US 3461866 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aug. 19, 1969 I D. RITCHIE 3,461,866, I
MANUALLY OPERATED ARTIFICIAL 'RESPIRATOR Filed Feb. 1, 1966 INVEMTOK DAW O R\TCH IE Aug. 19, 1969 o. RITCHIEAJ I 5 A MANUALLY OPERATED ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATOR Filed Fem-1, 1966 I v 5 Shuts-Sheet 2 DAmo R\TC.H| Bym ww Aug. 19, 1969 0. RITCHIE MANUAL LY OPERATED ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATOR 5' Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed Feb. 1, 1956 r FIGS.
95 6 D. RITCHIE "3,461,866
MANUALLY OPERATED ARTIFICIAL@RESPIRATOR Fl-"led Feb. 1, 1966 5 Sheetssheaf. 4
IlllWl/l/ Aug; 19,1969 0. RITCHIE 5 5 MANUALLY OPERATED ARTIFICIAL 'RESPIRATOR I Filed Feb. 1, 1966 s 'She ets Sheet 5 uan/1'00. 'DAWD RYT'CHIE United States Patent "ice 3,461,866 MANUALLY OPERATED ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATOR David Ritchie, Northampton, England, assignor to Alan Westley and Beatrice Rose Westley, both of Northampton, England Filed Feb. 1, 1966, Ser. No. 524,006 Int. Cl. A62b 7/00 US. Cl. 128-1457 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Artificial respiration apparatus comprising a pair of pumping elements each of which comprises a cylinder containing a piston connected by a piston rod to a common handle for simultaneous reciprocable operation, each cylinder having a pipe connection leading to a common facepiece, one pumping element being operable'on one stroke of said handle to induce inhalation in a person to whom the facepiece is applied and the other pumping element being operable on the other stroke of said handle to induce exhalation, valves being provided to prevent excess positive and/or negative pressures in the apparatus.
This invention relates to artificial respiration apparatus such as may be used, for example, to resuscitate a cas ualty of any age with chest injuries, or after drowning and has for its principal object to provide a simple, safe and relatively inexpensive portable apparatus for this purpose, obviating mouth to mouth insufiiation which has its obvious dangers, such as the transmission of disease, poisoning or gas poisoning. I
According to the invention there is provided artificial respiration apparatus comprising a pair of pumping elements capable of simultaneous reciprocable operation by a handle and separate connections from the interior of each of the pumping elements to a single facepiece, wherein one pumping element is operable on one stroke of the handleto induce inhalation and the other pumping element is operable on the other stroke of the handle to induce exhalation, unidirectional valves being associated with each of the pumping elements of which the valve associated with the exhaling pumping element is adapted to open on the inhaling stroke of the handle when the pressure of air in the connections and facepiece exceeds a predetermined value to exhaust some of the air and thereby prevent excessive pressure in said connections and facepiece, whilst the valve associated with the inhaling pumping element is adapted to open on the exhaling stroke of the handle when the negative pressureof the air in the connections and facepiece exceeds a predetermined value to allow air to pass into the connections and facepiece and thereby prevent excessive negative pressure in said connections and facepiece.
According to a preferred embodiment, the pumping elemenis include a pair of cylinders mounted side by side in a casing, each cylinder containing a piston on a piston rod and the two pistons being connected to the handle, each of the unidirectional valves being interposed between the respective cylinders and the facepiece and a second pair of oppositly directed non-return valves being pro-: vided in the respective pistons.
The valves do not contain springs or other similar devices but are controlled entirely by pressures developed in the apparatus and ensure a unidirectional flow of air at all times. Thus, when the handle is depressed, which constitutes the inspiratory stroke, air is moved from the inhaling cylinder through the appropriate valve and via the facepiece into a casualtys lungs. In the event of the casualty requiring a volume of air less than that of the 3,461,866 Patented Aug. 19, 1969 volume of the inhaling cylinder, as for example in .a child, the excess air will be blown off into the atmosphere via the exhaling cylinder.
Further, the apparatus according to the invention aids the expiration normally produced by the elasticity of the casualtys own lungs expelling the air, and on the upstroke, or expiratory stroke of the handle, air is gently withdrawn from the lungs and expelled to the atmosphere via the exhaling cylinder. Over deflation of the lungs cannot be produced for should the volume of the expired air be less than the volume of air the apparatus expels on the expiratory stroke, air from the atmosphere will be drawn into the exhaling cylinder via the inhaling cylinder and connections.
If desired, whistles may be provided to indicateexcess positive or negative pressure respectively in the apparatus on the inhaling and exhaling strokes of the pumping elements. The whistles give an audible indication of the air flow. I
An embodiment of the invention will now be described with reference to the accompanying drawings, of which:
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of the apparatus in a closed position for carrying,
FIG. 2 is a perspective view of the apparatus in an open condition for use (but with some components omitted for clarity),
FIG. 3 is an enlarged cross-sectional elevation of the apparatus,
FIG. 4 is aplan view of part of the bottom of the apparatus,
' vided with clips 3 to receive the edge of the narrower end 4 of the portion 2 and the two portions can be locked together by cooperating clip portions 5 and 6. The apparatus may be carried either by a fixed handle 7 or by a pumping handle 8 when the latter is in the position shown in FIG.. 1. The handle is retained in this position by bayonet-type clips comprising slotted rotatable collars 9 and 1t} loosely attached to the casing portion 1 and which co-operate with pins 11 and 12 attached to the heads of piston rods 13 and 14 fixed to the handle 8. As will be seen from FIG. 1, the slots in the collars 9 and v10 each consist of a vertical portion which the appropriate pin can enter and a horizontal portion in which the pin is retained when the collar is rotated.
Turning to FIG. 3, it will be seen that the collars 9 and 10 are carried on bushings 15 and 16 relative to which the collars are free to rotate and to move upwards by a limited amount. In order to lock the handle 8 in its lower, carrying position, therefore, the collars 9 and 10 are raised and then turned to trap the pins in their respective slots.
When the apparatus is required for use on site, the two casing portions 1 and 2 are separated as shown in FIG. 2 and the handle 8 released by partially rotating the collars 9 and 10 and allowing them .to drop to the positions shown in FIGS. 2 and 3. The casing portion 1 is provided with a hinged plate 17 (FIG. 1) which can be released by rotating a clip 18. This .plate then serves as a kneeling pad for an operator while using the handle 8. The casing portion 2 when placed in the position shown in FIG. 2 can be used to support the shoulders of a casualty, his neck'being supported by a ne ck rest 19.
Referring again to FIG. 3, the piston rods 13 and 14 are connected to the inhale and exhale pumping elements Comprising pistons 21' and 22 movable in respective cylinders 23 and 24. The pistons 21 and 22 include respective non-return valves, the valve in piston 21 being arranged to open as the piston rises and the valve in piston 22 being arranged'to open as the piston descends. Turning to FIGS. and 6, which show the piston 21, it will be seen that the valve comprises a disc of leather or the like clamped to the face of the piston and having its centre portion cut away to form'four flaps such as 25 each arranged to cover a corresponding opening such as 26 in the piston. The peripheral portion of the disc is made larger than the piston and is turned over to form a sealing skirt 20. The oppositely-directed valve in piston 22 is similarly constructed.
7 ceeds a predetermined value, the pressure opens the A further pair of non-return valves 27 and 28 (FIGS. 6
3 and 4) control communication between the cylinders 23 and 24 and base air chambers 29 and 30 respectively, the direction of opening of these valves being in each case opposite to that of the valve in the piston immediately above it. The casings defining the chambers 29 and 30 are bolted to the base members of their associated cylinders and are bolted to the bottom portion of the casing portion 1 by the means shown in FIG. 8. This means comprises a number of studs such as 31 which are swaged into the wall of chamber 29 and are threaded to receive a bolt 32 whose head is accommodated in a countersink in the bottom of the casing portion 1. The chambers 29 and 30 are isolated from each other and each is provided with a respective tubulation 33 and 34. To these tubulations can be attached respective rubber tubes 35 and 36 of which one end is shown in FIG. 2. The other ends of these tubes are attached to a union 37 (FIG. 7) having two terminations to receive the tubes and an inlet leading to a facepiece 38. It will be observed that the plane of the tube terminations is different from that of the inlet to the facepiece. The union is also fitted with an audible warning device such as a whistle 39 and similar warning devices 40 and 41 are fitted to the chambers 29 and 30 as shown in FIG. 2. The facepiece 38 can be held over the casualtys nose and mouth by means of a headstrap (not shown) and the tubes, facepiece and headstrap can all be accommodated in the casing portion 2 in the closed condition of the apparatus shown in FIG. 1.
It will be assumed in the following description that the apparatus has been prepared for use as explained with reference to FIG. 2 and that the rubber facepiece 38 has been applied to a casualty. 'The pumping handle 8 is then moved up and down at a speed as close as possible to that of natural respiration.
When the handle is pressed down, the valve in piston 21 of the inhale cylinder 23 closes and its associated air chamber valve 27 opens. As a result, fresh air from the interior of the cylinder (previously drawn in through the apertured top of the cylinder) is passed into the lungs of the casualtyvia tube 35. At the same time, the previously exhaled air in the exhale cylinder 24 passes through the open valve in the piston 22 into the space above the piston. The associated air chamber valve 28 remains closed to prevent the exhaled air from returning to the lungs.
If the maximum volume of air that can be received by a casualtys lungs is less than the volume of air in the inhale cylinder 23 when the lungs have received their maximum volume of air, the air pressure in the tubes 35, 36, facepiece 38 and the casualtys lungs would tend to increase if the handle were depressed further. This excessive pressure must be prevented in order to safeguard the casualtys lungs and this is where the valve valve 28 and permits the air to pass into the exhale cylinder 24 and thence through the open valve in piston 22 to exhaust to atmosphere. At the same time some of the air passes out through the-whistles 39 and 41 which act as pressure relief valves and as audible indicating devices to inform the operator of the apparatus that the casualtys lungs "are full of air. In this way, excessive pressure on and thus possible damage to the casualtys lungs is prevented. At the end of the stroke the air in the tubes 35, 36 and the facepiece 38 is at atmospheric pressure.
When the handle is raised, the valve in piston 21 0f the inhale cylinder opens to permit a new charge of fresh air to be drawn into the space below the piston which is initially sealed off from the facepiece by the closure of the associated air chamber valve 27. At the same time, air is gently drawn out of the casualtys lungs, by the exhale cylinder 24 through the tube 36 and the open valve 28 in the associated air chamber, the valve in the piston 22 being, of course, now shut. The cylinder 24 may if desired be provided towards its upper end with a series of small axially-spaced apertures which are successively uncovered by the rising piston 22 so progressively reducing the degree of air extraction from the casualtys lungs. In this way the exhale cylinder aids the expiration produced by the elasticity of the casualtys own lungs expelling the air.
If the lungs should have already expired all of the air before the stroke of the handle is completed, excessive suction would be produced on the lungs unless a safeguard was incorporated in the apparatus. Such a safeguard is provided by the valve 27 and whistles 39 and 40. When the suction produced by the piston 22 in the exhale cylinder 24 exceeds a predetermined value, the valve 27 is opened by the force of the suction and permits air to pass into the tubes 35, 36 and facepiece 38. At the same time air passes through the whistles 39 and 40 which give an audible indication to the operator that the casualtys lungs have been exhausted. Thus, excessive suction and possible damage to the casualtys lungs is prevented. The air in the pipe connections and facepiece is again at atmospheric pressure at the end of the stroke.
The volume of air produced by each stroke of the apparatus can be modified by the operator if so desired. Whilst the maximum volume of air that can be presented to a casualtys lungs on each inspiratory stroke is limited by the size of the inhale cylinder, this is more than adequate for all adults and in the case of children can easily be reduced by shortening the length of the stroke. Thus, should the whistles sound when the handle is only half depressed adequate ventilation of the casualtys lungs can be produced by using only half the stroke length of the handle. However, in the event of an inexperienced operator not being aware of this, it is still perfectly safe to utilise the full stroke length of the handle because the excess air is simply blown off through the exhaling cylinder and whistles to the atmosphere.
In addition to indicating excess positive or negative pressures, the audible indicators 39, 40 and 41 will sound a warning if either tube 35 or 36 is blocked.
In the case of drowning, the exhale cylinder 24 may collect water without impeding normal operation. If desired, the casing may also contain a manually operable extraction pump for clearing blockages in the throat of a casualty which impede respiration.
Due to its design and working principles, the apparatus is light and easily carried. Moreover, it can be used while being. carried, the handle 7 facilitating the operation of the apparatus while walking. The apparatus incorporates its own safety measures in that any excess pressure applied on the inhale stroke will by-pass the facepiece and pass through the union back to the exhale cylinder. The casualty can resume breathing at any time without being restricted by the continued operation of the apparatus.
1. Artificial respiration apparatus comprising a pair of pumping elements, each of said pumping elements comprising a cylinder containing a piston which is connected by a piston rod to a common handle for simultaneous rcciprocable operation, each cylinder having a one-way valve at one end and an opening at the other end thereof, a common facepiece, means connecting said one end of said cylinders to said facepiece, each of said pistons having a one-way valve comprising a flexible valve-closure element the diameter of which is greater than that of the associated piston and which is used .to form a sealing skirt around said piston, and one pumping element being operable on one stroke of said handle to induce inhalation in a person to whom the facepiece, is applied and the other pumping element being operable on the other stroke of said handle to induce exhalation in the person, said cylinder and piston valves being controlled solely by air pressure and arranged so that, upon operation of the handle to induce inhalation, the valve at the end of the first cylinder and the valve in the piston in the second cylinder are open and the other two valves are initially closed until the pressure of air in said facepiece and connecting means exceeds a predetermined value when the valve at the end of said second cylinder is opened by the excess pressure to release said pressure and, when the handle is operated to induce exhalation, the valve at the end of the second cylinder and the valve in the piston in the first cylinder are open and the remaining two valves are initially closed until the suction eifect in said facepiece and connecting means reaches a predetermined value when the valve at the end of said first cylinder is opened by the suction etfect to relieve the suction by admitting air to said facepiece and connecting means.
2. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, in which said pumping elements are mounted in a casing and in which a locking means in the form of a bayonet joint comprising a pin on a piston rod and a slot on a collar attached to said casing is provided for locking said handle to said casing for carrying said apparatus.
3. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, in which an audible warning indicator is associated with each pumping element which acts as a pressure relief valve after a predetermined respective positive or negative pressure has been reached in said connecting means and facepiece.
4. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, in which said connecting means to the facepiece comprise a pair of flexible tubes joined to a rigid-"union, said union being fitted with an audible warning indicator which acts -as a pressure relief valve when excessive positive or negative pressures exist in said tubes and facepiece, said indicator operating if one or the othep of said tubes is blocked.
5. Apparatus as claimed; in claim 1, in which said casing comprises two portions which can be separated for use and locked together for transportation, one portion of said casing being adapted to accommodate the cylinders, connecting means and facepiece and the other portion of 'said casing being provided with a neck restand being adapted to support the shoulders of a person to whom the facepiece is applied when separated from said one portion of the casing.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 859,778 7/1907 Poe 128-145.7 1,157,655 10/1915 Mayer et a1. 128-145.7 1,202,126 10/ 1916 Tullar.
1,266,624 5/1918 Ramsay 128145.7 1,371,702 3/1921 Lyon 128---145.7 1,406,141 2/1922 Anston 128145.7 2,063,043 12/1936 Mc Kesson 128-145.8 2,427,419 9/1947 Railsch 128-145.7 3,105,488 10/1963 Richards 128-1457 3,216,413 11/1965 Mota 128145.7
FOREIGN PATENTS 1,030,404 5/ 1966 Great Britain.
RICHARD A. GAUDET, Primary Examiner K. L. HOWELL, Assistant Examiner US. Cl. X.R.