US 3461695 A
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Au'g. 19, 1969 H. KNOHL :461,695 l l TWO*WAY STRETCH GARMENT INCORORATING INLAID ELASTOMVERIC YARNv Filed Sept. 19, 1967 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 @gf/WQ United States Patent O 3,461,695 TWO-WAY STRETCH GARMENT IN CORPORAT- ING INLAID ELASTOMERIC YARN Herbert Knohl, Seneca, S.C., assignor to The Kendall Company, Walpole, Mass., a corporation of Massachusetts Filed Sept. 19, 1967, Ser. No. 668,756 Int. Cl. D04b 11/28, 7/12, 21/14 U.S. Cl. 66-17S 7 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE The invention is particularly concerned with tubular knitted two-way stretch girdles, stockings, panty hose, stretch slacks, knee and elbow guards, stretch shorts, and other tubular knitted garments incorporating an inlaid elastic yarn.
This invention is concerned with two-way stretch tubular knitted garments.
BACKGROUND OF 'PHE INVENTION Heretofore, tubular garments incorporating inlaid elastic yarn have been somewhat deficient in lengthwise stretch and return although they have been most efficient in providing circumferential stretch and return as well as the desired degree of body compression or support pressure. That is, heretofore the lengthwise stretch of such garments has been insuicient to accommodate the flexing of the body as occurs in a girdle when the body is bent at the waist, or in a knee guard or elbow guard when the joint is bent, or in a stocking when the ankle or knee is flexed. Body flexing accordingly displaces the garment from its usual position so that when the normal body posture is assumed, undesirable consequences result, such as riding up in girdles, wrinkling at the instep and bagging at the knee in stockings, and wrinkling or bagging over the joint in knee and elbow guards.
An alternative structure has been widely utilized in which the elastic yarns in such garments are incorporated not as inlay yarns but in knitted stitches alternating with floats and in combination with knitted courses of substantially nonelastic yarns such as nylon and polypropylene. In such garments it is general practice to alternate the Wale in which the float occurs in alternate rounds of the knit and float course. With such construction, the stitch distortion which occurs is not cumulative but rather balances out with `pairs of knit and oat rounds.
But the incorporation of knit and oat courses of elastic yarns to replace inlay yarns has produced garments which have other deficiencies. Inlay constructions produce garments with deficient longitudinal stretch, while knit andoat constructions produce garments in which longitudinal stretch is inevitably tied in with circumferential stretch; that is, by increasing the circumferential stretch, the longitudinal stretch is invariably also increased, and vice versa. It is obvious, therefore, that both the knit and float construction and the inlay construction of elastomeric yarn have deficiencies which up until the time of this invention have not been corrected.
SUMMARY It is an object of this invention to provide tubular elastic garments which have adequate longitudinal stretch and return and at the same time have circumferential stretch and return as may be desired.
It is a further object of this invention to provide tubular elastic garments which incorporate elastomeric yarn only as an inlay yarn, yet which have enhanced longitudinal stretchability and return.
It is a still further object of this invention to provide tubular elastic garments which incorporate elastomeric yarn both as a knit and float yarn and as an inlay yarn to provide characteristics to said garments not hitherto obtainable.
The garments of this invention are unique in that they include an inlaid elastomeric yarn, a substantially inelastic yarn such as a cotton, rayon, nylon, polypropylene, polyester, br the like yarn, and a third yarn which may be substantially inelastic yarn, or alternatively in some embodiments, an elastic yarn which is introduced as a knit and oat course.
It has been discovered that the presence of a knit and float course of relatively inelastic yarn together with an inlaid elastomeric yarn imparts to a tubular fabric a degrec of longitudinal stretch and return which persists after boarding and which is not present in the absence of the knit and float course.
It has also been discovered that the amplitude of the longitudinal stretch may be increased if the knit and float course is of elastomeric yarn. Where this course is of elastomeric yarn, it may somewhat modify the circumferential stretch and return of the fabric, but the efect of this course may be minimized if desired and compensated for by modification of the yarn core size and/ or by regulating the amount per round of elastomeric yarn in the knit and float course or in the inlay or in both.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS In FIGURE 1 a typical garment of the invention 10, a full length ladies stocking, is shown. The boot 11 is formed of any fabric which includes at least a. substantially nonelastic yarn knitted in a spiraloid course of jersey stitches, a further yarn knitted in a spiraloid course of alternating jersey stitches and floats and a generally spiral winding of elastomeric yarn inlaid in one of the two courses. The stocking of FIGURE 1 consists of a welt 12, a boot 11, a
reciprocated heel 13, and a toe 14. The stocking may be made with any of the usual yarns in the Welt, the heel, and the toe.
FIGURE 2 illustrates a typical tube style garment 15, a full length ladies stocking which may be of similar materials and construction to the stocking of FIGURE l but with a circularly knitted heel. The stocking consists of a turned Welt 17, a boot 16 of elastic fabric typical of the products of the invention, a circularly knitted heel 19, and a toe 18.
In FIGURE 3 a below-the-knee stocking 20 of the invention such as may be Worn by women in finer gauge and men in coarser gauge, is shown. The garment consists of a turned narrow welt 22, a boot 21 of elastic fabric typical of the products of the invention, a circularly knitted heel 23, and a toe 24.
FIGURE 4 illustrates a typical knee guard of the invention 40 with a body 41 of fabric typical of the invention, a turned welt 42 at the top and a somewhat similar welt 43 at the bottom.
FIGURE 5 illustrates a typical girdle of the invention 50 with a body 51 of elastic fabric typical of garments of the invention, a waist turned welt 52, and a bottom welt 53.
FIGURE 6 illustrates a typical fabric 60 of the prod ucts of the invention formed of four yarns shown with three knitted courses 62, 63, and 64. Courses 62 and 64 are plain jersey courses of substantially nonelastic yarn, course 63 being a course of jersey stitches alternating with oats which `course may range selectively in degree of elasticity from substantially nonelastic to highly elastic yarn. A Winding 61 of elastomeric yarn is inlaid in one of the courses.
FIGURE 7 illustrates a typical fabric 70 of the products of the invention formed of three yarns 71, 72, and 73.
Yarn 72 is a typical substantially nonelastic yarn formed into a course of plain jersey stitches. Yarn 72 may be either nonelastic, semielastic, or fully elastic, and is knitted into a course of alternating plain jersey stitches and floats. Yarn 71 is the inlay yarn and in this instance is introduced into the needles carrying the yarn which produces the plain jersey knit course.
FIGURE 8 illustrates a preferred three-yarn fabric 80 which is used in typical products of the invention. The yarn 82 is a substantially nonelastic yarn which is formed into a course of plain jersey stitches. Yarn 83 is a yarn which may be either fully elastic, semielastic, or substantially nonelastic and which is formed into a course of jersey stitches alternating with fioats. Yarn 81 is the elastomeric inlay yarn which is introduced into the needles carrying the yarn which produces the knit and float course.
While only three and four-feed products are illustrated, it is obvious that on a six-feed machine feeds 4, 5, and 6 could duplicate respectively feeds 1, 2, and 3 and the fabric would look very similar to that of FIGURE 7 or 8. On the other hand, feeds 4, 5, and 6 may duplicate the l, 2, and 3 feeds of FIGURE 8 while feeds 1, 2, and 3 of the six-feed machine may duplicate the feeds which produced the fabric of FIGURE 7. The resulting fabric would be a combination of the fabric of FIGURES 7 and 8.
Likewise, in an eight-feed machine, feeds 5, 6, 7, and 8 may duplicate the respective 1, 2, 3, and 4 feeds and a fabric very similar to that illustrated in FIGURE 6 would result. Of course, with an eight-feed machine, the knit and float courses and the inlay windings, assuming there are two of each, might be put in any sequence with the plain jersey courses. A more uniform fabric results, of course, when the inlay and knit and fioat are separated by a plain jersey course and this is repeated. In the garment as stretched on the body it is sometimes quite difcult to detect the differences between the inlay and the knit and fioat yarns at about two feet distance when the same yarn is used at both feeds.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Example 1 Using a Singer Fidelity four-feed LBMF circular knitting stocking machine modified to inlay elastic yarn, as is fully illustrated and explained in my copending application Ser. No. 581,319, filed Sept. 22, 1966, a turned welt and shadow welt was made using 40 denier nylon KDK (knit-deknit) yarn in alternate feeds and 40 denier textralized nylon yarn in the other feeds in the usual manner. When the boot was knitted, the yarn on feed 1 was re` placed by a 40 denier spandex core covered with one end of denier, 7 lament nylon and kept under sufficient tension to prevent kinking. Yarn of this general type is fully described in my Patent No. 3,301,018, issued Jan. 31, 1967. The yarn on feeds 2, 3, and 4 was exchanged for a 30 denier, 3 filament nylon yarn on each. Where greater snag resistance is desired, 30 denier, 10 filament yarn with five turns S twist may be substituted. The machine was set up to knit at feeds 2 and 4, to knit and oat at feed 3, and to inlay nylon covered spandex at feed 1.
The machine reduced the stitch size gradually and, as is fully explained in the U.S. patent to I ames T. Cargill, No. 3,209,558, the variable cam control measured the amount of spandex yarn into the machine as knitting proceeded from the shadow welt to the ankle. The stitch size remained constant from the ankle to the toe with the heel continuously circularly knitted. Where a heel patch reinforcement is desired, it may be added in the usual manner. When the toe was reached, all four boot yarns were replaced by 50 denier multifilament nylon yarns and the toe was finished off in the usual manner.
Example 2 Using the same machine and the same yarns, except that the spandex yarn was a controlled 40 denier core spandex yarn with a double covering of 20 denier, 7 filament nylon, a stocking was produced. This garment had only a slightly heavier appearance than the garment of Example l.
Example 3 A stocking was produced using the same machine and the same yarns as in Example 1 except the yarn on feed 3, at which the knit and iioat course was produced, was replaced by an elastic yarn consisting of a 40 denier core with a single covering of 30 denier, 10 filament nylon. The control for metering the spandex yarn for this feed was the same as that for the inlay on feed 1, but separate controls may be substituted, each with a variable cam for preselection of the amount of spandex metered into any round of the garment. The stocking was finished in the usual manner.
Example 4 Using the machine and yarns of Example 1, a stocking was knitted in the same manner down to the heel. At that point a change in needle movement at feed 1 was initiated, as fully explained in my aforementioned copending application Ser. No. 581,319, whereby the spandex yarn was knitted in every course around the heel portion of the needle circle and was inlaid in the instep area to produce a pocket by continuous circular knitting in the heel area. The stocking was particularly appealing because the fabric structure in the instep and the heel pocket was uniform in appearance presenting a nude effect. This structure permitted various cutaway shoe styles to be worn without exposure of objectionable shaded heel pockets.
Example 5 Using the materials of Example 1 and the same machine except modified by an additional portion on the stitch graduating segment so that stitches in the fabric are drawn gradually increasingly longer from a point beginning about one and a half to two inches above the midpoint of the heel and decreasingly shorter from that point to a point where the stitch size is normal about one and a half to two inches toward the toe, a stocking was made with increased fabric in the instep area and in the heel area. In addition to the advantages of the stocking of Example 1, this stocking was notably smooth across the instep portion of the foot when worn.
Other multifeed knitting machines with pattern drum assemblies permitting a choice of knit, tuck and float stitch patterns at alternating knitting feeds may be utilized in knitting the products of the invention. Some of these machines are designed to produce conventional reciprocated heel and toe pockets. Such machines as the Scott & Williams model SW 4/ 1, the Scott & Williams SW 4/ 2, and the four-feed machine manufactured by Textile Machine Works, Reading, Pa., designated Reading R-34, may be utilized in knitting the stockings of the invention.
With regard to girdles, it is not customary to knit such garments on a single needle bed knitting system; however, the machines currently being used to make patterned jersey fabric such as the comparatively coarse gauge Supreme model of the SA/ROF series of machines sold by Supreme Knitting Machine Company, Inc., Johnson Ave., Brooklyn 6, N.Y., produce excellent girdle blanks of the invention. Generally these garments will be made of somewhat heavier yarns but a very sheer garment may 'be produced with fabric made of the boot yarns of Example 1. In view of the lack of stitch control of the knitted stitches, the shaping of the garment may be accomplished by metering in the inlaid elastic yarn in accordance with pre-selected cam settings and in general the smallest portion, or n other words the least amount of metered elastic yarn would be incorporated in the waist portion. A sewed welt or elastic edging may be incorporated at the top and bottom to finish the Sarong type girdle or a crotch section may be incorporated to produce a panty girdle.
Where tine gauge girdle blanks are desired, one may use fine gauge jersey fabric machines with elaborate pattern selecting mechanisms used primarily for knitting plain and fancy jersey fabrics for sportswear and outerwear. These machines are offered in the range of 26 to 34 needles per inch in 20` and 26 inch cylinders. The machines are entirely suitable for the manufacture of very light weight girdle and foundation garments in accordance with the invention. The model MFSS patented machine of Scott & Williams, now White Industries, Inc., of Laconia, N.H., is a suitable machine of this type.
Example 6 Using a two-feed AIMF machine manufactured by Scott & Williams, now White Industries, Inc., of Laconia, N H., and modified to inlay elastic yarn at an additional feed as described in my copending application Ser. No, 581,319, filed Sept. 22, 1966, and using the metering device described in the Cargill Patent No. 3,209,558, a stocking was made. The welt and shadow welt were produced in the usual way using the two knitting feeds, one supplied with 40 denier KDK nylon yarn and the other supplied with 40 denier textralized nylon yarn.
When the shadow welt was completed, the two yarns were replaced by 30 denier, 3 filament nylon yarns. The third feed at which the inlay took place was supplied with 40 denier spandex covered with one end of 20 denier, 7 lament nylon kept under sufficient tension to prevent kinking. The machine was set up to knit on the No. l feed, to knit and iioat on the No. 2 feed, and to inlay the elastic yarn in the knit and float course on feed 3. The heel and toe were knit by reciprocation in the usual 6 manner. The stocking when finished had a very smooth, attractive outer surface.
Example 7 Using the same materials and the same machine as used in Example 6 but with the machine set to knit and float on feed l, to knit on feed 2, an-d to inlay at feed 3, a stocking was produced with a three dimensional birds-eye appearance. This fabric had considerably greater tendency to snag than the fabric of Example 6 In order to demonstrate the stretch characteristics of fabrics of the invention, two sizes of boarded tubes were utilized. Both were knitted on a Singer Fidelity four-feed LBMF circular knitting machine, one with very small stitches such as those used in the ankle of stockings, and one vwith relatively larger stitches such as those used in the knee of stockings. It is obvious from Table I that stitch size is a factor in both vertical and circumferential stretch. The tubes with stocking ankle size stitches were boarded to six inches circumference at 250 F. for one minute. The tubes with stocking knee size stitches were boarded to ten inches circumference under the same conditions. All samples were knitted with the same yarns, i.e., 30 denier, 3 filament nylon 66 and identical elastic yarns. The elastic yarns had denier spandex cores made by E. I. du Pont de Nemours and sold under the trademark Lycra. These cores were covered with a single covering of 2.0 denier, 6 filament nylon 6r covering yarns made with turns per inch with the machine set to produce a draft of 3.5. The yarn was wound on a tube on the covering machine at a predetermined rate, the speed being adequate to produce a tension just sucient to avoid kinking. Draft as used in this invention is defined as the total unit length of the core at the moment of covering.
TABLE I Vertical Percent stretch of gain Clrcurnference Cireumference 24-inch based Construction after boarding stretched length tube Comparative vertical stretch on activlty at at 250 F. for double by 12- by l2flb. 24'inch indicated feeds 1 minute lb. Weight weight Ankle Knee length l Knit nylon Tube #1 2 Knit nylon 6 inches, ankle size 27 inches Knit nylon... 1 Knit ny1on Tube #2 2 Knit nylon ....do 18 inches To 30 To 30, 25%
3 Knit nyl0n 4 Inlay spandex 1 Knit nylon Tube #3 2 K and F nylon do 22 inches Knit nylon Tube #4 .do 17 inches To 31ML-.. To 31%, 31.25% 6. 25
Tube #5 2 K and F spandex do 16 inches To 33 To 33, 37.5% 12. 5
3 Knit nylon 4 Inlay spandex 1 Knit nylon.-- Tube #6 10 inches, knee size. 33 inches Tube #7 do 22 inches To 32 To 32, 33.33%
3 Knit nylon 4 Inlay spandex. 1 Knit nylon Tube #8 2 K and F nylon do 25 inches .i Knit nylon 1 Knit nylon Tube #9 2 K and F nylon do 20% inches To 34% To 34%", 44.8%. 1l. 6
3 Knit nylon 4 Inlay spandex 1 Knit nylon Tube #10 2 K and F spande do 23 inches To 383/5 To 38; 2, 60.4%... 27.1
3 Knit nylon. 4 Inlay spandex I claim:
1. A garment comprising a tubular knit portion including at least two covered elastomeric yarns and at least one substantially nonelastomeric yarn, the latter being knit into at least one spiraloid course of plain jersey stitches, one of said covered elastomeric yarns being knit as the sole yarn into a course of alternating jersey stitches and oats, the other of said covered elastomeric yarns being inlaid into the nonelastomeric course.
2. The garment of claim 1 wherein the yarn of the knit and float course includes at least one individual lament not greater than 30 denier nor less than 5 denier.
3. The garment of claim 1 wherein the tubular knit portion includes the boot of an ankle covering garment.
4. The garment of claim 1 wherein there are at least four yarns, two of which are substantially nonelastomeric yarns knit into plain jersey knit courses.
5. The garment of claim 1 wherein there are eight yarns, one of which is the inlaid elastomeric yarn, two of which are covered elastomeric yarns forming jersey knit and float courses, and ve of which are substantially nonelastomeric yarns forming plain jersey courses.
6. The `garment of claim 1 wherein the said substantially nonelastomeric yarns are thermoplastic.
s, 7. The garmentv of claim 1 wherein the elastic yarns are Wrapped with at least one substantially nonelastic wrapping yarn.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS Re. 25,046 10/1961 Knohl 66-171 XR 550,093 11/1895 Bennett 66-190 1,518,798 12/1924 Kendrick 66-190 1,649,633 11/1927 Wiese 66-176 XR 1,683,510 9/1928 Wiese 66--176 XR 1,774,613 9/1930 Pidgeon 66-190 XR 2,111,353 3/1938 Berry 66-172 XR 2,574,737 l l/l951 Goodchild 66-178 3,250,092 5/1966 York et al 66-178 XR 3,306,081 2/1967 Miles et al. 66-178 3,386,270 6/1968 Simmons 66-183 FOREIGN PATENTS 1,383,467 11/1964 France.
RONALD FELDBAUM, Primary Examiner