US 3464157 A
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Sept. 2, 1969 R. RODRIGUEZ WINDOW CONSTRUCTION 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Nov. 18, 1966 lNl/E/VTOR RAMON RODRIGUEZ AGE/VT Sept. 2, 1969 R. RODRIGUEZ WINDOW CONSTRUCTION 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Nov. 18, 1966 FIG. 4
//V|/E/\/TOR JMMON RODRIGUEZ AGE/VT United States Patent 3,464,157 WINDOW CONSTRUCTI'ON Ramon Rodriguez, New York, N.Y. (531 Earl Ave., New Kensington, Pa. 15068) Filed Nov. 18, 1966, Ser. No. 595,463
Int. Cl. E05d 15/22 US. Cl. 49-161 12 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A double hung window is constructed so that each sash includes a pair of side members constrained to move vertically within adjacent jambs and a center section which, once a locking mechanism is disengaged and while at any elevation, may be rotated about a hidden pivot to any selected angle between a horizontal and a weather-tight vertical position. One component of the pivot includes a deformable housing containing a pliable material having a high coefficient of friction and the other component includes a cylindrical shaft dimensioned to fit within the pliable friction material.
This invention relates to a window construction and more particularly to metallic windows of the sliding sash t pe.
Windows with vertically movable sashes, known generally as the double hung type, have been used extensively because of the well recognized features inherent in such a design. There are, however, along with the advantages of design offered by this conventional construction, disadvantages that sometimes impair the desirability of such windows. For example, difiiculty, if not danger was experienced in the attempt to clean the outer sides of such windows. Furthermore, the maximum ventilation afforded by such windows was generally limited to one half of that which should be possible for the building opening in which the window frame is situated.
Numerous devices have been invented in the effort to overcome the disadvantages of the double hung window construction. Commonly, the effort has been directed to provide a pivoted construction which permits both vertical as well as angular motion of a sash in the window frame. While attempts to overcome the enumerated disadvantages have been somewhat successful, the solutions offered have introduced new disadvantages of complex or cumbersome design high cost and unsightliness. For example, existing double hung windows that permit a rotation of the sashes suffer the disadvantages of having either exposed hinges with concomitant mechanical problems, or a cumbersome design or both. Some designs include pivots located near the middle of the vertical length of a sash so that angular motion interferes with adjacently placed screens or storm windows. Still other designs made no provision for an arbitrary selection of the angular position of the sash intermediate the fully rotated and the fully closed positions; or, if they did, either the provision was cumbersome or it was not subject to easy adjustment that was required with continued usage. An additional short coming of many of the existing pivoted designs is the relatively ineffective weather insulation between the rotating portion of the sash and the sash portion permanently afiixed to the frame jamb.
Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide a double hung window of simple and inexpensive construction in which the sashes, while being vertically movable in the conventional manner, are also rotatable to provide increased ventilation and accessibility of exterior surfaces.
It is another object of the present invention to provide a double hung window construction with rotatable sashes capable of assuming and maintaining any angular position between normal-closed and fully rotated to right angles with respect to the frame.
It is still another object of the present invention to provide a window construction of the kind described wherein each sash is pivoted so as not to interfere with adjacently placed screens or storm windows.
It is still another object of the present invention to provide for each sash in a window construction as described, an unexposed pivot joint which can be easily adjusted so that the force required to effect rotation can be varied as desired.
It is an additional object of the present invention to provide in a window construction of the type described, an effective weather insulation and a lock which provides security against unwanted sash rotations.
These and other objects are accomplished by providing a sash in a double hung window construction formed from metallic sheet sections with a pivot mechanism enclosed within the bottom of the sash. One part of the pivot mechanism which includes a deformable housing fitted with pliable material having a high coefficient of friction is, in one embodiment, included within a center section of the sash, and another part of the pivot mechanism is fixed within a sash member constrained to move vertically Within the window jambs with a shaft extending into a compatibly dimensioned cylindrical hole within the high friction material. The housing is constructed with an accessible screw for selectively adjusting the friction forces developed by the pivot. The sections forming the sash side and center members are constructed to provide interlocking joints at either side of the sash and at both the interior and exterior portions thereof so that a weather tight seal is obtained when the sash is in a vertical position. The sash is released from a vertical position to permit rotation to any selected position within an approximate ninety degree are when a locking mechanism is actuated to disengage the center from the side members.
In accordance with the foregoing and other objects, the invention includes certain novel features of construction and combinations and arrangements of parts as will be hereinafter fully described in connection with the drawing in which:
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a window embodying the present invention, showing the lower sash in a partially rotated position and the upper sash partially lowered but with a zero angle of rotation;
FIG. 2 is an enlargement of the pivot-hinge components shown assembled and exposed in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is an enlarged detail View of a partially exposed lock which secures sash components to each other;
FIG. 4 is a sectional view through the window taken on the line 44 of FIG. 1 when the rotation angle of each sash is near zero and when the upper sash is partially lowered and the lower sash is partially raised; and
FIG. 5 is a sectional view through the window taken along line 55 of FIG. 1 when both the sashes are closed and locked in place.
The drawing shows a double hung window formed from metallic sections such as aluminum extensions. Each sash is pivoted about a horizontal axis along its bottom section. The pivot joints in each sash include a lining enclosed in a brake housing positioned within a vertical section on each side of the rotatable portion of the sash, and a mating shaft member positioned in the sash portion which slides vertically in guide rails at the inner side of the adjacent frame jamb. A small hole near the bottom of each rotatable sash portion gives access to the brake housing for adjustments of the frictional force between the brake and shaft member. The sash sections are constructed so that when the tilt angle is zero between the rotatable and reciprocally sliding portions, the two sections lock into place and mating flanges provide an effective weatherproofing. Once locked, at sash can be rotated only if the lock is released. Insulating pile strips fixed in recessed wells of the sashes provide insulation between adjacent parts of the window which move against each other. Other advantageous features of my window include removable clips to hold the glass panes in the sashes and an overall construction which permits the use of any commercial balance.
More specifically, FIG. 1 is a perspective view of an embodiment of the invention wherein, the lower sash is shown partially tilted and the upper sash is shown partially lowered at a zero tilt angle. The frame 1 is formed from metallic members such as extruded aluminum. The vertical members or jamb 2 of frame 1 are shown in cross section in FIG. 4, while the horizontal members 3 and 4, forming the frame top and bottom respectively, appear in cross section in FIG. 5. Self tapping screws 5, fitting into wells 6 in the jamb members, rigidly fasten the frame into a unitary structure.
Each sash includes a rotatable portion which holds the glass pane and which is pivoted to vertically slidable portions positioned within the frame jambs. The rotatable sash portion includes side members 7 fastened to cross pieces 8 by self tapping screws inserted into wells 6'. The window panes 9 are held against flanges of members 7 and 8 by clips 10 spring fitted into recesses in the sections. Each sash side member 7 is fastened by means of a pivotbrake joint to a runner member 11 which in turn is constrained to permit only vertical motion because of its position against sash guide rails 50 within frame jamb members 2. The pivot joint is shown in FIGS. 1, 2 and 4. The subassembly of a brake lining 12 held in brake housing 13 by a screw 14 is positioned within and at the lower end of each sash side member 7. A metallic mating pivot member is positioned so that its head 15 is concealed within and at the lower end of the associated vertically slidable member 11 and its shaft portion 16 protrudes through the wall of member 11 for coupling into a hollowed cylindrical bearing surface 17 in brake lining 12. The pivot member head 15 and shaft 16 should be fabri cated from a material with sufficient hardness to resist abrasion by virtue of the shafts rotation within lining 12 and may, illustratively, be either Delrin steel or aluminum with a steel sleeve around shaft 16. The lining 12 is formed from any material exhibiting a high coefficient of friction and suflicient pliability so that it can be compressed without elfect to bearing surface smoothness. One such material is known as Lamitex and is fabricated from canvas impregnated and pressed with urea formaldehyde resins. The brake housing 13 is fabricated from a metal such as steel or hardened aluminum having a strength suflicient to withstand the pressures exerted on the thin walls encompassing the lining 12 when compressed by screw 14. Housing 13 is constructed to have mutually perpendicular slots 18 and 19 and a tapped hole in the metal above the cavity filled with lining 12. This hole extends perpendicularly from the side wall just below slot 19 into and through the portion of the housing beyond slot 18. The hole is seated either by a counterbore or a countersink at the side wall and tapped in the portion beyond slot 18. A correspondingly shaped flat head screw 14, slightly shorter than the screw hole, and only partially threaded is fastened into the seated hole. When partially threaded screw 14 is tightened in housing 13, its head is flush with the side wall and slot 18 is narrowed to compress a slot 20 in lining 12 and increase the frictional force between the lining 12 and shaft 16. The overhung portion of housing 13 above slot 19 insures that a good fit is always maintained between housing 13 and sash side member 7 even though slot 18 is narrowed by the pressure of screw 14. In a preferable embodiment screw 14 should be of the Allen head variety so that an appropriate Allen wrench may be inserted through a small hole 21 in the front wall of a sash side member 7 to adjust the frictional force of the brake whenever desired even though the pivot-brake is completely unexposed. The frictional force developed will be suflicient to maintain the arcuate position of the sash rotatable portion at any tilt angle desired between zero and ninety degrees from the vertical plane.
The sectional view shown in FIG. 4 is taken along line 4--4 of FIG. 1 when the tilt angle of both sashes is near zero and the upper and lower sashes, respectively, are slightly lowered and raised so that the sash side members 7 are cut by the section line. It may be seen from FIG. 4 that the sash runner member 11 is positioned for constrained reciprocal motion within a track in the frame jam-b 2 defined by guide rails 50. A weather stripping 22 is longitudinally positioned inside a well of each runner for the entire length thereof. The weather stripping lengths 22 should be fashioned from a pile-like material which serves to insulate as well as to provide an effective separator between runner 11 and the sash guide rails 50 of the frame jamb 2. W001 pile has been found effective for these purposes. When positioned as described, the pile weather stripping 22 functions as an interface between the runners 11 in which it is fixed and the guide rails 50 in order to prevent metal to metal contact. In this manner, chemical interaction is prevented while easy relative motion between the moving memhers is preserved.
FIG. 4 shows with particular detail additional features of the window. Each runner member 11 and abutting rotatable sash side member 7 is constructed with mating flanges at the front and back thereof so that complementary member pairs intermesh at their adjacent surfaces when the tilt angle is zero. So, for example, a I shaped female flange 23 at the front edge of upper and lower sash members 7 meshes with a compatibly shaped inverted I shaped male flange 23' at the front edge of upper and lower sash runner members 11, respectively. At the back edges of the upper and lower sashes, female I shaped flanges 24 on sash members 7 mesh with male I shaped flanges 2-4 on sash runner members 11. In this fashion, when the tilt angle is zero, each runner member 11 is doubly interlocked with an adjacent rotatable member 7 on each side of each sash to provide a weathertight joint at the interface between members capable of adjustable relative angular displacements. Additionally, it is to be noted that an insulating dust plug 25 composed of a material such as felt, is positioned into a channel between the sash guide rails midway in the height of each frame jamb 2. This plug seals the channel in jamb 2 so that the window is effectively insulated when the upper and lower sashes have a zero tilt angle and are in their uppermost and lowermost positions, respectively.
As shown in FIG. 1, each sash is provided with a latching mechanism in order to prevent unwanted angular motion of the rotatable portion thereof. A spring actuated latch is positioned inside the uppermost portion of each rotatable sash side member 7 so that each sash has a pair of latches located on either side thereof. Each of the respective latches cooperates with a keeper hole 26 in a contiguous sash runner member. FIG. 3 shows in detail one form of latch that may be used in the construction. Fitted into a housing 27 (shown partially exposed) is a plunger having a head 28 to which is connected a shaft which begins with a cylindrical portion, changes to an eccentric conical portion and finally terminates in a cylindrical shoulder. The plunger head 28 may be moved downward against a coil spring 32 which is positioned within housing 27 to exert a counterpressure on plunger head 28. A pivot 33 fixes a cam 34 in a cavity of housing 27. Cam 34 has a cylindrical hole in a portion of which is cut a conical surface shaped to compatibly coact with the conical shaft portion. The lower cylindrical shoulder locks the cam 34 in the housing cavity, and return spring 36, positioned in housing 27, bears against a ledge on cam 34 to return it to its starting position when the plunger head 28 is released. Upon the release of head 28, spring 36 causes the cam lip 37 to protrude to its fullest extent from housing 27. When plunger head 28 is depressed, springs 32 and 36 are compressed, the conical shaft portion bears against the conical cut in the cam hole so that cam 34 rotates about pivot 33 causing cam lip 37 to be withdrawn into housing 27. The depression of the plunger heads on each of the two latches positioned in each sash permits the cam lips of each to clear their respective keeper holes so that the sash may be tilted in an arcuate path. Other spring loaded latching mechanisms having a lip such as cam lip 37 for engagement in a keeper are within the contemplation of this invention.
It is to be noted from FIG. 4 that the upper sash is narrower than the lower sash in order that the former, when tilted inwardly, may clear the latters runner member 11. The frame jamb 2 is of course designed with offset channels to accommodate this construction. As a result of the window construction described, any commercial balance 40 may be used without difficulty. A card 13, fitted into the top of each sash side member 11 separates that member from the frame jamb 2 and secures the balance in the jamb channel.
FIG. 5 shows a cross sectional view of the frame and sash construction taken along line 55 of FIG. 1 when the upper and lower sashes are at the highest and lowest ends of their respective traverses and the tilt angle of each is zero. Pile weather strips 41 are inserted into wells in the frame top member 3 and sash cross members 8. It is to be noted that angular rotation of the upper sash requires that it first be lowered somewhat to clear the recess in frame tops, and member 3. The lower sash may, however, be tilted without first being raised. When the lower sash is pivoted, it contacts lip 42 on the frame lower member 4 and rises slightly until it is clear. The rotation of each sash is limited to a ninety degree angle from the vertical plane by the impediment offered by the I shaped flange 24' at the rear of the sash side member 11 when the bottom of each brake housing 13 is rotated ninety degrees. An additional limitation on the extent of the rotation of the lower sash exists because lip 43 on the sash cross member 8 is stopped in its angular traverse when it hits lip 42 on the frame lower member 4. Lips 43 and 44 are provided as grips on the lower and upper sashs, respectively, to facilitate vertical motion of the sashes Within the frame tracks. Finally, an L shaped bar 70 is fixed to the upper cross member 8 on the lower sash by a fastener 75 which permits it to rotate into a channel 76 (see FIG. 5) in upper sash cross member 8 to lock the sashes and prevent vertical motion.
It is to be understood that the above-described arrangements are illustrative of the application of the principles of the invention. Numerous other arrangements may be devised by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.
What is claimed is:
1. A window construction comprising a frame with jambs and sash guide rails at the inner sides of said jambs; at least one sash having a first component including a center rotatable portion and a second component including a pair of abutting side members, each of said side members being positioned adjacent to opposite ones of said sash guide rails for reciprocating movement within said frame; and pivot-brake means for fastening together said sash components to permit angular motion between said sash side members and said rotatable portion including a brake housing concealed within and at the bottom of one of said components, a pliable brake lining having a hollowed horizontal cylindrical bearing surface positioned within said housing, and a pivot member having a head concealed within the other of said components and a cylindrical shaft extending from said head into an adjacent mating brake lining.
2. A window construction in accordance with claim 1 wherein said brake housing is positioned within said rotatable portion of said sash, the head of said pivot memher is positioned within a side member with said shaft extending through a wall of said side member, and wherein said brake housing includes means for adjustably compressing the lining to increase the frictional force between said lining and its cooperating pivot shaft,
3. A window construction in accordance with claim 2 wherein each of said brake housings has a central aperture proportioned to accept said lining, an angularly directed slot beginning at said central aperture and extending to the exterior of said housing to form separate arms which encompass said central aperture and abut each other so that one of said arms overhangs the other, a seated hole extending from the exterior of said housing through the overhung one of said arms continuing as a tapped hole through the other of said arms, and a partially threaded screw positioned within said seated hole for adjusting the depth of said slot to control the compression of said lining.
4. A window construction in accordance with claim 3 wherein said frame and said sash are each constructed from formed metallic sections fastened into working relationship and said brake-pivot means is positioned within channels of said metallic sections.
5. A window construction in accordance with claim 4 wherein said brake housing slot subtends a right angle and said rotatable sash portion has a hole positioned to permit access to each of said screws.
6. A window construction in accordance with claim 3 wherein said brake housing is a rectangular prism proportioned to be slip fitted within each sash side member, said housing central aperture is of rectangular cross section, said lining is composed of a compressible material with a high coefficient of friction and has rectangular outside dimensions with a slot extending from its hollowed bearing surface to its exterior at a point opposite to said housing slot, and said housing slot includes a pair of perpendicular linear slots.
7. A window construction in accordance with claim 2 wherein said sash rotatable portion includes a first pair of parallel transverse sections separated by a second pair of perpendicular sections, each of said second pair of sections is positioned to abut an adjacent one of said pair of sash side member sections, each of said second pair of sections has over its entire length, a female I- shaped flange at the front and rear corners at the interface abutting an adjacent one of said pair of sash side members, each of said abutting sash side members having at its front and rear corners over the entire length of its interface surface male J-shaped flanges which mate in operative relationship with said female flanges on an adjacent one of said second pair of sections of said rotatable sash portion to form a double interlocked interface joint which may be disengaged to permit arcuate motion by said rotatable sash portion.
8. A window construction in accordance with claim 7 wherein a male J-shaped flange on the front of a sash side member and a female J-shaped flange on the rear of a mating adjacent one of said second pair of rotatable sash portion sections are recessed from the abutting interface, and wherein said male J-shaped flange on the rear of a sash side member and a female J-shaped flange on the front of a mating adjacent one of said second pair of rotatable sash portion sections extend beyond the abutting interface.
9. A window construction in accordance with claim 7 further comprising a second substantially identical sash wherein said sashes are positioned adjacent to individual guide rails within said frame in a double hung arrangement, the upper one of said sashes being narrower than the lower one of said sashes, and said frame jambs having offset portions to accommodate each of said pair of sashes and permit uninterfered angular motion of each of said sash rotatable portions.
10. A window construction in accordance with claim 9 wherein each of said sash side member sections has a pair of wells extending over its length opposite adjacent frame guide rails, a weather stripping is secured within the length of each of said wells with a protruding bearing surface riding on an adjacent guide rail, an insulator dust plug is fitted in a channel between and midway in the length of said offset portions in each of said frame jambs to provide insulation when said sashes are positioned to prevent ventilation, the top section of said frame and each of said first pair of transverse rotatable sash portion sec- 'tions have wells running the length thereof securing a weather stripping which runs against an adjacent section in operative relationship therewith, a pair of balances individual to each sash are positioned within said offset portions of said frame jambs, each section of said first and second pairs of sections forming each rotatable sash portion has a clip well and a planar flange lip, a glass pane positioned adjacent to said lips, and wherein a spring clip is positioned in each section clip well to hold said pane against its lip.
11. A window construction in accordance with claim 1 further comprising a latching mechanism integral to said first and second sash components, said mechanism including a pressure pad and means for automatically locking said components to prevent angular movement therebetween when said second component is positioned vertically and for releasing said second component in response to the application for a force to said pressure pad.
12. A window construction in accordance with claim 11 wherein said latching mechanism is positioned within and at the top of said center rotatable sash portion adjacent to an aperture in a sash side member and further includes a cam having a lip, an upper and a lower surface and a hole beginning at said upper surface and continuing with decreasing cross sectional area to said lower surface, a pin positioned perpendicularly through said upper and lower surfaces to permit rotation of said cam thereabout, a plunger connected to said pressure pad extending into said hole, said plunger having a bearing surface which is compatibly contoured and dimensioned to contact the walls defining said hole when depressed into said hole while permitting a clearance with the walls when withdrawn from said depressed position, said plunger bearing surface and hole walls being further positioned to cause said lip to be rotated about said pin and into said aperture when said plunger is depressed and said center sash portion is positioned vertically, a first spring positioned to resist rotation of said cam about said pin when said plunger is depressed and a second spring positioned to resist depression of said plunger.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS '2,006,745 7/1935 Polson et a1. 49183 X 3,055,062 9/1962 Peters et al. 49174 3,091,005 5/1963 Woodhams 49-176 3,126,588 3/1964 Osten 49-474 3,146,501 9/1964 Peters 49-174 REINALDO P. MACHADO, Primary Examiner DENNIS L. TAYLOR, Assistant Examiner US. Cl. X.R. 49-18 1