, both of which are spaced from a linear rotor means 16,' The stator means 12 has a conventional laminated stator core 18 and stator conductor windings 20 wound thereon in suitable stator 'core slots. The stator means 12 is suitably positioned a conventional manner in spaced relationship to the field pole means 14 and is not magnetically coupled to the tield pole means. The stator windings are excited by alternating current and produce a magnetic wave which travels down the air gap at a velocity V proportional to the distance between adjacent stator magnetic poles (where the pole pitch is PP) and the frequency f of the alternating current. Thus:
where K is a constant of proportionality. Increasing the frequency or pole pitch increases the velocity of the travelling stator magnetic wave. The manner of achievu ing a travelling stator magnetic wave is well known in the art and is described in various textbooks, including Electrical Circuits and Machinery, Volume II, by Hehre and Harness, John Wiley & Sons, 1942, and Alternating Currentv Machinery by Bryant and Johnson (McGraw-I-Iill, 1935). Multiple individual stator coils are used and can be connected either in series or in parallel in a manner well known in the art but preferably are connected in series to form three individual phase windings excited from a three phase AC power source. In general, stator excitation is polyphase, especially three or two phase, but it may also be single phase with an auxiliary split phase winding for starting purposes. The field pole means 14 has a field frame member 22 with suitably formed field poles 24 and 26, and a field excitation coil 28 generally positioned about the central region 30 of the field frame member. It is contemplated that the field frame member as well as the field poles can have other geometrical forms than those as illustrated. Also, it is contemplated that the field ex= citation coil 28 can be replaced with one or more per manent magnets which would then provide field excitation fiux as described hereinafter.
Referring now to FIGURE 2, the field poles 24 and 26 are generally planar in the form of linear synchronous motor illustrated. This is not critical to my invention because it is contemplated that the stator means and field pole means can have other geometrical forms. The stator 12 and the field pole means 14, i.e., laminated stator coil 18 and field poles 24 and 26, are suitably spaced from the linear rotor means 16 which is positioned substantially parallel to both the stator means and the field pole means. It is contemplated that the linear rotor means 16 can be other than planar and can be suitably formed and arranged into a curved geometry, a stepped geometry, and the like to cooperate with the stator means and the field coil means. While the linear rotor means 16 is shown by FIGURES 1 and 2 as being generally horizontal in orientation, it is contemplated that the rotor means, the cooperating stator, and field pole means can be vertically oriented or can have any desired orientation therebetween as determined by operating parameters.
Referring again to FIGURE 1, and particularly to FIGURE 3, one form of linear rotor means 16 has a first magnetic means or member 32 and a second magnetic -means or member 34. Magnetic member 32 is suitably formed with a plurality of similar salient magnetic poles 36 that in the form shown are magnetically interconnected by a continuous strip portion 38 of the magnetic member 32. In the embodiment of the linear rotor means 16 as shown, the salient magnetic poles 36 are spaced apart a finite distance and extend generally outwardly from the continuous strip portion 38. The second magnetic member 34 has similar salient magnetic poles 40 that are spaced apart and are magnetically and physically interconnected by a continuous strip portion 42. In the assembled linear rotor means 16, the first magnetic member 32 and the second magnetic member 34 are preferable arranged in a common plane with the outwardly extending salient magnetic poles 36 and 40 of each interdigitated as is particularly shown by FIGURE 3. The salient magnetic poles are spaced apart so that magnetic tiux leakage is substantially eliminated between adjacent interdigitated salient magnetic poles. In the form of linear rotor means, the salient magnetic poles 36 and 40 are preferably spaced apart with an isolating air gap 44 therebetweenf; It is also contemplated that a suitable nonmagnetic material such as a nickel-base alloy, e.g., Inconel Alloy 718, plastic, ceramic, and the like can join the salient magnetic poles 36 and 40 into a unitary linear rotor means. t
Referring to FIGURE 4, another form of linear rotor means 50 has a plurality of similar salient magnetic poles 52, 54, 56, 58, 60 and 62 spaced apart a finite distance with similar isolating regions 64 therebetween that can be either an isolating air gap or a suitable nonmagnetic material. When the linear rotor means 50 cooperates with a stator means and a field coil means such as shown by FIGURE 1, adjacent salient poles will have opposite magnetic polarity that alternates from essentially full plus (north magnetic polarity) to full minus (south magnetic polarity) so that at a given point in time magnetic pole 56 could exhibit north magnetic polarity while mag;
netic poles 54 and 58 would exhibit south magnetic polarity. It is contemplated that the linear rotor means 50 can have the salient magnetic poles 52, 54, 56, 58, 60 and 62 interconnected by a relatively flexible or movable nonmagnetic means such as a nickel-base alloy chain, tape, and the like.
Referring now to FIGURES 1 and 5, a fixed magnetic field is induced by the field excitation coil 28 in the linear rotor means 16 of the linear synchronous motor 10 when the field coil is suitably energized from a conventional source of direct current 70. The field excitation circuit of the linear synchronous motor is particularly shown by FIGURE 1. The field excitation circuit can be traced by following a typical fiux path 74 starting from the air gap between the field pole 24 and the linear rotor means 16. The fiux path 74 crosses the field pole air gap into the continuous strip portion 38 of the first magnetic member 32 and passes through at least one of the salient magnetic poles 36 that extend outwardly from the strip portion. The fiux path 74 then travels from the salient pole 36 across the stator air gap to the laminated stator core 18. In the stator laminated core 18, the flux path 74 travels through the laminated stator core and across the stator air gap to an adjacent salient magnetic pole 40 that has an opposite magnetic polarity. The flux path 74 continues to the strip portion 42 of the second magnetic member 34 and travels across the field pole air gap to field pole 26. The flux path 74 then passes through the field frame member 22 to field pole 24 which completes the field excitation circuit.
The operation of the linear synchronous motor of the invention can best be understood by referring to FIG- URE 5. A commutator 76, for example, an electromagnetic commutator, functions to sense linear rotor speed and acts as a position transducer. The commutator 76 feeds the speed and position of the linear rotor to a frequency converter 78 that is supplied with either polyphase electrical power from a conventional source of alternating current such as alternator 80, or direct-current electrical power from a conventional source of direct'current (not shown). When alternating current is used, alternator 80 supplies the current to the frequency converter 78 at a given frequency fA. The frequency converter 78 receives the speed and position input from the commutator 76 and automatically maintains an applied stator frequency fm that satisfies the relationship fm=kPN, where k is a constant of proportionality, P is the number of poles, and N is rotor speed. When direct current is supplied, the converter 78 changes the direct current to alternating current at the applied stator frequency fm. The frequency converter 78 applies the variable frequency fm to the stator means of the linear synchronous motor 10 so that the stator means sets up a travelling magnetic wave that substantially matches the linear velocity of the fixed field magnetic wave that is set up by the field excitation coil of the linear synchronous motor. In accordance with known electromagnetic principles, the stator magnetic wave and the field magnetic wave are then stationary with respect to one another and are separated by a displacement angle or phase angle designated delta The linear synchronous motor 10 of the invention develops a desired torque or thrust because the stator and field magnetic waves attempt to align. When the stator mag netic wave leads the field magnetic wave, the desired magnetomotive force or thrust is developed lbetween the stator and the rotor of the linear synchronous motor 10. The cooperation between the commutator 76 and the frequency converter 78 can also be used to develop a desired motor operation at a selected unity, leading or lagging power factor.
The travelling flux field or stator magnetic wave and the fixed flux field or field magnetic space wave are shown iby FIGURE 6 in a simplified sinusoidal form. The travelwave 88. The resulting magnetomotive force or thrust T is proportional to the product of the amplitude ofthe resultant wave 88 which represents resultant fiux R, the magnetomotive force F of the field wave 86, and the sine of the displacement angle RF between the resultant fiux qbR and the field magnetomotive force F which is essentially constant and slightly less than 90 electrical degrees. This yields the relationship p Sin RF This relationship results when the stator wave 84 and the field wave 86 are maintained substantially stationary with respect to one another.
The field magnetomotive force F and the resultant flux 45H are directly related to the field voltage Eg and the stator terminal voltage Vt. Thus, the displacement angle RF (see FIGURE 6) is maintained substantially constant at any speed or frequency. This is true not only at all positive values of speed and frequencybut also at the zero or starting condition of the linear synchronous motor. At zero speed, the frequency is reduced to zero, i.e., essentially direct-current excitation. However, at zero speed the commutator 76 still senses the speed and position of the linear rotor and there is still a polyphase electrical power input to the frequency converter 78. The stator current distribution and magnetic wave 84 along the air gap of the stator is still approximately sinusoidal and displaced in space from the field magnetic wave 86 by approximately 90 electrical degrees (or other selected angle). Thus, at zero speed, the stator wave 84 and the field wave 86 are again stationary with respect to each other and separated by a finite displacement. The conditions for positive thrust are, therefore, satisfied and 4the desired starting magnetomotive force or thrust results.
A reversal of the linear synchronous motor of the invention is possible by al simple reversal of the field excitation current from the field supply 70 to the field excitation coil 28. It is contemplated, that the stator means and field pole means of the linear synchronous motor of the invention can be stationary or fixed so that the linear rotor means is movable. As will be evidenced from the foregoing description, cer tain aspects of the invention are not limited to the particular details of construction as illustrated. It is contemplated that other modifications and applications will occur to those skilled in the art. Accordingly, it is intended that the appended claims s rhall cover such modifications and applications that do not depart from the true spirit and scope of the invention.
1. A linear synchronous motor comprising:
(a) stator means providing a travelling magnetic -ux field,
(b) field pole means in fixed relation to said stator means for providing a magnetic flux path,
(c) field coil means on said field pole means for providing a fixed magnetic flux field, and
(d) linear rotor means spaced from said stator means and said field pole means, said linear rotor means comprising:
(l) a plurality of spaced-apart magnetic means, (2) adjacent ones of said magnetic means exhibit-1 ing opposite magnetic polarity, and (3) magnetic interconnecting means joining said magnetic means having like magnetic polarity, so that said linear rotor means provides at least one field excitation path for said fixed magnetic; flux field between said field pole means and said stator means, said fixed magnetic flux field and said travelling magnetic flux field interacting and developing'a magnetomotive force or thrust between said`stator means and said rotor means.
2. The linear synchronous motor of claim 1 in-which said magnetic means are a plurality of spaced-apart salient pole pieces.
3. The linear synchronous motor of claim 1 in which said stator means is suitably energized from a polyphase power source and said field coil means is suitably ener gized from a direct-current power source.
4. A linear synchronous motor comprising:
(a) stator means providing a travelling magnetic flux field,
(b) field means providing a fixed magnetic flux field,
and i (c) linear rotor means spaced from said stator means and said field means for providing separate field excitation paths for said fixed magnetic flux field between said field means and said stator means, said fixed magnetic flux field and said travelling magnetic flux field interacting and developing a magnetomotve force or thrust between said stator means and said linear rotor means.
5. The linear synchronous motor of claim 4 in which said linear rotor means comprises:
(a) at least first and second magnetic members exhibiting opposite magnetic polarity,
(b) each of said first and second magnetic members suitably formed to define a plurality of spaced-apart and magnetically interconnected salient magnetic pole pieces,
(.c) said first magnetic member positioned adjacent to and spaced from said second magnetic member, and further positioned with said salient magnetic pole pieces of said first magnetic member interdigita'ted lwith said salient magnetic pole pieces of said second magnetic member.
6. A linear rotor for a linear synchronous motor, said linear rotor comprising:
(a) at least first and second magnetic members exhibiting opposite magnetic polarity,
(b) said first magnetic member positioned adjacent to and spaced from said second magnetic member, and further positioned with said magnetic pole pieces of said first magnetic member interdigitated with said magnetic pole pieces of said second magnetic member so that said rotor means provides separate reld excitation paths.
7. The linear rotor of claim 6 in which each of said first and second magnetic members are suitably formed t0 define a plurality of spaced-apart and magnetically inter-1 connected salient magnetic pole pieces.
8. The linear synchronous motor of claim 4 in which said field means comprises a U-sh'aped structure having leg members normal to and spaced from said linear rotor means and field coil means wound on said U-shaped structure.
9. The linear synchronous motor of claim 8 in which said stator means is fixedly contained within said field means Ushaped structure and magnetically isolated therefrom.
References Citedl UNITED STATES PATENTS MILTON O. HIRSHFIELD, Primary Examiner B. A. REYNOLDS, Assistant Examiner U.S.l Cl, XR.
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|U.S. Classification||310/12.9, 318/135, 310/12.26, 310/12.18|