US 3460589 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
z- 12. 1969 1.. E. Jus'rls- .460,589
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR FILLING CONTAINERS WITH CARBONATED LIQUID Filed Sept. 13, 1966 5 Sheets-Sheet l 4. INVENT OR Lu'msra E. Jus'rls ATTORNEYS 3,460,589 ING CONTAINERS WITH CARBONATED LIQUID 6 Sheets-Sheet Filed Sept. 13, 1966 3 M M 4 m 4 w j .w w m v It Q E m WA Aug. 12, 1969 1.. E JUSTIS 3,460,589
METHOD AN!) APPARATUS FOR FILLING CONTAINERS WITH CARBONATED LIQUID Filed Sept. 13, 1966 5 Sheet$-Sheet 5 INVENTOR 5 Lu-rHsQ E. Juerrls 6 m wfi wwih 6% W.
\\\\\\\\W R EYS United States Patent 3,460,589 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR FILLING CON- TAINERS WITH CARBONATED LIQUID Luther E. Justis, Howard County, Md., assignor, by mesne assignments, to Crown Cork and Seal Company, Incorporated, Philadelphia, Pa., a corporation of New York Filed Sept. 13, 1966, Ser. No. 579,095 Int. Cl. B65b 31/00; B67c 3/00 U.S. Cl. 141-6 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A process for filling containers wtih carbonated liquid, and a filling head assembly for carrying out the method. The process includes raising a container to the filling head, filling the container with a gas under pressure to drive out factory air, flowing liquid into the container while allowing the gas to flow out, and injecting an inert gas into the space in the container above the liquid and into the l1qu1d while lowering the container from the head. The apparatus includes a head with passages for counterpressure gas, liquid and inert gas, and with a rotatable valve having ports to open the head passages in desired sequence to sources of gas and liquid supply and to the container. A filling tool assembly depends from the head for entering into containers, and includes a filling tube surrounded by a vent tube, the vent tube having openings along its length to allow injecting inert gas into the liquid and head space of filled containers as the containers are being lowered from the filling head.
This invention relates to a method and means for filling containers with a corbonated beverage.
Extreme care must be exercised in the handling of carbonated beverages, such as beer, due to the inherent tendency of the liquid to foam when agitated. Another problem encountered in the packaging of beer, is the absolute necessity for removing all air from the head space of the container prior to closing.
In the usual filling operation, beer under pressure is maintained in a tank above the filling mechanism, and released to flow down into the container to be filled. In order to prevent agitation of the liquid, and to remove all air from the container, the container is first purged by subjecting it to the pressure in the beer tank head space. Pressure is maintained in the beer tank by the use of a gas, usually carbon dioxide, and this gas will flow into the container, evacuating atmospheric air and replacing it with carbon dioxide. When the pressure within the container is equal to that in the tank head space, the flow is stopped. Beer can then flow into the container by gravity without pres sure change, and without agitation. When the container is filled to a predetermined level, the beer flow is stopped. The container is then lowered from the filling apparatus, and as the filling tubes withdraw from the container, an unfilled head space is created. In the past, this head space has been purged of any remaining air by causing the liquid to foam to the extent of overflow and then closing, or, in some instances, by putting a charge of CO into this head space. In most instances, the charge of CO was of known amount, and in other instances the container was opened to atmosphere after receiving the charge of CO so that the pressure within the container would be reduced to atmospheric pressure. With the use of the foaming procedure. there was considerable waste from overflow, and with the CO charge practice there was no assurance that the head space was completely filled at the'time that the container was closed. If any air remained in the head space deterioration of the beverage was rapid.
3,460,589 Patented Aug. 12, 1969 The principal object of the present invention is to provide a method and means for filling containers with a carbonated beverage, such as beer, wherein the beverage remains quiescent during filling, air is positively evacuated from the head space in the container, and the container is maintained in continuous communication with a supply of fresh CO during removal from the filling apparatus, and in some instances up to the point of closure.
A more specific object of the invention is the provision of a method of this nature, wherein fresh CO is injected into the beverage in the container and to the head space above the beverage at the outset of lowering the container from the filling apparatus, and is maintained in the head space during the entire lowering operation.
Another object of the invention is to provide apparatus which includes a filling tube and a surrounding tube over which the container is moved for filling, with the outer tube having spaced outlets along its length to emit CO to the container during the full period of removal of the con tainer from the filling tubes.
Still another object of the invention is to provide apparatus including a valve structure connected to a pair of concentric tubes, whereby the outer tube may be placed in communication with a source of CO for emission into a filled beverage container.
Yet a further object of the invention is to provide a method and means for filling containers wherein the beverage in a filled container is subjected to a charge of CO at the same time that a charge of CO is released to the head space in the container above the beverage, so that trapped gases within the beverage will be released to flow into the head space.
Other objects of the invention will become apparent from the following description of one practical embodiment thereof, when taken in conjunction with the drawings which accompany, and form part of, this specification.
In the drawings:
FIGURE 1 is a perspective view of a filling head and control valve made in accordance with the principles of the present invention, a bottle to be filled being shown in filling position;
FIGURE 2 is a vertical section through the valve structure of the filling head, and is taken on the line 2-2 of FIGURE 1;
FIGURE 3 is a face view of the body portion of the filling head with the disc valve removed;
FIGURE 4 is a vertical section through the filling head with a bottle in filling position, illustrating the valve position for an initial bottle pressurizing step, and is taken on the line 4-4 of FIGURE 2;
FIGURE 5 is a vertical section taken at right angles to the sectional of FIGURE 4, and is taken on the line 5-5 of FIGURE 4;
FIGURE 6 is a horizontal section through the filling tubes taken on the line 6-6 of FIGURE 4;
FIGURE 7 is a horizontal section taken on the line 7-7 of FIGURE 4;
FIGURE 8 is a horizontal section through the upper portion of the filling bell, and is taken on the line 8-8 of FIGURE 4;
FIGURE 9 is a view similar to FIGURE 4, but with the valve turned to the filling position;
FIGURE 10 is a view similar to FIGURE 9, but with the valve turned to the CO charging position and the bottom lowering removal position; and
FIGURE 11 is an exploded perspective view of the filling tube components.
In general the invention is concerned primarily with the filling of the head space in a carbonated beverage container with carbon dioxide, or other inert, gas during the removal of the container from the filling head. Structure to accomplish this includes a tube having a plurality of openings spaced along its length through which CO can flow, to insure continuous charging of the container head space during movement of the container lengthwise of the tube for removal from the filling head.
Referring to the drawings in detail, there is shown a filling head 1, which includes a body member 2 having a downwardly extending nozzle portion 3 and a disc type valve 4 cooperating with the body element and movable to various positions during the filling cycle of a container. The filling head 1 is secured to a peripheral flange 5 of a reservoir which carries the superstructure of a rotary filling machine (not shown). It will be understood that the reservoir contains the carbonated liquid to be placed in the containers, and there is a superposed body of gas under pressure filling the head space of the reservoir. The rotary filling machine may be of the type disclosed in United States Patent No. 2,953,169, and it will be understood that a plurality of filling heads 1 are carried about the periphery of the flange 5. There is a container supporting platform 6 positioned immediately beneath each filling head 1, with the platform being vertically reciprocable to move containers upwardly and downwardly, into and out of operative relation with the filling head.
In the normal operation of a conventional filling machine, conveyors feed containers, which may be bottles 7 as illustrated, successively to the container supporting platforms 6 and the platforms immediately lift the container vertically into sealing relation with the filling head 1. The filling head valve 4 is then rotated to a position where the container is placed under counterpressure by introducing gas under pressure, either from the gas in the head space of the liquid reservoir or from a separate body of gas under pressure. After the pressure of the gas in the container has built up to a desired level, the filling valve 4 is moved to a filling and vent position, wherein the liquid passage through the filling head is open to flow and the gas passage for venting gas from the container is opened. Carbonated liquid from the reservoir flows into the container, and as the level of liquid in the container rises, the gas within the container is vented through the gas passage of the filling head either to the head space in the reservoir, or to a separate body of gas under pressure. When the container is filled to a desired level, the venting of gas is stopped and the liquid passage is closed. The container supporting platform 6 is then lowered to break the seal of the container with the filling head, and the filled container is transferred from the platform onto the take-off conveyor where it is suitably closed. This much of the operation of a conventional filling machine will be sufficient for an understanding of the present invention.
Body member 2 of filling head 1 has a substantially flat rear face 8 which is bolted to the outer face 9 of the peripheral flange 5 of the filling machine. The front surface of the body member 2 has a circular recess 10, and there is a gasket 11 positioned in the recess so that the outer surface of the gasket forms a seat face 12. A stud 13 projects centrally from the valve body recess to rotatably mount the disc valve 4. The disc valve is centrally apertured, as at 14, to receive stud 13, and a nut 15, threaded on the end of stud 13, secures the parts in position. The nut includes a cup 16 as a part thereof, and the cup serves as a retainer for a spring 17, interposed between the cup and the disc valve, to yieldingly hold the disc valve against the seat face 12 of gasket 11.
The nozzle portion 3 consists of a collar 18, and concentric filling and vent tubes 19 and 20, respectively. The collar has a substantially flat upper face 21 which seats against the substantially flat lower face 22 of the body member 2 of the filling head. The collar is held in position relative to the filler head body member by means of a central boss 23 on the collar which fits within a central recess 24 in the flat lower face 22 of the body member 2, and a locating pin 25 projecting upwardly from the collar and seated in a hole 26 which opens to the lower face 22 of the body member. The collar is held against the lower face of the body member by means of a ring nut 27 which screws on the threaded lower section 28 of the body member.
Collar 18 has a central through opening 29, having an intermediate threaded section 30 into which the upper threaded end 31 of the filling tube is screwed for attaching the tube to the collar. The filling tube is reduced in diameter below the threaded end 31, so that an annular chamber 32 is formed about the tube within the through opening 29. Tube 19 has a plurality of longitudinally extending positioning ribs 33 spaced about its periphery, the ribs projecting from the tube a distance equal to the depth of the annular chamber 32 so that the ribs contact the walls of through opening 29 and hold the tube centered with respect to the collar. Near its lower end, the through opening 29 is increased in diameter to receive the vent tube 20. The increased width of the enlarged section 34 is only suflicient to accommodate the wall thickness of vent tube 20, as the interior diameter of the vent tube is equal to the internal diameter of the upper part of the through opening 29. The enlarged section 34 terminates in a shoulder 35 which forms an abutment against which the upper end of the vent tube seats when it is in position on the filling tube. It will be seen that the vent tube fits closely about the positioning ribs 33 on the filling tube, so that the vent tube is held concentric to, and in spaced relation with, the filling tube. The bottom end of the filling tube is again enlarged to the diameter defined by the positioning ribs 33 to provide a bottom threaded section 36. A cap 37 is screwed onto the bottom end, and its upper edge bears against depending legs 38 of the vent tube 20. The legs 38 are shown as diametrically opposed leaving the bottom end of the vent tube spaced an appreciable distance above the top of the cap 37 so that fluid may flow in and out of the vent tube. When cap 37 is screwed up tight upon the filler tube, vent tube 20 will be forced tightly against its seat in the collar and the tubes and collar will be rigidly connected in concentric relation. Beside the openings 39, at the bottom of the tube between the tube and cap, vent tube 20 has longitudinally spaced pluralities of openings 40 arranged in circular fashion about the tube. The openings 40 are relatively small, and there may be as many circular series of these openings as desired spaced along the vent tube. The top series of openings 4%, however, should be so positioned that when a container, such as bottle 7, is in filling position relative to the head, the upper series of openings 40 will be within the mouth, or neck, of the bottle. This, of course, will place all of the openings of the vent tube within the container during the filling operation.
Beneath the collar, and slidable on vent tube 20, there is a container centering bell 41. The bell has a flat top 42, cylindrical side walls 43 and a flaring bottom mouth 44. The bell also has a horizontal partition 45, dividing the bell into a closed upper chamber 46 and an open bottomed lower chamber 47. Bushings 48 and 49 are mounted in central openings in the top and partition walls 42 and of the bell for sliding contact with the vent tube 20. A container mouth sealing gasket 50 is positioned within the bell beneath the partition wall 45. A gasket 51 is located between the bottom of the collar 18 and the top of the bell, and is attached to the collar. Normally, the bell will be at its lowermost position with the bushing 49 resting upon the bottom cap 37 on the filler tube. As a bottle rises on its platform 6, it will enter the flared mouth of the bell and contact gasket 50 to lift the bell with continued upper movement of the bottle until the bell is in sealing relation with gasket 51.
The back of body member 2 of the filling head will have three pipelines connected to it, a beverage line 52 which will be in communication with the liquid beverage in the beverage tank, a line 53 which communicates with the pressurized head space of the tank, and a line 54 from a supply of CO under pressure. These three lines are connected to a series of passageways and ports within the filling head, which, in turn, are placed in selective registry with ports in the disc valve 4 to control flow of fluid through the nozzle portion of the filling head.
Beverage line 52 opens into a check valve chamber 55 at the back of the body member 2. There is a ball 56 in chamber 55 which can close off a liquid passage 57 leading from the check valve chamber and opening at the seat face 12 of gasket 11 as port 58. Ball 56 closes the liquid passage automatically in the event a bottle fails to make proper seal with the filling head to prevent the loss of liquid. There is a second liquid port 59 at the seat face 12 at the end of a second liquid passage 60 in communication with the through opening 29 at the center of the collar 18 and a central passage 61 through the filling tube 19. Disc valve 4 has companion ports 62 and 63 to ports 58 and 59 of the body member, ports 61 and 62 being similarly spaced and located relative to the axis of stud 13 as are the ports 58 and 59. Ports 62 and 63 form the outlet ends of a bridge passage 64 in the disc valve. Consequently, when the disc valve is rotated so that port 62 is in registry with port 58 and port 63 is in registry with port 59, the beverage line 52 from the supply tank will be in communication with the filler tube 19.
Line 53 from the tank head space opens into a manifold passage 65 in the body member of the filler head. Line 53 connects to the manifold passage at a central point, and at the ends of the passage there are ports 66 and 67 opening to the seat face 12. A second gas passage 68 in the body member 2 has a port 69 opening to the seat face 12. Passage 68 extends to the bottom of body member 2 where it joins a passage 70 through collar 18. Passage 70 opens at its lower end into an annular passage 71, which passage opens to the interior of gasket 51. Bushings 48 and 49 in the bell 41 are channeled on their inner faces, as at 72 and 73, respectively, and as the center of gasket 51 is in open communication with channels 72, gas can pass through gasket 48 into the upper chamber 46 of the bell, then through channel 73 in gasket 49 into the bottle 7. There is still a third gas passage 74 in the body member 2, which passage has a port 75 opening to the seat face 12, and is in open communciation at its lower end with a passage 76 in collar 18. The lower end of passage 76 opens into the annular chamber 32 between the filling tube 19 and the through opening 29. This chamber, of course, leads to the passage between the filling tube and vent tube.
Line 54 which is connected to a suply of fresh CO under pressure, opens to a passage 77 which leads directly across the body member to open at the seat face 12 in a port 78.
There is one additional passage 79 in the body member, which extends from a port 80 at the seat face 12 out through the side of the body member by means of an open port '81 to atmosphere.
The various passages 65, 68, 74, 77 and 79 are interconnected at various times by means of two manifold passageways 82 and 83 in the disc valve 4. Passageway 82 is approximately V-shaped, and passageway 83 is substantially straight. Manifold passageway 82 has four ports communicating with the disc valve face at the seat face 12, a port 84 at one end of one leg of the V- shape, a port 85 at the end of the other leg of the V-shape, a port 86 at the convergence of the two legs, and a port 87 intermediate the ports 84 and 86. Manifold passageway 83 has three ports, a port 88 at one end, a port 89 at the other end, and a port 90 intermediate the other two.
The disc valve 4 is caused to move rotatively to interconnect the various ports and control the flow of fluid through them by means of an operating arm 91 which is actuated by cams, in well known fashion, to move the disc valve about the stud 13 as required.
When the apparatus is in use, bottles 7 upon platforms 6 will be raised successively to the filler heads. When a bottle begins its upward travel, bell 41 is at the bottom of the nozzle assembly 3, suspended from the cap 37. As the bottle moves upwardly it will enter the flared chamher 47 of the bell and be centered with respect to the filling apparatus. When the bottle mouth contacts gasket 50 in the bell it will cause the bell to move upwardly with the bottle until the bell seats against gasket 51 at the bottom of collar 18. At this time the bottle mouth will be sealed by the gasket 50, with the filler and vent tubes projecting into the bottle to a level near the bottle bottom, and the mouth of the bottle in open communication with the channels 73 through the bushing 49 in the partition of the bell. As the bottle moves upwardly, and as the filler tube end enters the bottle mouth, control arm 91 will be moved so as to rotate disc valve 4 to the position shown in FIGURE 4 of the drawings. This will bring port 84 of the manifold passageway 82 in the valve disc into registry with port 66 of the manifold passage 65 in the body member 2 in connection with the line 53 from the head space. At the same time, port 87 of the manifold 82 comes into registry with port 69 of passageway 68 in the body member. Thus, the valve will be positioned to admit gas from the tank head space into the passageway 68 which is in communication with passageway 70 in the collar, annular chamber 71, channels 72 in bushing 48, the upper bell chamber 46, and channels 73 in bushing 49 which are open to the bottle mouth. It will be seen from FIGURE 4 that at the time the disc valve rotates to bring port 84 into registry with port 66, it also causes port 88 to register with port 67 and port 89 to register with port 75. This completes a second passageway from the head space in the tank to the bottle. The second passageway includes the line 53 from the head space, manifold passage 65, port 67, port 88, manifold passage 82, port 89, port 75, lines 74 and 76 to the annular space 32 about the filler tube 19 and to the space between tube 19 and vent tube 20. Therefore, two passages are opened to the flow of gas from the head space to the bottle to first purge the bottle of shop air as it moves up over the tube assembly to sealingly position, and then, after seal is made, to put the bottle under counter pressure equal to the pressure of the tank head space.
When the pressure in the bottle has reached its desired level, disc valve again moves, this time to the position shown in FIGURE 9 to allow beer to flow from the tank into the bottle. In this position, bridge passage 64 in the disc valve has its ports 62 and 63 in communication with the beer ports 58 and 59 in the body member. Port 58 leads from the beverage line 52, and port 59 is in line 60 which opens to the through opening 29 in collar 18 and the central passage 61 through filler tube 19. Thus, beer can flow by gravity from the supply tank to the bottle. At this time, ports and 86 of the manifold passageway 82 are in communication with the ports 66 and 69 in the body member 2 so as to reestablish communication between the bottle and the tank head space. This permits gas from the bottle to flow back to the head space as it is displaced by the beverage.
When the beverage reaches the bushing 49 in the bell and shuts off flow of counterpressure gas through passages 73 back to the head space, beverage flow will be automatically cut off. At this time the valve will be operated again, to cut off the beverage flow line and establish an open passage from the fresh gas line 54 to the container. This position of the valve is shown in FIGURE 10. The bridge line 64 has moved so that it is no longer connecting the fluid ports 58 and 59, while manifold passageway 83 is positioned so that its ports 89 and are in communication with the body member ports 78 and 75. This establishes communication from line 54,
through passage 77 to port 78, and from port 75 through lines 74 and 76 to the annular passage 32 in collar 18, and the annular spaces between the filler tube and vent tube.
It will be understood that the tube assembly within the bottle displaces a certain amount of liquid, and as the bottle is lowered on its platform 6, the liquid level in the bottle will drop as the tube assembly withdraws to leave an appreciable head space within the bottle. During the entire time the bottle is moving downwardly off of the tube assembly, fresh CO from line 53 is entering the bottle from the vent tube. As the bottle begins its lowering movement, CO will be entering the liquid through the openings 39 in the bottom of the tube, and the several annular rows of openings 40 spaced above the bottom of the tube. When the bell leaves gasket 51, the channels 72 in bushing 48 are open so that the CO can exhaust through these passages. Immediately the bottle begins to lower, the upper row of openings 40 in the vent tube will be uncovered and fresh CO will be injected into the bottle head space. At the same time, CO is entering the beverage through the openings 39 and the lower row of openings 40. During the downward movement of the bottle these several rows of openings will be sequentially uncovered so that they will empty into the head space of the bottle. Thus, at the beginning of the lowering movement, and throughout the major portion of the downward movement of the bottle, fresh CO is being fed to the bottle head space and, at the same time, into the liquid itself. The constant flow of CO into the head space will assure complete filling of that space with CO and the injection of CO into the liquid will release gases that might be locked in the beverage and free it to flow upward into the head space. Consequently, when the bottle is fully removed from the filling tube assembly, the bottle head space is completely filled with CO so that there can be no remaining air within the bottle. The bottle is either capped immediately, or, if the bottle must be moved a short distance, it is moved through a gas filled tunnel to maintain the head space filled with the gas until the capping operation is completed.
With the filling method just described, there can be no air in the filled containers, for the gas under pressure is flowed into the head space of the container during the entire time that the container is being removed from the filling apparatus, and also into the beverage itself so as to release gases which are trapped in the liquid. This is done without agitation of the beverage, and Without beverage loss from overflow. The entire operation is accomplished without need for additional apparatus, and it can be accomplished during the time that the bottle is being removed from the filling head so that there is no interference with the high speed filling which is now possible.
While in the above one practical embodiment of the invention has been disclosed, it will be understood that the details of structure shown and described are merely by way of illustration, and the invention can take other forms within the scope of the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. A method of filling containers with carbonated liquid using a filler tube comprising, raising a container over the tube, filling the container with a gas under pressure, flowing carbonated liquid through the tube into the container to a predetermined level while allowing the gas to flow out, and injecting an inert gas under pressure into the space above the liquid level during lowering the container from the filling tube to assure complete filling of the space in the container above the liquid level with inert gas prior to capping.
2. A method of filling containers with a carbonated liquid using a filler tube as claimed in claim 1 wherein, the inert gas is also injected simultaneously into the liquid in the container during lowering the container from the filling tube to drive trapped air bubbles from the liquid prior to capping.
3. Apparatus for filling containers with carbonated liquid comprising, a filling head including a body and a filling tube assembly with a filling tube and a surrounding tube in spaced concentric relation, the surrounding tube having a plurality of outlets spaced longitudinally along its length to vent containers during filling with liquid and to inject an inert gas into liquid in filled containers and to space in the containers above the liquid level continuously during removal of the filling tube assembly from the container after filling.
4. Apparatus for filling containers with carbonated liquid as claimed in claim 3 wherein, the filling tube has, circumferentially spaced longitudinally extending ribs to position the surrounding tube concentrically to the filling tube, the surrounding tube terminates at its bottom in at least one downwardly extending leg, and there is a cap threaded on the bottom of the filling tube upon which the surrounding tube leg rests to hold the bottom of the surrounding tube spaced from the cap.
5. Apparatus for filling containers with carbonated liquid as claimed in claim 4 wherein, the space between the cap and the bottom of the surrounding tube forms the lowermost of the longitudinally spaced outlets, and the remaining outlets are in circumferential groups spaced longitudinally of the surrounding tube.
6. Apparatus for filling containers with carbonated liquid as claimed in claim 3 wherein, there are counterpressure, liquid, and inert gas passages in the filler head body, and a valve member having means to connect the counterpressure passage to a container in place on the filling head, the liquid passage to the filling tube, and the inert gas passage to the surrounding tube in predetermined sequence.
7. Apparatus for filling containers with carbonated liquid as claimed in claim 6 wherein, the valve member is a rotatable disc valve having manifold passageways bridging the selected passages of the filling head body when the disc valve is rotated to selected positions.
8. Apparatus for filling containers with carbonated liquid as claimed in claim 7 wherein, the filling tube has circumferentially spaced longitudinally extending ribs to position the surrounding tube concentrically to the filling tube, the surrounding tube terminates at its bottom in at least one downwardly extending leg, and there is a cap threaded on the bottom of the filling tube upon which the surrounding tube leg rests to hold the bottom of the surrounding tube spaced from the cap.
9. Apparatus for filling containers with carbonated liquid as claimed in claim 8 wherein, the space between the cap and the bottom of the surrounding tube forms the lowermost of the longitudinally spaced outlets, and the remaining outlets are in circumferential groups spaced longitudinally of the surrounding tube.
10. Apparatus for filling containers with carbonated liquid as claimed in claim 9 wherein, there is a container centering device slidably mounted on the filling tube assembly, means on the centering device to seal with a container and with the filling head, and passages through the centering device to complete the passage from the counterpressure line to the container when the centering device is in sealing relation with the filling head and a container.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,957,289 10/1960 Monroe et al. 141-295 X 3,212,537 10/1965 Hinxlage et al. l416' HOUSTON BILL, 111., Primary Examiner US. Cl. X.R.