US 3461572 A
Abstract available in
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aug 19, 1969 A D, SCHWDT ET AL 7 3,461,572
INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICE Filed Oct. 27, 1967 INVENTORS. flrlhur D. Schmdi 5 Keii): 1C. S/zueri MZ' ZQM/ mm? P 3,461,572 INSTRUQTIGNAL DEVKQE Arthur D. Schmidt, Leadville, Cola, and Keith L. Shuert, Rochester, Mich, assignors to Oakland (Iornrnunity College, Bloomfield Hills, Mich, a corporation of Michigan Filed Oct. 27, 1967, Ser. No. 678,683 Int. Cl. G09]: 19/02, 1/28; Giifig 1/02 US. Cl. 35-31 4 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLGSURE This invention relates to instructional devices, and more particularly to an instructional device for comparing and carrying out simple calculations with various types of numbering systems.
In the instiuctional field, it is well known that the learning process can be greatly enhanced if the student is provided with some sort of instructional device to help him learn in a particular subject matter area. This is particularly true in arithmetic and mathematics, where the student is dealing with a great amount of facts that must be learned for comprehension of the subject matter. Making the learning process even more difiicult in this area are the variation and number of numbering systems with which a student should, or could, become familiar. As scientific and technological advancements are made, and particularly in the field of computers and other electronic machines, entire new number languages are being formed and with which a student must become conversant.
When comparing or carrying out comparisons and simple arithmetic computations with various numbering systems, the student, in the past, has been required to consult tabular comparisons between numbering systems, either in the form of a printed page or a printed device of some nature. Although this may be sufiicient for a simple comparison of one number in one numbering system with another numbering system, to find the corresponding symbol standing for such number, it is impossible to carry out simple arithmetic computations, such as adding and subtracting, without using separate means on which to write out in longhand the various computational steps necessary.
The device in which this invention is embodied comprises, generally, an instructional device which is so formed as to provide a quick comparison of various systems and at the same time permit simple arithmetic computations to be carried out. The device includes a base member to which is secured a cover member, and between the base member and the cover member may be located a scale having a particular numbering system printed or otherwise formed thereon. On the opposite side of the base member is another cover member, supporting a second scale with another numbering system thereon and with the symbols in alignment with the symbols on the first scale. A slide member, disposed between the scales, may have yet a third numbering system thereon, so that by moving the slide member relative to the cover members, addition and subtraction can be accomplished.
A device so constructed and made available to a student acquires extreme versatility in the number of numbering systems to which the student may be exposed. At the same time, it provides a standard or basic numbering system to which all may be compared. Such a structure permits rapid comparisons and at the same time provides a means for simple and rapid arithmetic computations in any of the various numbering systems used. The device is easily carried by the student, and is quickly understandable and usable.
These and other advantages will become more apparent from the following description and drawing in which:
FIGURE 1 is a plan view of an instructional device embodying the invention.
FIGURE 2 is an end view of the structure illustrated in FIGURE 1, taken substantially along the line 22 of FIGURE 1 and looking in the direction of the arrows.
FIGURE 3 is a transverse cross section of the structure illustrated in FIGURES 1 and 2, taken substantially along the line 3-3 of FIGURE 1 and looking in the direction of the arrows.
FIGURE 4 is a partial longitudinal cross-sectional view of the structure illustrated in FIGURE 1, taken substantially along the line 4-4 of FIGURE 1 and looking in the direction of the arrows.
FIGURE 5 is an exploded perspective view of the device illustrated in FIGURES 1 through 4, showing the location and position of the various parts.
Referring more particularly to the drawing, the figures thereon illustrate a preferred embodiment of the invention and a variety of numbering systems so disposed and arranged in the structural device as to provide quick comparison and the carrying out of simple arithmetic computations.
It is to be understood at the outset that the numbering systems illustrated in the drawing and hereinafter described are exemplary only, and any other numbering system might be used in any of the locations to be hereinafter more particularly pointed out.
The basic structural member for the device is a base member, indicated generally by the numeral 10, which is best formed in generally rectangular shape and of any suitable material so as to be light in weight and to rigidly support the remainder of the device, which will become hereinafter more particularly described. Base member 10 must be of a sufiicient length to receive number scales of a particular sequence and of suflicient length to be illustrative of the numbering system utilized.
Secured on the base member 10 are spaced cover members, indicated generally by the numerals 12 and 14 respectively, the cover members 12 and 14 being secured to the base member 10 in any suitable manner, as by screws 16 located in the corners thereof. Disposed between the cover members 12 and 14 and the base member 10, and adjacent the ends of the cover members 12 and 14, are spacers 18 which space the cover members 12 and 14 away from the base member 16 a suitable distance so as to provide grooves 20 between the cover members and the base member 111. Cover members 12 and 1 1, at their adjacent edges 22 and 24 respectively, are formed inwardly and away from each other to provide a trapezoidal groove therebetween.
Received in the trapezoidal groove formed between the cover members 12 and 14 is a slide member, illustrated generally by the numeral as, being of trapezoidal cross-sectional configuration so that the angled edges thereof engage and slide between the angle edges 22 and 24 of the base members 12 and 1 1. Such angle edges and trapezoidal configuration cause the slide 26 to be retained between the base members 12 and 14 and yet be freely slidable relative to the base member 10.
Between the cover members 12 and 14, which may be transparent, and the base member 10, and in the grooves 20 formed between the cover members and the base member 10, may be disposed spaced scale members, illustrated generally by the numerals 28 and 30. Scale members 28 and 30 extend through the grooves 20 to a position adjacent the inward edges of the slide 26.
The scale members 28 and 30 as well as the slide member 26 may have numbering systems printed thereon and such numbering systems may be different. For example, and with reference to the drawing, scale member 28 is shown to have a base 12 numbering system printed thereon, with the numbers and symbols suitably arranged in evenly spaced increments along the length thereof. Similarly, scale member 30 is provided with a numbering system with symbols from 1 through 19 which is well known as the Mayan numbering system. These symbols are also spaced in equal increments along the length thereof, and so arranged that the corresponding numbers on scale member 23 are transversely aligned with the members on scale member 30. The slide member 26 is also provided with a numbering system and, as illustrated in the drawing, is the standard base 10 system. The numbers or symbols thereon are spaced in equal increments along the length thereof and also in alignment with the symbols on scale members 28 and 30.
With the scale members 28 and 3t} and the slide member 26 disposed in the position shown in FIGURE 1, it will be readily apparent that the two lesser known numbering systems may be quickly compared and compared to a known system such as the base 10 system on the slide member 26. In other words, the number 5 on the base system as shown on slide member 26 is aligned with the number 5 on the base 12 system, as shown on scale member 28, and the number 5 on the slide member 26 is also aligned with the single horizontal line on scale member 30, which is the symbol for the fifth number of the Mayan numbering system.
By providing a series of scale members, such as members 28 and 30, each of which is imprinted with a different numbering system, and since the scale members 28 and 30 are slidably received in the grooves 20 between the cover members 12 and 14 and the base member 10, rapid substitution of one scale member for another in the slots 20 may be accomplished to increase the versatility of the device. Similarly, a series of slide members, such as slide member 26, also with differing number systems imprinted thereon, further increases the range of numbering systems with which the device may be used.
In addition to the comparison of various numbering systems, it will be apparent that it is possible to carry out simple arithmetic computations with the device and with various number systems. For example, and referring to the numbering systems illustrated in FIGURE 1, should it be desired to add 6 and 8 in the base 12 system, this may be done by placing the slide member 26 in such position that the 0 symbol is aligned with the number 6 on scale member 28, and reading the result above the symbol 8 on the slide member 26, which is the symbol 12 on the scale member 28. Thus, the addition of 6 and 8 in the base 12 numbering system is the symbol 12. Similarly, in subtracting, and should it be desired to subtract 8 from 14 in the Mayan system, the symbol 8 on the sliding scale member 26 is disposed above the symbol on the scale member 30 and reading the result under the 0 symbol on the scale member 26, which will be the symbol on the scale member 30. By so manipulating the slide member between the various scales, a student is readily able to understand the addition and subtraction concepts in other numbering systems.
Thus, an instructional device is provided which permits a student of arithmetic or mathematics to quickly grasp comparisons and simple arithmetic computations in varying number systems in a simple and efiicient manner. The device is readily transported from place to place and provides great versatility in the different numbering systems with which the student may wish to become familiar.
Changes and modifications to the device will occur to those having skill in the art after having had reference to the foregoing description and drawing. However, it is not intended to limit the scope of the invention by the foregoing description and drawing, but by the scope of the appended claims in which:
The embodiments of the invention in which an exclusive property or privilege is claimed are defined as follows:
1. Instructional means for comparing number systems and permitting arithmetic operations therewith and comprising:
a generally planar base member;
first and second cover members secured to said base member and spaced therefrom and spaced from each other to provide a longitudinal groove centrally of said base member;
a slide member slidably received in said longitudinal groove and retained between said cover members, said slide member having indicia thereon;
and first and second scale members slidably and removably received between said base member and said cover members, said scale members having different numbering systems indicated thereon and being located such that the numbers indicated on said first scale are aligned with corresponding members indicated on said second scale;
said slide member being movable such that said indicia thereon is disposable between corresponding indicia on said first and second scale members.
2. The instructional means set forth in claim 1 wherein the adjacent edges of said first and second cover members are angled toward said base member and away from each other, and said slide member being trapezoidal in cross section and slidably receivable between said angled edges for retention thereby.
3. The instructional means set forth in claim 1 wherein said first and second cover members are transparent.
4. Instructional means for comparing number systems and permitting arithmetic operations therewith and comprising:
a generally planar base member;
first and second transparent cover members extending longitudinally of said base member and secured in spaced relation thereto, said first and second cover members being spaced from each other to provide a longitudinal groove longitudinally of said base member;
a slide member having indicia thereon slidably received in said groove between said first and second cover members and slidable longitudinally of said base member, said slide member being retained by the inward edges of said first and second cover members;
and first and second scale members removably received between said base member and said first and second cover members, said scale members terminating longitudinally adjacent said slide member and having portions extending outwardly beyond said base member and said cover members, and said first and second scale members having different number systems printed thereon and having corresponding numbers in alignment laterally of said base member;
said slide member being movable such that said indicia thereon is locatable between corresponding numbers on said first and second scale members.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 651,142 6/1900 Keuffel 235-70 2,422,421 6/ 1947 Kaufman. 2,925,750 2/ 1960 Capps.
EUGENE R. CAPOZIO, Primary Examiner WILLIAM H. GRI EB, Assistant Examiner US. Cl. X.R. 3575; 235-70