|Publication number||US3463158 A|
|Publication date||Aug 26, 1969|
|Filing date||Jan 9, 1967|
|Priority date||Oct 31, 1963|
|Publication number||US 3463158 A, US 3463158A, US-A-3463158, US3463158 A, US3463158A|
|Inventors||Edward Emil Schmitt, Rocco Albert Polistina|
|Original Assignee||American Cyanamid Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (280), Classifications (25)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Aug. 26, 1969 E. SCHMITT ET AL 3,463,158
. POLYGLYCOLIC ACID PROSTHETIC DEVICES Filed Jan. 9. 1967 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 2l-N0/V-A BSORBA EL .5 22-4 BSORBA BL E F-r- 7-2- 'FE'F-z Fr -,1,
1:1 /00 NON- ABSORBABLE m 75 NON-ABSORBABL 25 PGA m 50 NON-ABSORBABLE- 50% PGA IE- 25% NON-ABSORBABLE-75 PGA INVENTORS. EDWARD EM/L SCHM/TT ROCICO ALBERT POL/.ST/NA ATTORNEY Aug. 26, 1969 E. E. SCHMITT ET AL 3,463,158
POLYGLYCOLIC ACID PROSTHETIC DEVICES Filed Jan. 9. 1967 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 INVENTORS, EDWARD EM/L .SCHM/TT ROCCO ALBERT POL/STl/VA ATTORNEY Aug. 26, 1969 E. E. SCHMITT ET AL 3,463,158
POLYGLYCOLIC ACID PROSTHBTIC DEVICES Filed Jan. 9, 1967 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 HEART -5 TISSUE EDWARD EM/L SCHM/TT ROCCO ALBERT POL/ST/NA .1 g ZE INVENTORS.
ATTORNEY United States Patent us. (:1. 128-334 8 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Polyhydroxyacetic ester, also called polyglycolic acid (PGA), has surgically useful mechanical properties as a solid prosthesis, such as reinforcing pins, screws, plates, or thin sheets. The polyglycolic acid can form a single or bicomponent fabric, either mixed uniformly, or in discrete areas with non-absorbable fibers. In either form, on implantation, in living mammalian tissue, the polyglycolic acid is absorbed, and replaced by living tissue. Fabric structures of an intermixture of PGA and non-absorable material are particularly useful in tissue repair or replacement so that living tissue mechanically unites about the non-absorbable fiber structure, locking it into place.
CROSS REFERENCES This application is a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 320,543, filed Oct. 31, 1963 now US. Patent 3,297,033, Jan. 10, 1967, Surgical Sutures.
Field of invention This invention relates to absorbable surgical elements of polyhydroxyacetic ester hereafter called polyglycolic acid (PGA).
Prior art The use of subrnucosal tissue and ribbons therefrom internally is described in such patents as United States Patent 2,167,251, Rogers, Surgical Tape of Sumucosa Tissue, July 25, 1939, United States Patent 2,143,910, Didusch, Ribbon Gut and Method of Using the Same, an. 17, 1939, and United States Patent 2,127,903, Bowen, Tube for Surgical Purposes and Methods of Preparing and Using the Same, Aug. 23, 1938.
U.S.P. 2,836,181, I. S. Tapp, Flexible Nylon Tube and Method for Preparing Same shows a braided heat crimped formic acid treated nylon tube spliced into a blood vessel, with the crimp permitting a desired degree of flexibility.
U.S.P. 3,099,016, M. L. Edwards, Heart Valve shows a plastic cardiac valve, in which a fabric is emplaced in a ring around the valve, and sutured to the heart tissue, to permit the heart tissue to grow to such fabric, and hold the valve in position in the heart.
U.S.P. 3,054,406, F. C. Usher, Surgical Mesh, Sept. 18, 1962, shows the use of a polyethylene woven mesh fabric implanted in the human abdominal wall for reinforcing and healing defects.
U.S.P. 3,108,357, W. J. Liebig, Compound Absorbable Prosthetic Implants, Fabrics and Yarns Therefor shows flexible fabrics of mixed absorbable and non-absorbable textile fibers for implantation, and reinforcement of tissue.
U.S.P. 3,124,136, F. C. Usher, Method of Repairing Body Tissue, Mar. 10, 1964, shows the use of knitted linear polyethylene mesh attached to each side of a tissue defect. The polyethylene is non-absorbable and permanently reinforces the tissue at the site of the defect. Additional details appear in Usher, Ochsner and Tuttle Use of Marlex Mesh in the Repair of Incisional Hernias, The American Surgeon 24, 116-121 (December 1958).
U.S.P. 3,155,095, A. M. Brown Anastomosis Method and Means shows an internal and external asorbable coupling for the joining of vascular vessels.
United States Patents 3,272,204, Absorbable Collagen Prosthetic Implant With Non-Absorbable Reinforcing Strands, Artandi and Bechtol, Sept. 13, 1966, 3,284,557, Process For Crimping An Artificial Implant For Use In An Animal Body," Seymour Polansky, Nov. 8, 1966, and 3,276,448, Collagen Coated Fabric Prosthesis, Richard L. Kronethal, Oct. 4, 1966, each disclose collagen in combination with non-absorbable fibers as surgical prostheses.
SUMMARY Definitions in the textile trades are frequently somewhat ambiguous. For purposes of the present application, certain terms are defined:
A filament is a single, long, thin flexible structure of a non-absorable or absorbable material. It may be continuous or staple.
Staple is used to designate a group of shorter filaments which are usually twisted together to form a long, continuous thread.
Non-absorbable surgically acceptable filaments include filaments of polyalkylenes, such as polyethylene, preferably linear polyethylene with a density of about 0.94 or higher, or polypropylene, preferably isotactic polypropylene; or a polyamide, such as nylon; or a polyester, such as Dacron; or a polyacrylonitrile, such as Orlon or Creslan; or a halogenated polyalkylene, such as polytetrafluorethylene, such as Teflon, or other halogenated polyalkylene, such as Kel-F or FEP; or cotton, or silk, or linen; or a metal such as stainless steel, tantalum, silver, gold, or platinum. The above are illustrative. Any non-absorbable material which is essentially inert in living mammalian tissue, particularly human tissue, is usable as a non-absorbable filament. Those materials having a comparatively high tensile strength and flexibility are preferred.
An absorbable filament is one which is absorbed, that is digested or dissolved, in living mammalian tissue.
A thread is a plurality of filaments, either continuous or staple, twisted together.
A strand is a plurality of filaments or threads twisted, plaited, braided, or laid parallel to form a unit for further construction into a fabric, or used per se, or a monofilament of such size as to be Woven or used independently.
A bi-component filament is a filament composed of two separate materials. As used herein, the term is limited to a filament having one non-absorbable component and one absorbable component. The components may be adjacent. The most easily formed and preferred bi-component filament is a sheathed filament with an internal nonabsorbable material coated, or sheathed, approximately concentrically, with an absorbable component.
A bi-component thread includes a thread of bi-component filaments or a blend of different separate monofilament components twisted together, or both.
A bi-component strand is a strand of one or more bicomponent filaments, or two different filament materials, or both, at least one component of which is absorbable.
A bi-component fabric is a woven, knitted, felted, adhesively united, or otherwise formed fabric of at least two dimensions, or fabric tube having separate strands of bicomponent materials or strands of two separate components, at least one component of which is absorbable.
A coated fabric is a fabric which is coated with a substantially continuous sheet of a second material, as for example by hot melt coating, or coating from a solvent system, or with coating rolls, the base fabric of which may be wholly nonabsorbable, although it may contain an absorbable component. For the present invention, only a living tissue absorbable coating of PGA is considered as the coating layer.
A solid prosthetic device is a thin solid sheet, or plate, or tube, which may be split, or bar, or nail, or screw, or pin or other solid shape which has inherent mechanical strength to act as a solid discrete surgical reinforcing element, and has at least one dimension greater than 2 millimeters, and which may have a dimension as great as about 200 millimeters, or as required, to furnish mechanical support and reinforcement to a bone, or bones, or gland, or organ, for support during a healing process.
The support may be in par-t directive of growth, as for example in nerve tissue, which grows slowly, and as a result has regeneration impaired by the more rapid growth of scar tissue which can block the growth of the nerve tissue. With a wrap-around sheath of PGA sheet, or a split or solid tube used to support, place, hold and protect; regeneration of nerve tissue and function is greatly aided. Other factors may inhibit regeneration of nerve tissue or function, but with the exclusion of scar tissue, such other factors may be separately treated; PGA is particularly useful in splicing nerves because'PGA is completely dissolved in tissue and leaves minimal or no residual scar tissue from the PGA.
A graded transition section is a portion of bi-component fabric, or bi-component strand, which by selection of strands for the fabric, or components for the strand or strands, has a changing composition, over a short distance, of 1 mm. to 15 mm. or more, so that a fabric or strand changes in composition from non-absorbable material, or substantially non-absorbable material, to predominantly or completely absorbable material, whereby living tissue can replace the absorbable component and a gradual transition accomplished between the nonabsorbable reinforcing prosthesis and the adjacent living tissue. With an arterial implant, for instance, a past cause of trouble has been the line of juncture between the implant and the natural artery wall. With a gradual transition, no sharp line of demarkation exists, and hence, failures between the prosthesis and tissue are minimized. With implants of the types shown by Usher, supra, the edges of the reinforcing element could cause difficulties. With a gradual transition, a line of potential risk is eliminated.
For different purposes and in different types of tissue the rate of absorption may vary but in general an absorbable prosthesis should have as high a portion of its original strength as possible for at least three days, and sometimes as much as fifteen days or more, and preferably should be completely absorbed by muscular tissue within from fortyfive to ninety days or more depending on the mass of the cross-section. The rate of absorption in other tissues may vary even more.
In commo with many biological systems, the requirements are not absolute and the rate of absorption as well as the short-term strength requirement varies from patient to patient and at different locations within the body, as well as with the thickness of the section of PGA.
The PGA maybe formed as tubes or sheets for surgical repair and may also be spun as thin filaments and woven or felted to form absorbable sponges or absorbable gauze, or used in conjunction with other structures as prosthetic devices, within the body of a human or animal where it is desirable that the structure have short-term strength, but be absorbable. The useful embodiments include tubes, including branched tubes or Ts, for artery, vein or intestinal repair, nerve splacing, tendon splicing, sheets for tying up and supporting damaged kidney, liver and other intestinal organs, protecting damaged surface areas such as abrasions, particularly major abrasions, or areas where the skin and underlying tissues are damaged or surgically removed.
The synthetic character and hence predictable formability and consistency in characteristics obtainable from a controlled process are highly desirable.
The most convenient method of sterilizing PGA prostheses is by heat under such conditions that any microorganisms or deleterious materials are rendered inactive. A second common method is to sterilize using a gaseous sterilizing agent such as ethylene oxide. Other methods of sterilizing include radiation by X-rays, gamma rays, neutrons, electrons, etc., or high intensity ultrasonic vibrational energy or combinations of these methods. The present materials have such physical characteristics that they may be sterilized by any of these methods.
PGA can be considered as essentially a product of polymerization of glycolic acid, that is hydroxyacetic acid, which in simplified form is shown by the equation:
Preferably n is such that the molecular weight is in the range of 10,000 or more. Above 500,00 the polymer is difficult to mold.
In these molecular weight ranges the polymer has a melt viscosity at 245 C. of between about 400 and about 27,000 poises. Because the PGA is from a synthetic and controllable source, with a controlled molecular weight and controlled small percentage of comonomer, the abisiorbability, stiffness, and other characteristics can be modi- Among several methods by which PGA can be prepared, one preferred route involves the polymerization of glycolide,
the cyclic dimeric condensation product formed by dehydrating hydroxyacetic acid. During polymerization of glycolide, the ring is broken and straight-chain polymerization occurs.
Small quantities of other materials may be present in the chain, as for example, de-lactic acid, its optically active forms, homologs, and analogs. In general, plasticizers tend to interfere with crystallinity, orientation, etc. and weaken fibers, but are useful for sponges and films. Other substances may be present, such as dyes, antibiotics, antiseptics, anaesthetics, and antioxidants. The surfaces of the fabric can 'be coated with a silicone, beeswax, and the like to modify the handling or absorption rate.
The polymerization of glycolide occcurs by heating with or without a catalyst, or may be induced by radiation such as X-rays, gamma rays, electron beams, etc. Polymers may also be obtained by condensing glycolic acid or chloroacetic acid with or without a catalyst under a variety of conditions. Good moldable objects or fibers are most readily obtained when the melt viscosity at 245 C. is about 400 to about 27,000 poises.
Polyhydroxyacetic esters have been described in United States Patent 2,668,162, Lowe, Preparation of High Molecular Weight Polyhydroxyacetic Ester, and United States Patent 2,676,945, Higgins, Condensation Polymers of Hydroxyacetic Acid.
The processes described in the above two patents can be used for producing PGA from which prostheses may be made. Additives such as triphenylphosphite or Santo- Nox, a disulfide aromatic phenol, can be added as color stabilizers.
DRAWINGS FIGURE 1 shows a cross section of a bi-component filament of about 25 percent non-absorbable material coated with about 75 percent absorbable polymer.
FIGURE 2 shows a cross section of a bi-component filament of about 50 percent non-absorbable material coated with about 50 percent absorbable polymer.
FIGURE 3 shows a cross section of a bi-component filament with about 75 percent non-absorbable material coated with about 25 percent absorbable polymer.
FIGURE 4 shows a fiber of a non-absorbable filament.
FIGURE 5 shows a cross section of a polyfilamentary strand of 3 nou-a'bsorbable filaments and absorbable filaments.
FIGURE 6 shows a cross section of a polyfilamentary strand with 6 non-absorbable filaments and 7 absorbable filaments.
FIGURE 7 shows a crosssection of a polyfilamentary strand with 4 absorbable filaments and 9 non-absorbable filaments. I
FIGURE 8 shows a woven fabric the central portion of non-absorbable strands graded in both warp and woof into a 75 percent non-absorbable, then 50 percent nonabsorbable, then 25 percent non-absorbable strands.
FIGURE 9 shows a knitted fabric graded from a 100 percent non-absorbable strand through a 75 percent nona-bsorbable strand, then a 50 percent non-absorbable strand, to a 25 percent non-absorbable strand.
FIGURE 10 shows a spliced artery having an internal sleeve with slightly tapered ends, with a sewn splice.
FIGURE 11 is a cross section of a spliced artery having an internal sleeve with expanded ends.
FIGURE 12 shows a prosthetic sleeve formed of a unitary coupling of solid polyglycolic acid with slightly expanding ends to aid in holding a blood vessel about the sleeve. I 9
FIGURE 13 shows the sleeve of FIGURE 12 in use in which an external spring clip of solid polyglycolic acid holds the ends of the blood vessel together.
FIGURE 14 shows the sleeve of FIGURE 12 in which two expandable annular clips are used to hold the ends of the blood vessel approximated.
FIGURE 15 is a portion of a woven tube of certain individual strands which are at least in part absorbable.
FIGURE 16 shows a portion of a heart valve emplaced in heart tissue using a fabric in part composed of polyglycolic acid to aid in holding the valve in place.
FIGURE 17 shows a broken bone, the ends of which are held together by a solid bar of polyglycolic acid held to the bone by polyglycolic acid screws.
FIGURE 18 shows a broken bone, the ends of which are held in position by an internal fluted pin of polyglycolic acid.
PGA for the construction of the prostheses shown in the drawings can be produced as set forth in the following examples, in which parts are by weight, unless otherwise clearly indicated:
EXAMPLE 1 100 parts of recrystallized glycolide (melting point 85.0 to 85.5 C.) are intimately mixed with 0.02 part of methoxyacetic acid, 0.03 part of phenoldisulfide (Santo- Nox), and 0.03 part antimony trifiuoride. Separate glass tubes are each charged with approximately 20 grams of the mixture, deoxygenated by repeated evacuation and argon purging, then sealed under vacuum and heated to 185 to 190 C. for 4 /2 hours. On cooling a white opaque tough PGA is produced in a 97.5% yield with a melt viscosity at 245 C. of 5,000 poises. The polymer is reheated and spun into filaments at a temperature of about 230 C. at a speed of about 150 feet per minute. The filaments produced are cooled, then drawn at about 55 C. When drawn to five times the original length a strong tough filament is produced. The dry filaments are in condition for use.
EXAMPLE 2 The polymer of the preceding example is formed into a plurality of smaller filaments, seven of which are twisted into a polyfilamentary strand, which is sterilized and used following the techniques of Example 1.
Because it is a synthetic polymer the methods of forming are more versatile than in starting with naturally occurring materials.
6 EXAMPLE 3 Into a suitable reaction vessel there is charged 400 parts of a commercial glycolic acid which is then heated from room temperature to about 200 C. over a period of about four hours. When the pot temperature has reached 185 C., the pressure of the system is reduced from atmospheric pressure to 15 mm. of Hg, causing the water of condensation and/or esterification to distill off. The residue is allowed to cool and is pulverized into about 280 parts of a powder which is then added in small increments to a suitable pyrolysis chamber maintained at a temperature of about 250-280 C. at a pressure of less than 15 mm. of Hg. The distillate which weighed about 238 parts is dissolved in a minimum amount of hot ethyl acetate, and after decolorizing and purifying with active carbon, the distillate is recrystallized from the above solution to provide 160 parts of product having a melting point of about 82.5-84.0 C. The infrared spectrum confirms that the product is substantially pure glycolide.
The glycolide thus prepared is polymerized in the presence of an alcohol free of non-benzenoid unsatura tion and free of any reactive groups other than alcoholic hvdroxy groups and in the presence of SnCl -2H O.
Into a heavy walled glass tube having a bore of about and sealed at one end is charged with 3 parts of the substantially pure glycolide composition, 0.04 part of a 0.1% ether solution of SnCl -2H O (about 0.0013% of SnCl -2H Q based on the weight of the substantially pure glycolide composition), 0.0166 part of lauryl alcohol (0.346 mole percent based on the moles of the substantially pure glycolide composition), and a magnetic steel ball 2 in diameter. The tube is evacuated and purged with argon. The tube is evacuated again to a vacuum of less than 1 mm. of Hg and the top is sealed. The reaction tube is. placed in a vertical position in a closed glass chamber throughout which dimethyl phthalate is refluxed at 222 C. The boiling point of the dimethyl phthalate is controlled by decreasing the pressure of the system. At periodic intervals after melting, the viscosity of the reaction mixture is measured by raising the steel ball by means of a magnet and measuring the rate of the fall of the ball in sec./in. Ninety minutes after the melt is first achieved, the ball drop time is 550 sec./in. or about 7200 poises, and after minutes, the ball drop time is 580 sec./in. or about 7600 poises.
The PGA thus produced is spun into .002 inch diameter fibers and used to form bi-component strands.
Additional PGA, similarly produced is used to coat Dacron filaments, in varying weight ratios to form bi-component strands which are braided into tubular arterial implants to splice into sections of arteries.
Additional PGA, similarly produced is used to form sheets. These sheets are wrapped around nerves, traumatically severed, to protect such nerves from invasive scar tissue growth, while the nerve is regenerating.
Also the PGA so produced is fabricated into the prosthetic devices shown in the drawings.
As is shown in the drawings, a bi-component filament 23 was formed by dipping a non-absorbable filament 21 of Dacron into a PGA melt forming a PGA coating 22 on the surface of the non-absorbable Dacron 21.
As shown in FIGURE 1 the dip was such that approximately 25% of the cross section was of Dacron and 75% of PGA.
In FIGURE 2 the structure is the same except that the relative proportions are changed to approximately 50% of each material.
In FIGURE 3 the structure is the same except that the proportions are changed such that approximately 75% of the cross section is of Dacron and about 25% on the surface is of PGA.
In FIGURE 4 a Dacron monofilament is shown.
In FIGURE 5 is shown a cross section of a bi-component thread. The bi-component thread consists of 3 nonabsorbable filaments 25 of Dacron and 10 absorbable filaments 24 of PGA.
FIGURE 6 is a similar bi-component thread except that the composition is changed to 6 non-absorbable filaments and 7 PGA filaments.
FIGURE 7 shows a cross section of a bi-component thread having 9 non-absorbable Dacron filaments, and 4 PGA filaments.
It is to be understood that in surgical use the ratios shown are not critical but are representative. In forming a graded transition section, either the bi-component filaments or the bi-component threads may change by discrete increments or gradually from a completely non-absorbable material to the completely absorbable PGA. The size of bicomponent filaments and the size of bi-component threads are a matter of choice depending upon the location in which the resultant prosthetic device is to be used.
FIGURE 8 shows a woven fabric in which each of the warp and the woof are constructed, starting in the center, with a 100% non-absorbable material 33, such as Dacron, and changing by 25% increments in discrete zones 34, until the outer set of threads 36 in each direction is 25 non-absorbable and 75% PGA.
Such a construction permits the use of Dacron or linear polyethylene or isotactic polypropylene in the construction of a repair patch, such as shown in Usher, supra, but in which gradation from the fully reinforcing, non-absorbable material to absorbable material is gradual. The spacing between the threads in the fabric can be chosen for a particular application. Usually, if the prosthetic device is to be used for the repair of hernias, a comparatively widely spaced weave is desired. If used for an area in which liquid retention is critical, such as an artery or vein, the weave is much closer.
In FIGURE 9 is shown a knitted fabric 27, in which the respective strands are 100% non-absorbable 28, followed by two rows of 75 non-absorbable 25 PGA 29 followed by two rows of 50% non-absorbable 50% PGA 30, followed by two rows of 25 non-absorbable 75% PGA 31.
In such a graded construction, the rate of change with distance or the number of rows of a particular composition are adjusted to fit the desired use. For smaller patches the width of each proportion of components is smaller than for large potches.
In FIGURE 10 is shown an artery 37 which is joined together over a tapered end PGA tube 38 which forms a stent about which the ends of the artery wall are joined by a suture splice 39. The tapered end is easier to insert in the artery.
In FIGURE 11 the artery walls 40 are joined together over a flared end PGA tube 41 and the ends are joined by a suture splice 42.
FIGURE 12 shows the flared end PGA tube 41.
In FIGURE 13 is shown a blood vessel 43, the ends of which are each separately placed over the end of a flared PGA tube and which blood vessel is held in place with the ends adjacent to permit healing by a PGA spring clip 44. PGA, such as produced in the above Example 3, shows an Izod impact strength of 0.14 ft. lb. per inch width or greater. It may be heated and formed into a desired shape which shape is retained on cooling, and by shaping as a flat spring clip, can be used to hold together the walls of a blood vessel 43 until natural regeneration takes place.
In FIGURE 14 is shown a similar splice of a blood vessel 45 but in which the ends are held together by an annular clip 46 of molded PGA. Such annular clips are well known for the attachment of radiator hoses to radiators in automobiles and the attachment of other flexible tubing to connectors. By a suitable choice of diameter and shape, as is well known in the industry, the radial compression at all points about the periphery may be caused to be approximately uniform and within a desired range. This is important in the splicing of blood vessels as it is desired to hold the blood vessel in position during regeneration, but yet not hold the vessels so tightly that necrosis sets in because of an impaired blood supply to the vessel walls.
FIGURE 15 shows a section of a woven tube having bi-component strands 48 in the periphery. Such a woven tube is conveniently used as a prosthetic device. Tapp, supra, shOWS a nylon tube for such purpose. By incorporating PGA containing strands into the ends of such a prosthetic device, the union of the natural artery to the artificial artery is much stronger because there is not a sharp line of demarkation.
FIGURE 16 shows a heart valve 49 such as shown by Edwards, supra, with a bi-component fabric 50 surrounding the heart valve and sewn into the heart tissue 51. By suturing the heart tissue to a bi-component fabric, as the PGA portion of the fabric is absorbed, the heart tissue grows into the remaining non-absorbable structure and forms a more secure union.
FIGURE 17 shows a broken bone 52 joined by a PGA splice bar 53 which is held to the bone by PGA screws 54.
FIGURE 18 shows a different type of splice for a broken bone in which a broken bone 55 is jointed by a PGA fluted pin 57 inserted into the bone marrow 56. The pin is chosen of such size and shape as to fill the hollow in the bone and give mechanical strength and prevent motion at the break.
Absorbable splices or bone pins hold the bone in place until it has an opportunity to knit and then gradually dissolve. In the past, metallic reinforcing elements have frequently been used. Such metallic elements add weight to the body, and perhaps cause inflammation by their physical presence, or must be removed at a separate subsequent operation. Additionally, if a bone pin is used internally of a bone, the volume of bone marrow is markedly reduced. When the PGA bone pin dissolves, no scar tissue remains and bone marrow is regenerated through the bone permitting the bone marrow to accomplish its organic functions.
The drawings above are illustrative only, of embodiment of the present invention in which vario s prosthetic devices are incorporated into the human Eddy to aid impaired functions of. natural elements:-'- rom the above drawings and descriptions, it will hes yious to those skilled in the art that many other modi cations 'may be adapted for particular injuries or ills to which the flesh is heir.
The finding that polyglycolic acid, abbreviated PGA, is absorbable in living tissue, and has marked mechanical strength, as a fiber or solid, including sheet, and hence can be used as an element in, or as, a surgical prosthesis, is most unexpected and unpredictable.
Catgut, or regenerated collagen has in the past been used for tissue emplacement, but with collagen, as the collagen is absorbed, a fibrotic tract replaces the collagen, so that in efiect scar tissue remains at the site of the emplanted collagen for many years, in many instances for life. Some patients are allergic to collagen. PGA is not a protein, has no amino acids, and has given no evidence of allergic reactions in thousands of implants. With the present PGA prostheses, the PGA is completely absorbed, and a minimal or no trace of the inserted matter remains after a comparatively short period. This complete absorption, without residual fibrotic tissue, is unique, and an important contribution to surgery.
As it is obvious that examination of such prosthetic devices in humans must wait until autopsy, after death from natural causes, experimental results were conducted on laboratory animals which would permit sacrifice and examination at selected periods. These are shown in the following examples:
EXAMPLE 4 Absorbable intermedullary rod Longitudinal incisions were made on the superior surface of the hind legs of anesthetized rabbits to expose the upper end of the femur, close to the point of attachment to the hip. At a point about 1" from the neck portion, the shaft of the femur was out completely through by means of a small circular saw attached to an air drill. A hole about A; inch in diameter was drilled through the bony process known as the greater trochanter vertically into the narrow cavity of the shaft portion of the femur. The cut ends of the femur shaft were approximated and while they were held firmly in place a medullary rod of polyglycolic acid about two inches in length and about inch in diameter was driven through the hole in the trochanter into the marrow cavity past the point at which the shaft of the femur had been parted. The effect of the medullary rod was to hold the cut ends of the femur shaft firmly in place. The top end of the medullary pin was flush with the surface of the trochanter.
The parted soft tissues were approximated with sutures, the injured legs were splinted with wooden tongue depressors affixed to the leg with adhesive tape and the animals were returned to their cages. X-rays were taken of the injured legs at weekly intervals and the progress of new bone formation was observed. Animals were sacrificed at the end of 6, l2, l8, and 24- weeks and the femurs which had been operated upon were dissected out and examined. These femurs were compared with similarly resected femurs which had been repaired with Type 316 stainless steel pins'of equivalent size to those made of PGA.
With both the experimental and control animals the course of healing was uneventful. The breaks were essentially healed by the 6th week. After sacrifice the femurs were split longitudinally and the effect of time on the implants were observed. As expected in the relatively short times used the stainless steel pin was essentially inert but since the internal space was largely occluded, where the metallic pin was present, there was no marrow tissue.
Where the medullary rod of polyglycolic acid had been used, at six weeks the overall structure of the rod was essentially unchanged but there were fissures developing on the surface and the cut ends which had been sharply defined were somewhat rounded. The rod was somewhat softened on thesurface. There was a progressive increase in the amount of erosion of the PGA rod with time but this erosion was never associated with inflammation or other adverse reactors. By the 24th week the rod of polyglycolic acid was essentially digested and the bone now showed normal tissue architecture.
EXAMPLE 5 Absorbable bone plate affixed with absorbable pins Femurs of the hind legs of rabbits were bisected as described in Example 4. The cut ends were reapproximated and immobilized by use of an internal support made from a sheet of polyglycolic acid approximately inch thick 4" wide and 1 inch long, shaped to conform generally to the bone by softening the plastic with heat and premolding it about a metal rod of suitable diameter. The premolded plate was centrally located over the cut bone and while held in position, small holes were drilled through the plate and completely through the bone with a inch drill, two holes on each side of the bone break. Small PGA nails about inch long and slightly over A inch in diameter made by flattening rod of this diameter by pressing against a heated surface were driven through the holes in the PGA plate and completely through the bone to hold the plate in place. The soft tissue was reapproximated, the broken legs splinted and the animals were returned to their cages. X-rays were taken weekly and animals were sacrificed at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 week intervals. The legs which had been operated upon were carefully dissected to determine the fate of the polyglycolic acid implant and to observe the course of healing. At 3 weeks the bone was partially knit and the PGA implant was essentially intact. By 6 weeks the break in the bone was healed and the PGA plate was showing signs of erosion. The nails also showed signs of breakdown, and the plate could be moved in relation to the bone. By the 12th week the nails were so weakened and the holes in the PGA plate so enlarged that the remains of the plate could be easily separated from the bone. By the 24th week the plate was almost completely absorbed,
, the bone was covered by the normal periosteal membrane and where absorption was complete there was nothing to indicate that the PGA had ever been present.
EXAMPLE 6 Arterial prosthesis made of a mixture of polyester and polyglycolic acid fibers Yarn containing a mixture of polyglycolic acid monofilaments and polyester (polymer of ethylene glycol and terephthalic acid) monofilaments was made by combining sufficient monofilaments of PGA with a polyester yarn to make about 25% of the weight of the yarn polyglycolic acid. This yarn was converted into a tightly woven cloth which was in turn formed into a tube by wrapping cut pieces of suitable size about a mandrel and sewing together the open sides with polyester thread.
In this example where the arterial prostheses were to be used in rabbits, the tubes were only V in diameter.
The abdominal aorta was exposed by incision through the ventral wall; two clamps separated by about 1 /2 inches were placed on the abdominal aorta just distal to the renal artery. The approximately 1 inch of the abdorni nal aorta between the clamps was resected and a comparable length of prosthetic tubing made as described above was sewn in place. The clamps were removed, and the animal was observed closely until blood seepage had stopped. The abdomen was then closed and the animal returned to its cage. Sacrifices were made at the end of 1, 3, 6, l2, and 18 weeks and the prosthetic implant and the neighboring tissue was examined. After the first week there was little change in the prosthesis. The pores of the fiber were closed with fibrin and some new cell growth was noticeable at the cut ends of the blood vessel. By three weeks the fibrin clots had been partially replaced by new cells which represented the partial development of a pseudo intimal lining extending from the ends of the original vessel. The polyglycolic acid filaments were still intact but were showing indications of surface erosion on microscopic examination. By 6 weeks the pseudo intimal lining was complete. Blood vessels were beginning to develop in this tissue layer. Growth of cells was occurring through the pores of the prosthesis which were now substantially enlarged by the obvious diminution in size of the PGA filaments which were no longer continuous. Shredding of the PGA filaments was evident but the complete development of the pseudo intima prevented the shreds from entering the blood stream where they could represent foci for clot formation. By the twelfth week the PGA was essentially replaced by tissue elements which formed a well vascularized multicellular layer completely capturing the polyester filaments of the prosthesis. The picture at 18 weeks was similar to that at 12 weeks with more vascularization and greater organization of the cells of the inner lining and outer surface of the prosthesis. There was a conspicuous absence of any inflammatory response of abnormal tissue reaction. The absorption of the polyglycolic acid gave sufficient space in the fiber network to permit adequate cell growth and proper vascularization so that necrosis of tissue did not develop.
So far as inspection permits, similar results appear to be obtained in humans. Of course with humans, and larger animals proportionately sized prostheses must be used.
1. A surgical prosthesis comprising non-absorable filaments shaped as a living tissue reinforcing element, and mixed with an coacting with said non-absorable filaments, in at least a part of the element, a structure consisting essentially of polyglycolic acid, whereby on implantation in living tissue, the polyglycolic acid structure is absorbed by the living tissue which replaces the polyglycolic acid and interlocks with the non-absorable filaments, said prosthesis being sterile at time of implantation.
2. The prosthesis of claim 1 in which the reinforcing element comprises a non-absorbable strand fabric mesh section, and interwoven and graded thereinto, bi-component strands in a graded transition portion, the individual strands of which are of proportionately increasing polyglycolic acid composition and decreasing non-absorb able filament composition, at increasing distances from said non-absorable strand fabric mesh section.
3. The fabric of claim 2 in which individual strands are composed of a plurality of non-absorbable filaments and polyglycolic acid filaments with the proportionate number of polyglycolic acid filaments increasing away from the non-absorbable fabric section.
4.. The surgical fabric of claim 2 in which the bicomponent strands consist of at least one bi-component filament, with the relative polyglycolic acid proportion increasing away from the non-absorbable portion.
5. The surgical prosthesis of claim 1 in which the non-absorbable reinforcing element is a tubular fabric graft with a graded transition from a section of nonabsorable strands to a section in which at least a pre- 12 dominant portion, by weight, of the strands consist of polyglycolic acid.
6. The surgical prosthesis of claim 1 in which the non-absorable filaments are coated with a substantially continuous layer of polyglycolic acid.
7. A bi-component strand for the fabrication or attachment of a surgical prosthesis comprising at least one filament of a non-absorbable material and united therewith polyglycolic acid.
8. The bi-component strand of claim 7 in which each filament of non-absorable material is coated, approximately concentrically, with polyglycolic acid.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,272,204 9/1966 Artandi et al 128-334 3,276,448 10/1966 Kronenthal 128-334 3,297,033 1/1967 Schmitt et a1. 128-3355 3,304,557 2/1967 Polansky 128-334 3,316,557 5/1967 Liebig 128-334 DALTON L. TRULUCK, Primary Examiner US. Cl. X.R. 3-1
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent NO. 3 ,463,l58 August 26, 1969 Edward Emil Schmitt et a1.
It is certified that error appears in the above identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:
Column 1, line 40, "Sumucosa" should read Submucosa Column 2, line 2, "asorbable" should read absorbable Column 3, line 67, "splacing" should read splicing Column 4, line 40, "de-lactic" should read d,l-lactic Column 6, line 12, "250-280 C." should read 2S0-285 C. Column 7, line 46, "patches" should read patches Column 10, line 72, "an" should read and Signed and sealed this 4th day of August 1970.
Edward M. Fletcher, Jr.
Attesting Officer Commissioner of Patents WILLIAM E. SCHUYLER, IR.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3272204 *||Sep 22, 1965||Sep 13, 1966||Ethicon Inc||Absorbable collagen prosthetic implant with non-absorbable reinforcing strands|
|US3276448 *||Dec 14, 1962||Oct 4, 1966||Ethicon Inc||Collagen coated fabric prosthesis|
|US3297033 *||Oct 31, 1963||Jan 10, 1967||American Cyanamid Co||Surgical sutures|
|US3304557 *||Sep 28, 1965||Feb 21, 1967||Ethicon Inc||Surgical prosthesis|
|US3316557 *||Feb 15, 1965||May 2, 1967||Meadox Medicals Inc||Surgical, vascular prosthesis formed of composite yarns containing both synthetic and animal derivative strands|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3620218 *||Aug 25, 1969||Nov 16, 1971||American Cyanamid Co||Cylindrical prosthetic devices of polyglycolic acid|
|US3849805 *||Nov 1, 1972||Nov 26, 1974||Attending Staff Ass Los Angele||Bone induction in an alloplastic tray|
|US3878565 *||Jul 25, 1973||Apr 22, 1975||Providence Hospital||Vascular prosthesis with external pile surface|
|US3883901 *||Nov 27, 1973||May 20, 1975||Rhone Poulenc Sa||Method of replacing or repairing the body with bioresorbable surgical articles|
|US3908201 *||Jun 8, 1973||Sep 30, 1975||Ici Ltd||Prosthetics|
|US3996623 *||Jun 30, 1975||Dec 14, 1976||Kaster Robert L||Method of implanting a prosthetic device and suturing member therefor|
|US4032993 *||Jun 25, 1975||Jul 5, 1977||Rhone-Poulenc Industries||Bioresorbable surgical articles|
|US4042978 *||Jun 11, 1975||Aug 23, 1977||Imperial Chemical Industries Limited||Prosthetics|
|US4127902 *||Mar 17, 1978||Dec 5, 1978||Homsy Charles A||Structure suitable for in vivo implantation|
|US4128612 *||Nov 3, 1975||Dec 5, 1978||American Cyanamid Company||Making absorbable surgical felt|
|US4181983 *||Aug 29, 1977||Jan 8, 1980||Kulkarni R K||Assimilable hydrophilic prosthesis|
|US4243775 *||Nov 13, 1978||Jan 6, 1981||American Cyanamid Company||Synthetic polyester surgical articles|
|US4275813 *||Jun 4, 1979||Jun 30, 1981||United States Surgical Corporation||Coherent surgical staple array|
|US4279249 *||Oct 17, 1979||Jul 21, 1981||Agence Nationale De Valorisation De La Recherche (Anvar)||New prosthesis parts, their preparation and their application|
|US4329743 *||Apr 27, 1979||May 18, 1982||College Of Medicine And Dentistry Of New Jersey||Bio-absorbable composite tissue scaffold|
|US4338926 *||Nov 21, 1980||Jul 13, 1982||Howmedica, Inc.||Bone fracture prosthesis with controlled stiffness|
|US4365357 *||Apr 25, 1980||Dec 28, 1982||Merck Patent Gesellschaft Mit Beschrankter Haftung||Surgical materials suitable for use with bone cements|
|US4379138 *||Dec 28, 1981||Apr 5, 1983||Research Triangle Institute||Biodegradable polymers of lactones|
|US4411027 *||Feb 23, 1982||Oct 25, 1983||University Of Medicine And Dentistry Of New Jersey||Bio-absorbable composite tissue scaffold|
|US4416028 *||Jun 4, 1980||Nov 22, 1983||Ingvar Eriksson||Blood vessel prosthesis|
|US4439391 *||Jan 7, 1981||Mar 27, 1984||International Paper Company||Polymeric sheets|
|US4441215 *||Feb 23, 1983||Apr 10, 1984||Kaster Robert L||Vascular graft|
|US4457028 *||Oct 14, 1982||Jul 3, 1984||Merck Patent Gesellschaft Mit Beschrankter Haftung||Surgical materials suitable for use with bone cements|
|US4467478 *||Sep 20, 1982||Aug 28, 1984||Jurgutis John A||Human ligament replacement|
|US4481353 *||Oct 7, 1983||Nov 6, 1984||The Children's Medical Center Corporation||Bioresorbable polyesters and polyester composites|
|US4495664 *||Jul 28, 1982||Jan 29, 1985||Ceraver||Titanium or titanium alloy pin for cement-free fixing in a long bone to form a prosthesis|
|US4501029 *||Apr 13, 1983||Feb 26, 1985||Mcminn Derek J W||Tendon repair|
|US4512038 *||Apr 6, 1981||Apr 23, 1985||University Of Medicine And Dentistry Of New Jersey||Bio-absorbable composite tissue scaffold|
|US4522593 *||Jul 7, 1983||Jun 11, 1985||Fischer Dan E||Knitted gingival retraction cord|
|US4523591 *||Oct 22, 1982||Jun 18, 1985||Kaplan Donald S||Polymers for injection molding of absorbable surgical devices|
|US4560374 *||Oct 17, 1983||Dec 24, 1985||Hammerslag Julius G||Method for repairing stenotic vessels|
|US4584722 *||May 10, 1983||Apr 29, 1986||Yeda Research And Development Co., Ltd.||Prosthetic tendon|
|US4585458 *||Aug 18, 1983||Apr 29, 1986||Kurland Kenneth Z||Means and method of implanting bioprosthetics|
|US4594407 *||Sep 20, 1983||Jun 10, 1986||Allied Corporation||Prosthetic devices derived from krebs-cycle dicarboxylic acids and diols|
|US4633873 *||Apr 26, 1984||Jan 6, 1987||American Cyanamid Company||Surgical repair mesh|
|US4650851 *||Mar 19, 1986||Mar 17, 1987||Pfizer Hospital Products Group, Inc.||Purification of glycolide|
|US4652264 *||Apr 25, 1985||Mar 24, 1987||American Cyanamid Company||Prosthetic tubular article|
|US4744365 *||Sep 22, 1987||May 17, 1988||United States Surgical Corporation||Two-phase compositions for absorbable surgical devices|
|US4754745 *||Jul 7, 1986||Jul 5, 1988||Horowitz Bruce S||Conformable sheet material for use in brachytherapy|
|US4763642 *||Apr 7, 1986||Aug 16, 1988||Horowitz Bruce S||Intracavitational brachytherapy|
|US4776329 *||Sep 20, 1985||Oct 11, 1988||Richards Medical Company||Resorbable compressing screw and method|
|US4792336 *||Mar 3, 1986||Dec 20, 1988||American Cyanamid Company||Flat braided ligament or tendon implant device having texturized yarns|
|US4804691 *||Aug 28, 1987||Feb 14, 1989||Richards Medical Company||Method for making a biodegradable adhesive for soft living tissue|
|US4815449 *||Mar 30, 1987||Mar 28, 1989||Horowitz Bruce S||Delivery system for interstitial radiation therapy including substantially non-deflecting elongated member|
|US4838884 *||Oct 17, 1986||Jun 13, 1989||American Cyanamid Company||Method of using a surgical repair mesh|
|US4840632 *||May 21, 1986||Jun 20, 1989||Kampner Stanley L||Hip prosthesis|
|US4843112 *||Mar 12, 1987||Jun 27, 1989||The Beth Israel Hospital Association||Bioerodable implant composition|
|US4848367 *||Mar 18, 1988||Jul 18, 1989||Odis L. Avant||Method of effecting dorsal vein ligation|
|US4850999 *||May 26, 1981||Jul 25, 1989||Institute Fur Textil-Und Faserforschung Of Stuttgart||Flexible hollow organ|
|US4870966 *||Feb 1, 1988||Oct 3, 1989||American Cyanamid Company||Bioabsorbable surgical device for treating nerve defects|
|US4871365 *||Dec 24, 1986||Oct 3, 1989||American Cyanamid Company||Partially absorbable prosthetic tubular article having an external support|
|US4923470 *||Mar 22, 1988||May 8, 1990||American Cyanamid Company||Prosthetic tubular article made with four chemically distinct fibers|
|US4942875 *||Jan 21, 1988||Jul 24, 1990||American Cyanamid Company||Surgical repair device having absorbable and nonabsorbable components|
|US4973333 *||Aug 10, 1988||Nov 27, 1990||Richards Medical Company||Resorbable compressing screw and method|
|US4990158 *||May 10, 1989||Feb 5, 1991||United States Surgical Corporation||Synthetic semiabsorbable tubular prosthesis|
|US4990161 *||Sep 6, 1984||Feb 5, 1991||Kampner Stanley L||Implant with resorbable stem|
|US4997440 *||Aug 10, 1990||Mar 5, 1991||American Cyanamid Company||Vascular graft with absorbable and nonabsorbable components|
|US5013315 *||Jul 12, 1985||May 7, 1991||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Semiabsorbable bone plate spacer|
|US5053035 *||May 24, 1990||Oct 1, 1991||Mclaren Alexander C||Flexible intramedullary fixation rod|
|US5061281 *||Dec 17, 1986||Oct 29, 1991||Allied-Signal Inc.||Bioresorbable polymers and implantation devices thereof|
|US5085861 *||May 12, 1989||Feb 4, 1992||The Beth Israel Hospital Association||Bioerodable implant composition comprising crosslinked biodegradable polyesters|
|US5124103 *||Aug 2, 1990||Jun 23, 1992||United States Surgical Corporation||Two phase compositions for absorbable surgical devices|
|US5147399 *||Feb 28, 1991||Sep 15, 1992||Dellon Arnold L||Method of treating nerve defects through use of a bioabsorbable surgical device|
|US5147400 *||Sep 12, 1990||Sep 15, 1992||United States Surgical Corporation||Connective tissue prosthesis|
|US5217495 *||Nov 13, 1990||Jun 8, 1993||United States Surgical Corporation||Synthetic semiabsorbable composite yarn|
|US5292328 *||Oct 18, 1991||Mar 8, 1994||United States Surgical Corporation||Polypropylene multifilament warp knitted mesh and its use in surgery|
|US5314446 *||Feb 19, 1992||May 24, 1994||Ethicon, Inc.||Sterilized heterogeneous braids|
|US5319038 *||Feb 9, 1993||Jun 7, 1994||Johnson & Johnson Orthopaedics, Inc. G35||Process of preparing an absorbable polymer|
|US5334216 *||Dec 10, 1992||Aug 2, 1994||Howmedica Inc.||Hemostatic plug|
|US5350388 *||Jun 3, 1992||Sep 27, 1994||Albert Einstein College Of Medicine Of Yeshiva University||Hemostasis apparatus and method|
|US5358475 *||Sep 28, 1992||Oct 25, 1994||United States Surgical Corporation||High molecular weight bioresorbable polymers and implantable devices thereof|
|US5376118 *||Mar 26, 1993||Dec 27, 1994||United States Surgical Corporation||Support material for cell impregnation|
|US5380329 *||Jul 28, 1992||Jan 10, 1995||Dental Marketing Specialists, Inc.||Bone augmentation method and apparatus|
|US5403346 *||Dec 31, 1992||Apr 4, 1995||Loeser; Edward A.||Self-affixing suture assembly|
|US5403347 *||Mar 2, 1994||Apr 4, 1995||United States Surgical Corporation||Absorbable block copolymers and surgical articles fabricated therefrom|
|US5431679 *||Mar 10, 1994||Jul 11, 1995||United States Surgical Corporation||Absorbable block copolymers and surgical articles fabricated therefrom|
|US5458636 *||Jul 20, 1994||Oct 17, 1995||U.S. Biomaterials Corporation||Prosthetic device for repair and replacement of fibrous connective tissue|
|US5475063 *||Dec 14, 1994||Dec 12, 1995||United States Surgical Corporation||Blends of glycolide and/or lactide polymers and caprolactone and/or trimethylene carbonate polymers and absorbable surgical devices made|
|US5489297 *||Nov 2, 1994||Feb 6, 1996||Duran; Carlos M. G.||Bioprosthetic heart valve with absorbable stent|
|US5522841 *||Dec 29, 1994||Jun 4, 1996||United States Surgical Corporation||Absorbable block copolymers and surgical articles fabricated therefrom|
|US5522904 *||Oct 13, 1993||Jun 4, 1996||Hercules Incorporated||Composite femoral implant having increased neck strength|
|US5542594 *||Oct 6, 1993||Aug 6, 1996||United States Surgical Corporation||Surgical stapling apparatus with biocompatible surgical fabric|
|US5545212 *||Nov 21, 1994||Aug 13, 1996||Terumo Kabushiki Kaisha||Artificial blood vessel|
|US5554170 *||Jan 26, 1995||Sep 10, 1996||United States Surgical Corporation||Absorbable block copolymers and surgical articles fabricated therefrom|
|US5571193 *||Jun 11, 1992||Nov 5, 1996||Kampner; Stanley L.||Implant with reinforced resorbable stem|
|US5618313 *||Oct 11, 1994||Apr 8, 1997||United States Surgical Corporation||Absorbable polymer and surgical articles fabricated therefrom|
|US5628788 *||Nov 7, 1995||May 13, 1997||Corvita Corporation||Self-expanding endoluminal stent-graft|
|US5632753 *||Apr 4, 1995||May 27, 1997||Loeser; Edward A.||Surgical procedures|
|US5681310 *||Oct 30, 1995||Oct 28, 1997||Yuan; Hansen A.||Vertebral auxiliary fixation device having holding capability|
|US5697976 *||Sep 14, 1994||Dec 16, 1997||United States Surgical Corporation||Bioabsorbable implant material|
|US5700269 *||Nov 13, 1995||Dec 23, 1997||Corvita Corporation||Endoluminal prosthesis deployment device for use with prostheses of variable length and having retraction ability|
|US5707647 *||Nov 14, 1996||Jan 13, 1998||Atrix Laboratories, Inc.||Adjunctive polymer system for use with medical device|
|US5717030 *||Dec 6, 1996||Feb 10, 1998||Atrix Laboratories, Inc.||Adjunctive polymer system for use with medical device|
|US5733950 *||Sep 25, 1995||Mar 31, 1998||Atrix Laboratories, Incorporated||Biodegradable in-situ forming implants and methods of producing the same|
|US5739176 *||Mar 18, 1994||Apr 14, 1998||Atrix Laboratories, Inc.||Biodegradable in-situ forming implants and methods of producing the same|
|US5741333 *||Apr 3, 1996||Apr 21, 1998||Corvita Corporation||Self-expanding stent for a medical device to be introduced into a cavity of a body|
|US5756651 *||Jul 17, 1996||May 26, 1998||Chronopol, Inc.||Impact modified polylactide|
|US5800510 *||Jun 6, 1995||Sep 1, 1998||Meadox Medicals, Inc.||Implantable tubular prosthesis|
|US5849037 *||Apr 3, 1996||Dec 15, 1998||Corvita Corporation||Self-expanding stent for a medical device to be introduced into a cavity of a body, and method for its preparation|
|US5908427 *||May 30, 1997||Jun 1, 1999||United States Surgical Corporation||Surgical stapling apparatus and method|
|US5908918 *||May 26, 1998||Jun 1, 1999||Chronopol, Inc.||Impact modified polylactide|
|US5911753 *||Nov 24, 1997||Jun 15, 1999||Meadox Medicals, Inc.||Implantable tubular prosthesis|
|US5935594 *||Apr 6, 1998||Aug 10, 1999||Thm Biomedical, Inc.||Process and device for treating and healing a tissue deficiency|
|US5948020 *||Dec 26, 1997||Sep 7, 1999||Sam Yang Co., Ltd.||Implantable bioresorbable membrane and method for the preparation thereof|
|US5964774 *||Sep 12, 1997||Oct 12, 1999||United States Surgical Corporation||Surgical stapling apparatus and method with surgical fabric|
|US5968091 *||Nov 26, 1997||Oct 19, 1999||Corvita Corp.||Stents and stent grafts having enhanced hoop strength and methods of making the same|
|US5981825 *||May 13, 1994||Nov 9, 1999||Thm Biomedical, Inc.||Device and methods for in vivo culturing of diverse tissue cells|
|US5990194 *||Nov 7, 1997||Nov 23, 1999||Atrix Laboratories, Inc.||Biodegradable in-situ forming implants and methods of producing the same|
|US5997568 *||Jan 17, 1997||Dec 7, 1999||United States Surgical Corporation||Absorbable polymer blends and surgical articles fabricated therefrom|
|US6007565 *||Sep 5, 1997||Dec 28, 1999||United States Surgical||Absorbable block copolymers and surgical articles fabricated therefrom|
|US6045560 *||Jun 17, 1996||Apr 4, 2000||United States Surgical Corporation||Surgical stapling apparatus with biocompatible surgical fabric|
|US6071530 *||Jun 26, 1997||Jun 6, 2000||Atrix Laboratories, Inc.||Method and composition for treating a bone tissue defect|
|US6083524 *||Oct 6, 1997||Jul 4, 2000||Focal, Inc.||Polymerizable biodegradable polymers including carbonate or dioxanone linkages|
|US6099557 *||Feb 5, 1999||Aug 8, 2000||Meadox Medicals, Inc.||Implantable tubular prosthesis|
|US6136018 *||Aug 2, 1999||Oct 24, 2000||United States Surgical Corporation||Absorbable block copolymers and surgical articles fabricated therefrom|
|US6162537 *||Oct 31, 1997||Dec 19, 2000||Solutia Inc.||Implantable fibers and medical articles|
|US6177095||Jan 7, 2000||Jan 23, 2001||Focal, Inc||Polymerizable biodegradable polymers including carbonate or dioxanone linkages|
|US6187008||Jul 7, 1999||Feb 13, 2001||Bristol-Myers Squibb||Device for temporarily fixing bones|
|US6191236||Oct 10, 1997||Feb 20, 2001||United States Surgical Corporation||Bioabsorbable suture and method of its manufacture|
|US6206908||May 3, 1999||Mar 27, 2001||United States Surgical Corporation||Absorbable polymer and surgical articles fabricated therefrom|
|US6228111||Sep 27, 1996||May 8, 2001||Bionx Implants Oy||Biodegradable implant manufactured of polymer-based material and a method for manufacturing the same|
|US6228954||Nov 1, 1994||May 8, 2001||United States Surgical Corporation||Blends of glycolide and/or lactide polymers and caprolactone and/or trimethylene carbonate polymers and absorabable surgical devices made therefrom|
|US6237460||Apr 30, 1998||May 29, 2001||Corvita Corporation||Method for preparation of a self-expanding stent for a medical device to be introduced into a cavity of a body|
|US6261583||Jul 28, 1998||Jul 17, 2001||Atrix Laboratories, Inc.||Moldable solid delivery system|
|US6264701||Dec 7, 1998||Jul 24, 2001||Kensey Nash Corporation||Device and methods for in vivo culturing of diverse tissue cells|
|US6273897||Feb 29, 2000||Aug 14, 2001||Ethicon, Inc.||Surgical bettress and surgical stapling apparatus|
|US6277927||Nov 23, 1998||Aug 21, 2001||United States Surgical Corporation||Absorbable block copolymers and surgical articles fabricated therefrom|
|US6296645||Apr 9, 1999||Oct 2, 2001||Depuy Orthopaedics, Inc.||Intramedullary nail with non-metal spacers|
|US6325810||Jun 30, 1999||Dec 4, 2001||Ethicon, Inc.||Foam buttress for stapling apparatus|
|US6348066 *||Aug 14, 1998||Feb 19, 2002||Corvita Corporation||Modular endoluminal stent-grafts and methods for their use|
|US6348068 *||Jul 23, 1999||Feb 19, 2002||Sulzer Carbomedics Inc.||Multi-filament valve stent for a cardisc valvular prosthesis|
|US6350277||Jan 15, 1999||Feb 26, 2002||Scimed Life Systems, Inc.||Stents with temporary retaining bands|
|US6395293||Mar 8, 2000||May 28, 2002||Atrix Laboratories||Biodegradable implant precursor|
|US6524345||Oct 22, 1997||Feb 25, 2003||Bionx Implants Oy||Surgical implant|
|US6546188||Jan 13, 1999||Apr 8, 2003||Sony Corporation||Editing system and editing method|
|US6589468||May 12, 2000||Jul 8, 2003||Meadox Medical, Inc.||Method of forming an implantable tubular prosthesis|
|US6624097||Dec 5, 2000||Sep 23, 2003||Solutia Inc.||Implantable fibers and medical articles|
|US6652585||Feb 19, 2002||Nov 25, 2003||Sdgi Holdings, Inc.||Flexible spine stabilization system|
|US6709436||May 22, 2000||Mar 23, 2004||Depuy Orthopaedics, Inc.||Non-metal spacers for intramedullary nail|
|US6716932||Jul 25, 2001||Apr 6, 2004||Tyco Healthcare Group Lp||High consistency absorbable polymeric resin|
|US6719935||Jan 5, 2001||Apr 13, 2004||Howmedica Osteonics Corp.||Process for forming bioabsorbable implants|
|US6783529||Oct 19, 2001||Aug 31, 2004||Depuy Orthopaedics, Inc.||Non-metal inserts for bone support assembly|
|US6786908||Aug 2, 2001||Sep 7, 2004||Depuy Orthopaedics, Inc.||Bone fracture support implant with non-metal spacers|
|US6808527||Mar 25, 2002||Oct 26, 2004||Depuy Orthopaedics, Inc.||Intramedullary nail with snap-in window insert|
|US6814753||May 7, 2003||Nov 9, 2004||Scimed Life Systems, Inc.||Implantable tubular prosthesis|
|US6827743||Feb 25, 2002||Dec 7, 2004||Sdgi Holdings, Inc.||Woven orthopedic implants|
|US6852128||Oct 9, 2003||Feb 8, 2005||Sdgi Holdings, Inc.||Flexible spine stabilization systems|
|US6929659||Feb 25, 2002||Aug 16, 2005||Scimed Life Systems, Inc.||Method of preventing the dislodgment of a stent-graft|
|US7022132||Feb 26, 2002||Apr 4, 2006||Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.||Stents with temporary retaining bands|
|US7041138||Jan 5, 2005||May 9, 2006||Sdgi Holdings, Inc.||Flexible spine stabilization systems|
|US7097907||Jul 30, 2003||Aug 29, 2006||United States Surgical Corporation||Bioabsorbable branched polymers containing units derived from dioxanone and medical/surgical devices manufactured therefrom|
|US7128927||Apr 14, 1998||Oct 31, 2006||Qlt Usa, Inc.||Emulsions for in-situ delivery systems|
|US7229441||Feb 26, 2002||Jun 12, 2007||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Flexible systems for spinal stabilization and fixation|
|US7321008||Aug 28, 2006||Jan 22, 2008||United States Surgical Corporation||Bioabsorbable branched polymers end-capped with diketene acetals|
|US7326249||Apr 26, 2006||Feb 5, 2008||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Flexible spine stabilization systems|
|US7329271||Dec 18, 2003||Feb 12, 2008||Ethicon, Inc.||High strength suture with absorbable core|
|US7341601||Jul 28, 2004||Mar 11, 2008||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Woven orthopedic implants|
|US7344539||Mar 30, 2001||Mar 18, 2008||Depuy Acromed, Inc.||Intervertebral connection system|
|US7347870 *||Nov 7, 2000||Mar 25, 2008||Bioring Sa||Device for shrinking or reinforcing the heart valvular orifices|
|US7410488||Feb 18, 2005||Aug 12, 2008||Smith & Nephew, Inc.||Hindfoot nail|
|US7468152||Mar 9, 2004||Dec 23, 2008||Howmedica Osteonics Corp.||Process for forming bioabsorbable implants|
|US7569076||Mar 21, 2003||Aug 4, 2009||Children's Medical Center Corporation||Bladder reconstruction|
|US7614258||Oct 19, 2006||Nov 10, 2009||C.R. Bard, Inc.||Prosthetic repair fabric|
|US7655009||Nov 30, 2004||Feb 2, 2010||Smith & Nephew, Inc.||Humeral nail|
|US7682392||Oct 30, 2002||Mar 23, 2010||Depuy Spine, Inc.||Regenerative implants for stabilizing the spine and devices for attachment of said implants|
|US7811332 *||Jul 22, 2005||Oct 12, 2010||Children's Medical Center Corporation||Reconstruction method for urological structures utilizing polymeric matrices|
|US7815661||Jan 25, 2006||Oct 19, 2010||Tyco Healthcare Group, Lp||Method and apparatus for implanting an occlusive structure|
|US7900484||Nov 5, 2009||Mar 8, 2011||C.R. Bard, Inc.||Prosthetic repair fabric|
|US7972354||Jan 25, 2006||Jul 5, 2011||Tyco Healthcare Group Lp||Method and apparatus for impeding migration of an implanted occlusive structure|
|US8011370||Dec 19, 2008||Sep 6, 2011||Tyco Healthcare Group Lp||Method for permanent occlusion of fallopian tube|
|US8012172||Mar 8, 2006||Sep 6, 2011||Arthrex, Inc.||High strength suture with coating and colored trace|
|US8066750||Nov 29, 2011||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc||Port structures for non-rigid bone plates|
|US8109967||Apr 14, 2008||Feb 7, 2012||Depuy Mitek, Inc.||High strength suture with absorbable core and suture anchor combination|
|US8128707||May 20, 2009||Mar 6, 2012||Children's Medical Center Corporation||Bladder reconstruction|
|US8226598||Jul 24, 2012||Tolmar Therapeutics, Inc.||Coupling syringe system and methods for obtaining a mixed composition|
|US8262695||Jan 25, 2006||Sep 11, 2012||Tyco Healthcare Group Lp||Structures for permanent occlusion of a hollow anatomical structure|
|US8263187||Sep 11, 2012||Teijin Limited||Composite of support matrix and collagen, and method for production of support matrix and composite|
|US8298290||Sep 20, 2004||Oct 30, 2012||Davol, Inc.||Implantable prosthesis for soft tissue repair|
|US8328849 *||Dec 1, 2009||Dec 11, 2012||Zimmer Gmbh||Cord for vertebral stabilization system|
|US8333201||Dec 18, 2012||Covidien Lp||Method for permanent occlusion of fallopian tube|
|US8333786||Dec 18, 2012||Covidien Lp||Method and apparatus for implanting an occlusive structure|
|US8333803||Nov 19, 2009||Dec 18, 2012||Lifecell Corporation||Reinforced biologic material|
|US8568449||Dec 20, 2011||Oct 29, 2013||Depuy Mitek, Llc||High strength suture with absorbable core and suture anchor combination|
|US8721519||Jun 6, 2006||May 13, 2014||Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.||Implantable mesh combining biodegradable and non-biodegradable fibers|
|US8741201 *||Sep 9, 2010||Jun 3, 2014||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Fiber reinforced composite stents|
|US8940018||Oct 24, 2013||Jan 27, 2015||Depuy Mitek, Llc||High strength suture with absorbable core and suture anchor combination|
|US8968182||May 12, 2014||Mar 3, 2015||Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.||Implantable mesh combining biodegradable and non-biodegradable fibers|
|US8968353||Jul 1, 2011||Mar 3, 2015||Covidien Lp||Method and apparatus for impeding migration of an implanted occlusive structure|
|US9017350||Jan 25, 2006||Apr 28, 2015||Covidien Lp||Expandable occlusive structure|
|US9017361||Apr 20, 2006||Apr 28, 2015||Covidien Lp||Occlusive implant and methods for hollow anatomical structure|
|US9080263 *||Feb 10, 2012||Jul 14, 2015||Novus Scientific Ab||Multifilaments with time-dependent characteristics, and medical products made from such multifilaments|
|US9151356 *||Mar 28, 2011||Oct 6, 2015||Nv Bekaert Sa||Splice for jointing steel cord strips encased in thermoplastic material|
|US9326860 *||Jan 21, 2014||May 3, 2016||Amendia, Inc.||Biologic artificial bone|
|US9339369 *||May 9, 2007||May 17, 2016||Lifecell Corporation||Reinforced biological tissue|
|US20020120270 *||Feb 26, 2002||Aug 29, 2002||Hai Trieu||Flexible systems for spinal stabilization and fixation|
|US20020123750 *||Feb 25, 2002||Sep 5, 2002||Lukas Eisermann||Woven orthopedic implants|
|US20030014127 *||Dec 18, 2000||Jan 16, 2003||Martti Talja||Biodegradable surgical implants and devices|
|US20030149472 *||Mar 7, 2003||Aug 7, 2003||Leonard Pinchuk||Modular endluminal stent-grafts and methods for their use|
|US20030180344 *||Feb 5, 2003||Sep 25, 2003||Cambridge Scientific, Inc.||Bioresorbable osteoconductive compositions for bone regeneration|
|US20040029478 *||Aug 12, 2003||Feb 12, 2004||Deutsche Institute Fur Textil- Und Faserforschung Stuttgart Stiftung Des Offentlichen Rechts||Flat implant, method for its manufacture and use in surgery|
|US20040034435 *||Mar 21, 2003||Feb 19, 2004||Anthony Atala||Organ reconstruction|
|US20040058164 *||Jul 30, 2003||Mar 25, 2004||Bennett Steven L.||Bioabsorbable branched polymers containing units derived from dioxanone and medical/surgical devices manufactured therefrom|
|US20040059356 *||Jul 17, 2003||Mar 25, 2004||Peter Gingras||Soft tissue implants and methods for making same|
|US20040078082 *||Oct 9, 2003||Apr 22, 2004||Lange Eric C.||Flexible spine stabilization systems|
|US20040127846 *||Aug 5, 2003||Jul 1, 2004||Dunn Richard L.||Coupling syringe system and methods for obtaining a mixed composition|
|US20040167634 *||Dec 19, 2003||Aug 26, 2004||Anthony Atala||Prosthetic kidney and its use for treating kidney disease|
|US20040177810 *||Mar 9, 2004||Sep 16, 2004||Fujitsu Display Technologies Corporation||Vacuum processing apparatus|
|US20040210226 *||May 10, 2004||Oct 21, 2004||Trieu Hai H.||Anchoring devices and implants for intervertebral disc augmentation|
|US20040230288 *||Apr 17, 2002||Nov 18, 2004||Rosenthal Arthur L.||Medical devices adapted for controlled in vivo structural change after implantation|
|US20050043733 *||Jul 28, 2004||Feb 24, 2005||Lukas Eisermann||Woven orthopedic implants|
|US20050070930 *||Aug 5, 2004||Mar 31, 2005||Gene W. Kammerer||Implantable surgical mesh|
|US20050119749 *||Jan 5, 2005||Jun 2, 2005||Lange Eric C.||Flexible spine stabilization systems|
|US20050136764 *||Dec 18, 2003||Jun 23, 2005||Sherman Michael C.||Designed composite degradation for spinal implants|
|US20050149119 *||Dec 18, 2003||Jul 7, 2005||Ilya Koyfman||High strength suture with absorbable core|
|US20050288797 *||Jun 23, 2005||Dec 29, 2005||Warwick Mills, Inc.||Controlled absorption biograft material for autologous tissue support|
|US20060002972 *||Jul 22, 2005||Jan 5, 2006||Children's Medical Center Corporation||Reconstruction of urological structures with polymeric matrices|
|US20060009846 *||Aug 31, 2005||Jan 12, 2006||Hai Trieu||Flexible systems for spinal stabilization and fixation|
|US20060014023 *||Jul 30, 2003||Jan 19, 2006||Bennett Steven L||Bioabsorbable branched polymers containing units derived from dioxanone and medical/surgical devices manufactured therefrom|
|US20060064175 *||Sep 20, 2004||Mar 23, 2006||Edouard Pelissier||Implantable prosthesis for soft tissue repair|
|US20060190076 *||Apr 20, 2006||Aug 24, 2006||Taheri Syde A||Temporary absorbable venous occlusive stent and superficial vein treatment method|
|US20060200140 *||Apr 26, 2006||Sep 7, 2006||Lange Eric C||Flexible spine stabilization systems|
|US20060216320 *||Mar 31, 2004||Sep 28, 2006||Eiichi Kitazono||Composite of support matrix and collagen, and process for producing support substrate and composite|
|US20060293406 *||Aug 28, 2006||Dec 28, 2006||Bennett Steven L|
|US20070116679 *||Jun 30, 2006||May 24, 2007||Children's Medical Center Corporation||Augmentation of organ function|
|US20070255422 *||Apr 25, 2007||Nov 1, 2007||Mei Wei||Calcium phosphate polymer composite and method|
|US20070282160 *||Jun 6, 2006||Dec 6, 2007||Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.||Implantable mesh combining biodegradable and non-biodegradable fibers|
|US20070298072 *||Nov 18, 2005||Dec 27, 2007||Teijin Limited||Cylindrical Body and Manufacturing Method Thereof|
|US20080027542 *||May 9, 2007||Jan 31, 2008||Lifecell Corporation||Reinforced Biological Tissue|
|US20080039877 *||Oct 17, 2007||Feb 14, 2008||Kammerer Gene W||Implantable surgical mesh|
|US20080132950 *||Feb 1, 2008||Jun 5, 2008||Lange Eric C||Flexible spine stabilization systems|
|US20080255557 *||Apr 14, 2008||Oct 16, 2008||Ilya Koyfman||High strength suture with absorbable core and suture anchor combination|
|US20080288062 *||Nov 2, 2007||Nov 20, 2008||Bioring Sa||Device for shrinking or reinforcing the valvular orifices of the heart|
|US20080305146 *||Jun 6, 2008||Dec 11, 2008||Wake Forest University Health Sciences,||Selective cell therapy for the treatment of renal failure|
|US20090024147 *||Jul 18, 2007||Jan 22, 2009||Ralph James D||Implantable mesh for musculoskeletal trauma, orthopedic reconstruction and soft tissue repair|
|US20090105753 *||Aug 26, 2005||Apr 23, 2009||Prodesco, Inc.||Sutures and methods of making the same|
|US20090216338 *||Sep 12, 2006||Aug 27, 2009||Peter Gingras||Soft tissue implants and methods for making same|
|US20090263464 *||Oct 22, 2009||Children's Medical Center Corporation||Bladder reconstruction|
|US20100010519 *||Jan 14, 2010||Joshua Stopek||Anastomosis Sheath And Method Of Use|
|US20100104544 *||Nov 13, 2009||Apr 29, 2010||Anthony Atala||Selective cell therapy for the treatment of renal failure|
|US20100112062 *||Nov 13, 2009||May 6, 2010||Anthony Atala||Kidney structures and methods of forming the same|
|US20100160898 *||Dec 18, 2009||Jun 24, 2010||Tyco Healthcare Group, Lp||Method and apparatus for storage and/or introduction of implant for hollow anatomical structure|
|US20100160945 *||Dec 18, 2009||Jun 24, 2010||Tyco Healthcare Group, Lp||Method and apparatus for storage and/or introduction of implant for hollow anatomical structure|
|US20100198236 *||Aug 5, 2010||Ralph Zipper||Surgical Meshes and Methods of Use|
|US20100291287 *||May 14, 2010||Nov 18, 2010||Degima Gmbh||Polymeric plate bendable without thermal energy and methods of manufacture|
|US20110009948 *||Jan 13, 2011||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Fiber Reinforced Composite Stents|
|US20110059152 *||Mar 10, 2011||Children's Medical Center Corporation||Augmentation of organ function|
|US20110130792 *||Jun 2, 2011||Zimmer Gmbh||Cord for vertebral stabilization system|
|US20110140312 *||Jun 16, 2011||Teijin Limited||Composite of support matrix and collagen, and method for production of support matrix and composite|
|US20110152865 *||Jun 23, 2011||Biodynamics Llc||Implantable mesh for musculoskeletal trauma, orthopedic reconstruction and soft tissue repair|
|US20130011184 *||Mar 28, 2011||Jan 10, 2013||Anneleen De Smet||Splice for jointing steel cord strips encased in thermoplastic material|
|US20130211430 *||Feb 10, 2012||Aug 15, 2013||Novus Scientific Pte. Ltd.||Multifilaments with time-dependent characteristics, and medical products made from such multifilaments|
|US20140131909 *||Jan 21, 2014||May 15, 2014||Said G. Osman||Biologic artificial bone|
|USRE37950||Mar 28, 2000||Dec 31, 2002||Atrix Laboratories||Biogradable in-situ forming implants and methods of producing the same|
|USRE39713||Jan 23, 2003||Jul 3, 2007||Genzyme Corporation||Polymerizable biodegradable polymers including carbonate or dioxanone linkages|
|USRE44501||Aug 12, 2010||Sep 17, 2013||Smith & Nephew, Inc.||Hindfoot nail|
|DE3047573C2 *||Jun 4, 1980||Jun 28, 1990||Staffan Bowald||Title not available|
|DE3433331A1 *||Sep 11, 1984||Mar 28, 1985||Materials Consultants Oy||Chirurgische vorrichtung zum immobilisieren von knochenfrakturen|
|DE3913926A1 *||Apr 27, 1989||Oct 31, 1990||Heinz Helmut Dr Med Werner||Vascular prosthesis, esp. of PET with resorbable plastic coatings - esp. of poly:lactide, applied as soln. then treatment with non-solvent|
|EP0050215A1 *||Sep 18, 1981||Apr 28, 1982||American Cyanamid Company||Modification of polyglycolic acid to achieve variable in-vivo physical properties|
|EP0202444A2 *||Apr 7, 1986||Nov 26, 1986||American Cyanamid Company||Prosthetic tubular article|
|EP0334024A2 *||Feb 20, 1989||Sep 27, 1989||American Cyanamid Company||Prosthetic tubular article|
|EP0701823A2||Sep 18, 1995||Mar 20, 1996||United States Surgical Corporation||Absorbable polymer and surgical articles fabricated therefrom|
|EP0786259A2||Jan 17, 1997||Jul 30, 1997||United States Surgical Corporation||Absorbable polymer blends and surgical articles fabricated therefrom|
|EP1361835A1 *||Jul 16, 2001||Nov 19, 2003||Bionx Implants, Inc.||Self-expanding stent with enhanced radial expansion and shape memory|
|EP1543782A1 *||Dec 20, 2004||Jun 22, 2005||Ethicon, Inc.||High strength suture with absorbable core|
|EP2036582A1||Jul 21, 1995||Mar 18, 2009||United States Surgical Corporation||Biobsorbable branched polymers containing units derived from dioxanone and medical/surgical devices manufactured therefrom|
|EP2166989A1 *||Jun 13, 2008||Mar 31, 2010||BioDynamics LLC||Implantable mesh for musculoskeletal trauma, orthopedic reconstruction and soft tissue repair|
|EP2166989A4 *||Jun 13, 2008||Aug 7, 2013||Biodynamics L L C||Implantable mesh for musculoskeletal trauma, orthopedic reconstruction and soft tissue repair|
|EP2301597A1||Jul 21, 1995||Mar 30, 2011||United States Surgical Corporation|
|WO1982001647A1 *||Oct 30, 1981||May 27, 1982||Robert L Kaster||Vascular graft|
|WO1986000533A1 *||Jul 10, 1985||Jan 30, 1986||Rijksuniversiteit Te Groningen||Bone implant|
|WO1987000419A1 *||May 29, 1986||Jan 29, 1987||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Semiabsorbable bone plate spacer|
|WO1994003117A1 *||Jul 27, 1993||Feb 17, 1994||Dental Marketing Specialists, Inc.||Bone augmentation method and apparatus|
|WO1996022055A1||Dec 29, 1995||Jul 25, 1996||Inbae Yoon||Surgical stapling system and method of applying staples from multiple staple cartridges|
|WO1998018408A1||Oct 22, 1997||May 7, 1998||Bionix Implants Oy||Surgical implant|
|WO2004006808A3 *||Jul 17, 2003||Mar 11, 2004||Proxy Biomedical Ltd||Soft tissue implants and methods for making same|
|WO2006002340A2 *||Jun 23, 2005||Jan 5, 2006||Warwick Mills, Inc.||Controlled absorption biograft material for autologous tissue support|
|WO2007070141A1||Sep 12, 2006||Jun 21, 2007||Proxy Biomedical Limited||Soft tissue implants and methods for making same|
|WO2007145974A2 *||Jun 5, 2007||Dec 21, 2007||Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.||Implantable mesh combining biodegradable and non-biodegradable fibers|
|WO2007145974A3 *||Jun 5, 2007||Mar 26, 2009||Boston Scient Scimed Inc||Implantable mesh combining biodegradable and non-biodegradable fibers|
|U.S. Classification||606/154, 623/1.49, 428/373, 606/155|
|International Classification||A61F13/15, A61L27/18, C08G63/06, A61F13/00, A61F13/20, A61L17/12, A61B17/00, D01F6/62|
|Cooperative Classification||A61F13/20, A61L27/18, A61F2013/00221, A61L17/12, D01F6/625, A61F13/551, A61F2013/00157, C08G63/06, A61B2017/00004|
|European Classification||A61L27/18, A61L17/12, C08G63/06, D01F6/62B|