US 3463161 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
6, 1969 s. ANDRASSY 3,463,161
TEMPERATURE MAINTAINING DEVICE Filed April 13, 1965 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR. S ELLA ARA/pussy ATTORNEY Aug. 26, 1969 s. ANDRASSY 3,
TEMPERATURE MAINTAINING DEVICE Filed April 13, 1965 2 Sheets-She et 2 INVENTOR.
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BY I ATTORNEY United States Patent Oflice 3,463,161 Patented Aug. 26, 1969 3,463,161 TEMPERATURE MAINTAINING DEVICE Stella Andrassy, Ridge Road, Kingston, NJ. 08528 Filed Apr. 13, 1965, Ser. No. 447,615 Int. Cl. A61f 7/00, 7/04 US. Cl. 128-402 11 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A temperature maintaining device containing a composition which is permanently plastic at temperatures in the range of about F. to 150 F. which contains an emulsion or dispersion containing from about 1 to 15% by weight of soap, from about 1 to 5% by weight of an emulsifying agent and from about 2 to 80% by weight of an aqueous mixture the major portion of which is water containing from about 1 to 30% of a miscible alcohol. The composition is preferably enclosed within an impervious flexible enclosure adapted to conform to the surface to which the enclosure is applied.
This invention relates to compositions and means for stabilizing and maintaining predetermined temperatures and is directed particularly to products which are characterized by their plasticity and flexibility under the conditions of use and their stability upon repeated heating and cooling thereof.
Various types of temperature retaining compositions are known and have been suggested heretofore as exemplified by the starch-borax gels of various patents to Shephard Nos. 2,800,454; 2,800,455; 2,800,456; 2,803,115; and 2,863,305; and the inorganic salt compositions of several patents to Telkes Nos. 2,677,664 and 2,989,856. While such compositions and products have some uses and applications, the frozen materials are generally rigid or hard and in some instances contain materials which form relatively large crystals that would tend to puncture plastic or flexible containers in the event such enclosures were to be used therefor. Furthermore such compositions tend to stratify or to undergo changes in character when repeatedly heated or cooled. Moreover, the compositions themselves may be toxic or corrosive so that they may be dangerous or objectionable to handle and may result in injury in the event of puncture or leakage of a container in which they are enclosed.
In accordance with the present invention novel types of temperature preserving compositions and products are provided which remain relatively soft or plastic and flexible over a relatively wide range of temperatures, varying from say zero to Fahrenheit up to 150 F. or more. The composition may 'be varied considerably depending upon the desired range of temperature to be maintained in use, but in general the desired physical properties of the product are attained by employing mixtures containing soap, an emulsifying agent and an aqueone medium or mixture, combined in suitable proportions. Such mixtures when cooled to low temperatures not only remain relatively soft and flexible so as to be capable of enclosure in flexible enclosures but serve to maintain their temperature for hours without material variation.
Because of the flexible nature of the product it is adapted for many uses in hospital, medical, surgical, therapeutic and cosmetic applications in the form of pads, poultices, bandages, packings, 'blankets or the like. The invention is also adapted for use in packaging, transportation and other purposes. Furthermore, the composition generally is non-toxic and non-corrosive and can be handled readily and washed away easily with water in the event the container therefor is punctured or leaks for any reason.
Accordingly the principal objects of the present invention are to provide novel compositions and products for maintaining desired temperatures; to provide flexible, soft and plastic products capable of retaining such properties over a wide range of temperatures and for prolonged periods of time; to provide new temperature retaining compositions and products which do not undergo material change upon repeated heating and cooling thereof; and to provide new types of containers an packages for use in surgical, medical, athletic, cosmetic, veterinary fields and for various packaging and storage applications.
These and other objects and features of the present invention are disclosed herein and will become apparent from the following description thereof wherein reference is made to typical and preferred compositions and products which are cited for the purpose of indicating the broad and varied nature of the invention but without intending to limit the scope of the invention thereby.
In the drawings:
FIG. 1 is a diagrammatic sectional view of a general form of product embodying the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a perspective illustrating a cap construction embodying the present invention;
FIGS. 3 and 4 illustrate typical therapeutic applications of the present invention;
FIG. 5 illustrates a typical container having a device embodying the present invention applied thereto;
FIG. 6 illustrates a typical enclosure embodying the present invention and adapted for use in the preservation of foods; and
FIG. 7 illustrates a typical form of packaging means embodying the present invention.
While the constructions illustrated in the drawings are typical of products embodying the present invention they are in each instance composed of or embody a flexible, impervious, heat transmitting enclosure having a novel composition therein for retaining or maintaining a predetermined temperature and may be formed of any suitable plastic, rubberized or metallic film or sheet material adapted to conform to a surface to which it is applied or to serve as a cushion or yieldable covering and enclosure for the temperature retaining material. Such sheet material may be sealed about its edges by fusion, adhesive or other means to form a permanent enclosure or may be provided if desired with a filling opening having suitable closure means. Further, if desired, one face or area of the enclosure may be provided with thermal insulating means to minimize the area through which heat transfer may occur. Although the use of flexible enclosures is generally preferred, the compositions of the present invention may be used in rigid containers such as metal cans or casing in rolling pins, bowls or the like for culinary purposes and in shipping or storage caes, if desired.
In view of the fact that the heat maintaining composition remains relatively soft and plastic during use, flexible containers therefore are generally divided into compartments by barriers, quilting or the use of dividers. However if preferred a porous structure such as spongelike or fibrous material may be enclosed within the container to limit or prevent fiow or undesired displacement of the plastic composition within the container or enclosure therefore.
T he temperature retaining, permanently plastic compositions employed in the practice of the present invention are largely, if not entirely, composed of organic and aqueous materials which not only do not form crystals themselves when reduced to low temperatures but also serve to prevent the formation of large crystals of inorganic salts when the latter are added to the composition.
The basic composition, which maybe modified in various respects, is a mixture of blended, emulsified, dispersed or mutually dissolved ingredients containing from about 1 to 15% of soap and about 1 to 5% of an emulsifying agent. The balance of the composition comprises an aqueous mixture, the major portion of which consists of water but which also contains from about 1 to 30% by weight of a water miscible alcohol. The preferred alcohol is glycerol, but methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, ethylene glycol, polyglycerols or the like may be used to replace part or all of the glycerol in the mixture.
The soaps which are employed may be substantially any of the conventional alkali soaps which are salts of one or more fatty acids and are readily soluble or dispersable in water and are either non-crystalline or so finely crystalline as to appear to 'be non-crystalline in character. A typical soap which may be employed is that sold under the name Ivory" and manufactured by the Procter and Gamble Company. Those synthetic detergents which are substantially solid at room temperatures can also be used, such as alkali salts of sulfated monoglycerides and the like.
Any of various organic emulsifying agents maybe used such as the alkyl glyceryl ether sulfonate mixtures of US. Patent No. 3,024,273 (JoyProcter and Gamble) or any of the many available alkyl aryl sulfonates, polyether or polyester sulfonates, sulfo-succinates and the like.
The ingredients of the mixture may be thoroughly blended with the aqueous mixture at room temperature or at slightly elevated temperatures in any suitable or conventional mixing equipment to produce a smooth uniform mixture, blend, emulsions, dispersions, or mutual solution of the ingredients.
The resulting products are smooth, soft, plastic compositions which remain soft and pliable or plastic at temperatures down to about or 20 F. or in some in stances even as low as 0 F., and continue to retain their soft plastic character when heated to temperatures up to nearly 150 F. In general the products are somewhat stiffer and less plastic at low temperatures and tend to become more fluid or softer at temperatures over 100 F.
The basic composition itself may be varied somewhat within the ranges indicated depending on the temperature range in which it is to be used. Thus for example when the composition is to be used at temperatures below about 20 F. somewhat higher amounts of the glycerol or alcohol than soap may be used in the mixture. Some variation in the proportions of the ingredients used may also be desirable depending upon the type of soap and emulsifying agent used.
When the composition is to be used at temperatures below about 20 F. or above about 100 F. it is generally also desirable to add other agents to the basic composition in amounts varying up to about 20% or more depending upon the particular temperature range in which the product is to be used. Thus, for example salt, trisodium phosphate, Epsom salts, Glaubers salts, or salt mixtures of the type described in the US. patents to Telkes Nos. 2,677,- 243; 2,677,664 and 2,989,856, may be added to the basic composition in amounts up to 10 or even 20% by weight of the total mixture. When such salts are present the soap and emulsifying agent apparently prevent the formation of large and objectionable crystals in the composition and any tendency for the inorganic salts to undergo changes in composition or character upon repeated heating and cooling thereof is overcome.
On the other hand, when the invention is to be used in forming heat retaining pads or other articles for use at temperatures above about 100 R, up to 20% of water may be replaced by the addition of paraflin or higher melting hydrocarbon materials. Generally, however, the amount of soap employed is then increased and the composition may contain a total of 10% or more of soap up to 20% of paraffin.
In order to illustrated typical compositions embodying the present invention the following examples are cited:
4 Example I 7 parts by weight of soap (Ivory) are dissolved in about 30 parts by weight of warm water to which 3 parts by weight of an emulsified (Joy) has been added. When the soap is thoroughly dissolved 2.5 parts by weight of commercial glycerine are added and stirred into the mixture with 57.5 parts of additional water.
The resulting product forms a soft, plastic mass which when cooled to about 28 to 30 F. will maintain that temperature under room conditions for a period of several hours.
Example II 7 parts by weight of soap are dissolved in 30 parts by weight of water containing an emulsifier as in Example I. 5 parts by weight of glycerine are then stirred into the mixture and 54.5 parts of additional water having 3.5 parts of salt (NaCl) dissolved therein are then added and mixed to the previously blended ingredients.
This composition will remain soft and plastic at temperatures in the neighborhood of 14 F. and will maintain that temperature for 3 to 6 hours or more under room conditions.
Example III The composition of Example I was prepared but 20 parts of the water were replaced by ethyl alcohol. The resulting product remains soft and plastic for long periods of time when cooled to 20 F.
Example IV The composition of Example I was prepared but 10 parts of ethylene glycol were used to replace an equal amount of water. This product remains soft and plastic at temperatures of about 15 F. and maintains a substantially uniform temperature for hours under room conditions of use.
Example V 10 parts by weight of soap were dissolved in 70 parts of water to which 7 parts of an emulsifier had been added. 10 parts of paraffin wax having a melting point of F. to F. were melted and 3 parts of glycerine were added to the melted paraffin and blended therewith. The paraffin-glycerine mixture was then added to the soapemulsifier solution with continuous mixing.
The composition thus obtained has a soft, plastic consistency which is preserved even when heated to a temperature of 200 F. or more and is particularly suitable for use in heating pads at temperatures of 100 F. to 120 F., or even up to F., since it maintains a substantially constant temperature for long periods of time.
The compositions of the present invention thus produced are all relatively soft, flexible, or plastic under the conditions of use so that when enclosed in a flexible plastic, fabric or other enclosure they can be made to conform closely to the surface to which they are applied. When initially heated or cooled to a predetermined temperature the composition retains its temperature for several hours or even up to a day or more depending upon the ambient temperature and the manner in which it is employed. Moreover, the composition retains its characteristic soft, pliable, plastic condition after repeated cycles of heating and cooling. Thus in a typical instance containers in which the composition of Example I has been enclosed have been cooled to 20 F. and raised to room temperature over 100 times without any apparent change in physical properties of the composition.
As represented by the figures of the drawings the com position may be employed with flexible containers of substantially any desired size, shape and type to permit use of the invention for a great variety of purposes.
The product of FIG. 1 represents a pad which may be used for many therapeutic purposes as a heating or cooling pad or blanket. The enclosure 2 illustrated is formed of two sheets of heat sealable flexible plastic material which are heat sealed so as to be bonded together along the lines 4. The sheets are further sealed together along transversely extending lines 6 which are interrupted adjacent alternate lines 4 so as to provide barriers with restricted passages 8 between the relatively small compartments 10 within the pad. The sheets of material are sealed together about three sides as shown at 12 leaving the edge 14 and the ends of the passages between the lines 4 open. The various compartments 10 between the lines 4 then are substantially or completely filled with the temperature maintaining composition of the present invention after which the sheets of material are sealed together along the edge 14. In filling the pad the composition, being plastic, generally must be worked or squeezed past the barriers 6 and through the passages 8 to assure complete filling of the compartments 10, before sealing the edges 14 of the sheets. Thereafter the material will be held against free displacement within the pad even when placed beneath a person or otherwise pressed or handled.
Further if desired one face of the pad may have a layer of thermal insulating material 16 bounded or otherwise applied thereto to limit heat transfer to or from the pad through the exposed face thereof.
When a pad of this type is chilled in a refrigerator or elsewhere it may be applied to an affected area for comfort or therapeutic purposes and will conform readily and closely to the surface covered thereby. In a typical case such a pad has been employed for post-operative treatment and contained the basic composition described above. When initially cooled to 30 F., the pad (although uninsulated) remains at a temperature of approximately 30 F. for 3 hours or more and only gradually increases in temperature over a further period of several hours before reaching room temperature.
Constructions of this type are soft, comfortable and capable of conforming to irregular surfaces about the neck or elsewhere and remain in contact with the surface to be cooled without imposing restrictions to the patient. Furthermore, if for any reason, the cover for the pad is punctured, or it should leak, the composition can be readily washed off by season of its relatively high soap and emulsifier content and the absence of toxic, corr-osive or other objectionable ingredients.
Pads, 01 receptacles of a similar nature can be made relatively small or pencil shaped for use as a tampon in packing nasal or other passages, as an aid in controlling bleeding and for many other applications in hospitals and elsewhere by doctors, in veterinary work and for personal use and comfort. However, the invention may also be embodied in relatively large pads or constructions for use as blankets, mattresses or the like. In any event, it may be readily washed, cleaned or desinfected for repeated reuse and may be inserted in a disposable covering if desired.
As shown in FIG. 2 constructions embodying the present invention may be formed as in an ice cap 20 or may be used as a heating device designed to cover substantially the entire scalpor the face-and can be provided with straps 24 for holding the device in place.
FIG. 3 illustrates numerous applications of the present invention wherein one pad is applied to the shoulder as shown at 26 whereas a second is applied at the elbow at 28 and a third is applied to the wrist as at 30. Any one or more of these pads may be constructed in the form of a sleeve so as to fit snugly about an affected area while being sufficiently soft, flexible and yielding to permit movement of the joint without discomfort to the wearer.
Constructions of the type represented in FIG. 3 are of particular value in veterinary work where animals are not readily restrained or controlled and yet thermal treatment may be desirable.
In the construction illustrated in FIG. 4 the pad is in the form of a sleeve for application to the finger and includes a flexible receptacle 32 for the temperature maintaining composition and an elastic portion 34 for holding the device in place.
There are many other applications and uses for products embodying the present invention in fields other than medicine or surgery. Thus as shown in FIG. 5 a sleeve 36 containing the temperature maintaining composition can be applied to a can or receptacle 38 to keep ice cream, bottles or foods'either cold or hot as desired on picnics, travel or at other times. Further as illustrated in FIG. 5 instead of providing the sleeve 36 with separately formed compartments, a cellular filler 40 such as a sponge or. fibrous retainer may be enclosed within the sleeve and substantially saturated with the composition to prevent the soft or plastic temperature retaining material from being displaced within the enclosure. The use of cells or compartments for holding the composition in place then is not generally necessary.
As shown in FIG. 6 a container in the form of a pocketed enclosure 42 may be provided with an opening 44 for insertion of a dish or casserole of food or for the preservation of other products in a heated or cooled condition for substantial periods of time. If desired such a container or other product embodying the present invention may be provided with a filling opening 46 provided with a suitable closure 48.
A further and important application of the present invention is illustrated in FIG. 7 wherein a package is provided with dividers in the general form of the dividers used in an egg carton. Such dividers consist of elongated strips 50 embodying a plurality of cells 52 having slots 54 therebetween to permit the strips to be arranged in interfiitted relation. The cells of the strips when filled with the temperature maintaining composition of the present invention cooperate to present cushioned compartments 56 for receiving articles to be maintained at a desired temperature during shipment. Dividers of this type can be separated for cleaning or storage and reassembled for use as required. In the alternative, when not in use the assembled strips can be moved to collapsed, generally parallel relation while being refrigerated or heated. Packages containing dividers of this type may be employed for the handling, transportation and preservation of serums, bacteriological specimens, eggs, chicks or other articles subject to deterioration if not maintained at a suitable temperature.
In some instances, it may be desirable to add an inert filler to the compositions of the present invention. For this purpose, clay, vermiculite, wood flour or the like may be employed in amounts up to say 5 or 10% by weight of the total composition. 3
While various constructions and applications of the invention have been shown in the drawings and described above, and typical and preferred compositions have been cited, it will be apparent that many other constructions and applications of the present invention are possible and intended to be embraced within the scope of the invention. Moreover, the composition of the temperature maintaining mixture is capable of numerous variations and modifications in order to adapt the invention to particular uSes and to enable it to be employed in different or selected and preferred temperature ranges.
In view thereof it should be understood that the particular embodiments of the invention described above and disclosed in the drawings as well as the compositions referred to are intended to be illustrative only and are not intended to limit the scope of the invention.
1. An article for use in maintaining a substantially uniform temperature within the range of about 0 F. to 150 F. comprising a flexible container substantially filled with a permanently plastic mixture containing from about 1 to 15% by weight of soap, from about 1 to 5% by weight of an emulsifying agent, and about 2 to by weight of an aqueous mixture the major portion of which is water containing from about 1 to 30% by weight of miscible alcohol.
2. An article as defined in claim 1 wherein said container embodies a plurality of cells having the composition therein; q
3. An article as defined in claim 1 wherein the container embodies a plurality. of cells with barriers therebetween providing restrictedcommunicaton between the cells, said cells being substantially filled with the composition.
4. The article of claim 1 in which the container is a substantially flat, flexible pad having the composition enclosed therein. A
5. The article as defined in claim 4 wherein one face of the pad is covered by flexible thermal insulating material.
6. An article as defined in claim 8 wherein said filler is a flexible sponge-like material.
7. The article as defined in claim 4 wherein said pad has a plurality of substantially closed cells therein each containing the composition and means are connected to said pad for securing the pad in place adjacent an area to be treated.
8. A device for maintaining a substantially uniform temperature within the range of about F to 150 F. comprising a flexible container having a cellular filler therein substantially saturated with permanently plastic mixture containing from about 1 to 15% by weight of soap from about 1 to by weight of an emulsifying agent, and about 2 to 80% by weight of an aqueous mixture of the major portion of which is water containing from about 1 to 30% by weight of miscible alcohol.
9. The article of claim 1 wherein said container is shaped to fit over a persons head and comprising a flexible enclosure embodying a plurality of substantially closed cells each containing the composition, and means connected to said enclosure for securing it in place on a persons head.
10. The article of claim 1 wherein the container is a receptacle comprising spaced layers of material with the composition substantially filling the space between said layers.
11. A package comprising elements defining a plurality of cellular compartments within said package, the walls of said compartments being formed of spaced flexilble layers of material having permanently plastic mixture containing from about 1 to 15% by weight of soap, from about 1 to 5% by weight of an emulsifying agent, and about 2 to by weight of an aqueous mixture the major portion of which is water containing from about 1 to 30% by weight of miscible alcohol therebetween.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,101,843 12/1937 Factor et al. 167-91 2,595,328 5/1952 Bowen 621 2,710,008 6/1955 Jensen 128-403 3,075,529 1/1963 Young 128403 LAWRENCE W. TRAPP, Primary Examiner US. Cl. X.R.