US 3464111 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
P 1969 F. B. GILLARD 3,464,111
COMPLETE PROSTHETIC DENTURE AND METHOD FOR SELF-FITTING Filed May 9, 1967 INVENTOR.
FREDERICK B. GILLARD Maw ATTORNEYS United States Patent 3,464,111 COMPLETE PROSTHETIC DENTURE AND METHOD FOR SELF-FITTING Frederick B. Gillard, Phoenix, Ariz., assignor of fifty percent each to Peter G. Bidstrup, Phoenix, Ariz. and Robert I. Jones, Lake Forest, Ill.
Filed May 9, 1967, Ser. No. 637,245 Int. Cl. A61c 13/08 US. Cl. 32-2 4 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A complete prosthetic denture having the maxillary denture and the mandibular denture releasably attached in centric registry to opposite sides of an alignment plate. The denture bases are lined with a hardenable plastic denture lining material and can be self-fitted by the patient.
Background of the invention This invention relates to the art and science of dentistry.
More particularly, the invention concerns denture prosthesis.
In a further aspect, the invention concerns a preformed complete prosthetic denture which is relatively inexpensive to purchase and adapted to be self-fitted.
In a still further aspect, the invention concerns a method whereby the dental patient may conveniently self-fit the complete denture of the above type with relative assurance of the comfortable fit, centric registry, and proper interocclusal clearance.
The loss of the natural teeth, through accident or discase, is a physical impairment embracing many persons. The person having lost his teeth suffers many serious consequences, especially the natural function of mastication, facial contour, speech defects, and general discomfort. It is therefore mandatory that the natural teeth be replaced with a prosthetic denture.
Prosthetic dentures are conventionally constructed and fitted by a dentist. This is a complex procedure requiring measurements of the masticatory movements, primary impressions of the denture supporting tissues, making study casts, and model dentures prior to converting into finished dentures. Throughout the entire process, which requires many appointments between the patient and the dentist, the dentist expends considerable time and employs numerous dental apparatus. The resultant eifort is an aesthetic, well-fitting, properly functioning prosthetic denture. However, due to the substantial time requirements and dental equipment involved, considerable cost is incurred.
Individuals existing on a limited income are denied the privilege of having an exacting hand-crafted prosthetic denture as described above. Others living in remote areas are handicapped by the inaccessibility of a dentist. To accommodate these persons, there has evolved a system of mail order dentures. A patient is sent an upper and lower impression tray and a supply of impression material, such as modeling compound, to take his own impressions. The impressions thus made are mailed to the dental laboratory where the dentures are made.
While the latter method undeniably facilities persons living in remote areas and provides dentures that are, to some degree, less expensive then the dentist-crafted type, they have not proven to be acceptably adequate. If the patient is slightly askew in making his impressions, the dentures will not fit properly. The first probable error of the impressions is compounded by possible deformation or damage during shipment to the dental laboratory.
The patient is inconvenienced by the lengthy correspond ence with the dental laboratory, especially if the initial dentures do not fit properly and must be returned for adjustment or new impressions made.
It would be highly advantageous, therefore, to provide an economical prosthetic denture and a method for satisfactory self-fittings.
Summary of the invention It is a primary object of the present invention therefore, to provide a complete prosthetic denture especially adapted to be self-fitted by the dental patient.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a method which allows a dental patient to self-fit a complete prosthetic denture to acceptable dental standards especially in the physical areas of centric registry and interocclusal clearance.
A further object of the present invention is the provision of a method for self-fitting a complete prosthetic denture which insures the denture can be worn by the patient with ease and comfort, and whereby the dentures may be readily and conveniently readjusted to compensate natural occlusal changes.
Yet a further object of the present invention is the provision of a complete prosthetic denture of the above type which is aesthetically enhancing, natural appearing, and relatively inexpensive to produce.
Briefly, to accomplish the desired objectives of my present invention, I provide a preformed maxillary denture having a base plate shaped to substantially conform to the maxillary ridge and the palatal vault and a plurality of depending tooth structures. Similarly, I provide a mandibular denture having a base plate shaped to substantially conform to the mandibular ridge and having a plurality of upwardly extending tooth structures. The dentures are releasably affixed in centric registry to either side of an alignment plate corresponding to the normal interocclusal clearance.
During self-fitting, the shaped portions of the denture bases are first lined with the hardenable plastic denture lining material. The denture assembly is then inserted into the oral cavity and the mouth closed. While holding a forwardly projecting portion of the alignment plate between the lips to set the normal lipline, the denture supporting tissues are impressed into the plastic denture lining material. After the impressions are made, the denture assmbly is removed from the mouth and the denture lining material allowed to harden. Thereafter, the dentures are released from the alignment plate and reinserted into the oral cavity as a complete prosthetic denture.
Brief description of the drawings Further and more specific objects and advantages of the present invention will become readily apparent to those skilled in the art from the following detailed description thereof taken in conjunction with the drawings, in which:
FIG. 1 is a complete prosthetic denture chosen for purposes of illustration embodying the present invention when aflixed to the alignment plate;
FIG. 2 is an elevational view in section taken along the line 2--2 of FIG. 1 and specifically illustrates the prealignment of the dentures; and
FIG. 3 is a sagittal cross section of the oral cavity illustrating the fitting of the prosthetic denture assembly.
Description of the preferred embodiment Turning now to the drawings, in which the same reference numerals indicate corresponding elements throughout the various figures, FIG. 1 illustrates a presently preferred embodiment of the invention chosen for purposes of illustration and shows the maxillary denture l0 and the mandibular denture 11. The maxillary denture consists of a base plate 12 having an arcuate channel 13 near the periphery and a raised center portion 14 shaped to substantially conform to the denture supporting tissues of the maxillary ridge and the palatal vault respectively. A plurality of tooth structures 17 depend from the base plate 12. The mandibular denture 11 consists of a base plate 18 and a plurality of upwardly extending tooth structures 19. As particularly illustrated in this view, the dentures are set in centric registry to the opposite sides of an alignment plate 20.
FIG. 2 further illustrates the denture assembly of FIG. 1 and shows the channel 21 located in the maxillary base plate 18 shaped to substantially conform to the mandibular ridge. Small daubs of non-hardening glue 22 releasably retain the tooth structures in proper registry to the alignment plate 20. Preferably the alignment plate is constructed of transparent material to provide visual access to the first attached denture to assist in the alignment of the secondly attached denture. As herein illustrated in this view and in accordance with the preferred embodiment of the present invention, each denture is an integral casting of a suitable synthetic polymer such as acrylic resin, wherein the tooth structures are dyed a natural tooth color and the base plate portion is tinted with an appropriate shade of pink.
FIG. 3 illustrates the manner of self-fitting the dentures of the present invention. A hardenable plastic denture lining material is inserted into the groove 13 and over the raised portion 14 of the-maxillary denture plate 12 and into the channel 21 of the mandibular denture plate 18. It will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art that the hardenable plastic denture lining material 23 is any of a number of commercially available prep arations having an initially plastic state for the taking of impressions and fitting to the contours of the denture supporting tissues and subsequently hardens within a reasonable time to accepted dental standards. Examples of such lining material include modeling plastic, zinc phosphate cement, and colloidal compounds.
After inserting the denture assembly into the oral cavity, the alignment plate 20 is held between the upper lip 24 and the lower lip 27 to set the lipline. The maxillary ridge 28, the palatal vault 29 and the mandibular ridge 30 are pressed into the plastic impression material lining the appropriate base plate contour. After the impression material has been allowed to gel, usually only a matter of a few minutes, the assembly is removed from the mouth, and the excess impression material squeezed over the edges of the bases is trimmed away. After the impression material sets, the dentures are removed from the alignment plate and reinserted into the mouth as completed form-fitting dentures;
As a stock item, the denture is supplied in several sizes to form an initial approximate fit for the individual patient. The thickness of the alignment plate provides automatic compensation for the normal interocclusal clearance. Particularly noted in FIG. 2. are the shape of the masticatory surfaces of the teeth 17 and 19 which are inverted cusps. Those skilled in the art will readily recognize that inverted cusps are functionally adequate and eliminate the need for hand fitting to compensate for lateral excursions and protrusive mandible movements.
Having fully described the invention in such manner as to enable those skilled in the art to understand and practice the same, I claim:
1. As an article of manufacture, a complete prosthetic denture especially adapted to be self-fitted and registered within 'the oral cavity by the patient, said denture comprising:
(a) a maxillary denture including,
(i) a base plate shaped to substantially conform to the maxillary ridge and the palatal vault (ii) a plurality of tooth structures depending from said base;
(b) a mandibular denture including,
(i) a base plate shaped to substantially conform to the mandibular ridge (ii) a plurality of tooth structures extending upwardly from said base; and
(c) an alignment plate releasably afiixed between said dentures in the occlusal plane thereof,
said plate of a thickness corresponding to the normal interocclusal clearance and having the dentures afiixed thereto in centric.
2. The article of manufacture of claim 1, wherein a portion of said alignment plate extends forward of said dentures.
3. A method of self-fitting and registering a complete prosthetic denture to the denture supporting tissues of the patients toothless oral cavity, said denture including,
a maxillary denture having a base plate shaped to substantially conform to the denture supporting tissues of the maxillary ridge and the palatal vault and a plurality of prosthetic teeth depending from said base, and
a mandibular denture having a base plate shaped to substantially conform to the denture supporting tissues of the mandibular ridge and a plurality of prosthetic teeth extending upwardly from said base said method comprising:
(a) releasable attaching said maxillary denture and said mandibular denture in centric registry to opposite sides of an alignment plate of a thickness corresponding to the normal interocclusal clearance;
(b) lining the shaped denture bases with a hardenable plastic denture lining material;
(c) inserting the denture assembly into the oral cavity;
((1) closing the mouth and impressing the denture supporting tissues into the plastic denture lining material;
(e) removing the denture assembly from the mouth and allowing the denture lining material to harden; and
(f) releasing the dentures from the alignment plate.
4. The method as recited in claim 3, in which the forwardly projecting portion of the alignment plate is held between the lips during the closing and impressing step.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,165,597 7/1939 Widoe 32-2 2,171,759 9/1939 Meyer 322 2,592,288 4/1952 Johnson 32-32 ROBERT PESHOCK, Primary Examiner