US 3464322 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
p 2, 1 M. J. J. PEQUlGNOT 3,464,322
DEFORMABLE DI APHRAGM Filed Oct. 26, 1967 3 Sheets-Sheet l P 2, 1969 M. J. J. PEQUIGNOT 3,464,322
DFIFORMABLE DI APHRAGM Filed Oct. 26, 1967 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 \I II II II II II III! IIIIII II'IIII II II &
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DEFORMABLE DIAPHRAGM Filed Oct. 26, 1967 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 United States Patent 3,464,322 DEFORMABLE DIAPHRAGM Michel J. J. Pequignot, 19 Rue Poliveau, Paris Seme, France I Filed Oct. 26, 1967, Ser. No. 678,409 Claims priority, appIicatiOnQFrance, Dec. 19, 1966,
Int. Cl. F01b 19/04; F16j 3/00; A61f 1/22 US. C]. 92-91 6 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE In a large number of industrial apparatus, deformable flexible diaphragms are utilized to obtain impulse or pumping effects. These diaphragms, which are generally fiat when at rest, are deformed by the action of pressure of a fluid in contact with one of their faces. Under the effect of this pressure, the diaphragm, retained at its periphery, swells and as it deforms causes a variation of useful volume for pumping.
A pumping effect can also be obtained by mechanical action applied directly to the diaphragm by displacing the centre of the diaphragm by a rod or other similar means.
The present invention has for its object a deformable flexible diaphragm, characterized in that the said diaphragm is arranged so as to be deformed by the internal action of a fluid in the structure and the thickness of the said diaphragm.
With this diaphragm, the swelling eflect is produced by an action developed in the actual interior of the diaphragm instead of being caused by an external action.
According to one form of embodiment, the diaphragm is constituted by or associated with an assembly of tubes of elliptical section, wound in a spiral, in superimposition or in juxtaposed contact, communicating with a source of fluid under pressure. If the tubes are oval, the admission of a fluid under pressure into these tubes tends to give them a circular form, and the change from the oval shape to the circular shape is accompanied by a swelling or displacement of the diaphragm. This deformation gives rise to a variation of volume with pumping of the fluid external to the diaphragm.
The accompanying drawings show by way of example one form of construction of the diaphragm according to the invention.
FIG. 1 is a view in cross-section of the diaphragm when at rest.
FIG. 2 is a plan view of the same diaphragm.
FIG. 3 is a view in cross-section of the same diaphragm in the inflated position.
FIG. 4 gives a cross section of an alternative form of construction.
FIGS. 5 and 6 show in cross-section a different construction of a convex diaphragm with a deformation in the opposite sense to that of FIGS. 1 to 3.
FIG. 7 shows in cross-section a further form of construction.
FIG. '8 represents an alternative form.
FIGS. 9 to 11 relate to a further alternative form,
FIG. 9 being a perspective view of this alternative, while FIG. 10 is a view in cross-section taken along the line X-X of FIG. 9 showing the diaphragm in the position of rest, and FIG. 11 shows a cross-section of the same diaphragm in the active position.
As can be seen from FIGS. 1 and 2, the diaphragm is constituted by a tube 10 wound in a spiral. This tube is of oval section and the successive turns are in cont-act, stuck or welded to each other at 11. The outer edge 12 of the spiral thus formed is embedded in a support formed for example by two parts 13 and 14, clamped together so as to grip the edge 12.
The spiral tube 10 is closed at its central portion 15 and its outer extremity 16 is connected to a source of fluid.
As shown in FIG. 1, when at rest the successive turns of the tube 10 are aligned substantially in the same plane. When a fluid under presusre is admitted to the tube 10 through the extremity 16, the oval tube 10 tends to takeup a circular shape. For this reason, the diaphragm being imprisoned at its edge 12 cannot expand in its own initial plane and takes up an incurved shape, as shown in FIG. 3.
This inflation is utilized in order to create an impulse or pumping effect on one or two fluids in contact with the diaphragm.
When the pressure is removed from the interior of the tube 10, the whole of the diaphragm re-assumes its flat initial position of FIG. 1 in consequence of its elasticity or conjointly with the residual pressure applied against the working face of the said diaphragm.
This diaphragm has the advantage that it does not require for its operation any external action by pressure or mechanical action, The deformation is caused by an internal action due to the structure of the diaphragm. This results in a substantial reduction of the space which it occupies.
I A further advantage is that this diaphragm enables the action of an impulse at high pressure and very small volume to be converted to a displacement of a large volume at low pressure, or vice-versa. It therefore permits of large deformations and in consequence of high pumping capacities by injection of a small quantity of fluid under high pressure.
In this way, small differences in volumes with considerable variations in pressure, such as those produced by the phenomena of expansion or striction of magnetic or piezoelectric origin may be utilized and amplified.
In addition, this diaphragm can carry out movements of considerable amplitude without it being necessary to enclose it in appropriate spaces having substantal bulk.
In accordance with an alternative form shown in FIG. 4, the turns of the tube 10 which form the diaphragm, of an elliptic section with the major axes parallel and in contact along the minor axes, are rigidly fixed to one or two thin sheets 17, 18 of elastic material.
Instead of a diaphragm which is flat when at rest and becomes deformed to take-up a convex position, as has been shown in FIGS. 1 to 3, the diaphragm according to the invention may be provided so as to be convex in the position of rest, as shown in FIGS. 5 and 6. The diaphragm is then constituted by tubular elements 19 of oval or elliptic section, in contact by the extremities of the major axes of the ellipses.
When a fluid under pressure is admitted into the elements 19, this pressure tends to give the tube a circular form 20, as shown in FIG. 6, which has the effect of a shortening the major axis and in consequence causes a deformation in the sense of a flattening of the diaphragm, giving a pumping efi'ect.
Following another form of construction shown in FIG. 7, the diaphragm is constituted by adjacent concentric tubes 21, in contact with each other but with communication passages 22 from one tube to the next adjacent tube.
According to this form of construction, the diaphragm may be composed of two half-shells 21a and 21b obtained by moulding and welded or stuck to each other so as to form the communication channels 22.
An alternative form illustrated in FIG. 8 shows a diaphragm constituted by elliptical hollow elements 25 arranged in the form of a pocket having its concavity on the side 26 of the fluid to be pumped.
When a fluid under pressure is admitted into the elements 25, the whole assembly is deformed. The elliptical elements take on a circular form and the diaphragm takes up the position 27. This displacement and the result-' ing variation of the volume ensure a pumping effect on the fluid admitted at 26.
Instead of being produced by a fluid under pressure, the deformation may of course be effected by means of an internal depression.
The diaphragm according to the invention may be applied to all the utilizations of usual diaphragms in pumping, in measuring or control apparatus or instru ments, etc.
By reason of its advantages, the diaphragm is particularly adapted to the production of ingrafted hearts, that is to say pumps which replace the heart in the circulation of the blood, and especially in pumps of this kind actuated by a magnetic or piezoelectric effect.
FIGS. 9 to 11 show a form of construction which is more particularly but not exclusively applicable to a pump forming an artificial heart. This artificial heart. designed so as to be ingrafted, can be placed in the same position as the natural heart.
This device is composed of a juxtaposition of two series 28, 29 of tubular elements having an elliptical section. These tubular elements 28, 29 are juxtaposed so as to form a pocket having the general shape of a heart and are connected together at the lower point 30.
These different elements 28 or 29 are connected to each other, either directly by appropriate orifices, or by collectors. The two series 28 and 29 are separated by a partition 31. In this way, each series of elements 28 or 29 represents a ventricle of the heart having an alternating action.
When the assembly of tubes 28 receives internallya fluid under pressure, these tubes are deformed and tend to take-up a circular form. This deformation shortens the wall 28 which tends to come into the position 28a in proximity to the partition 31, producing a variation of volume corresponding to the space 32 and imparting impulses on the fluid contained in the said space, for example blood.
The same effect is produced by the wall 29 which is deformed by the effect of fluid admitted into the elliptical tubes and takes up the position 29a with a corresponding displacement of the fluid contained in the space 33.
The walls 28 and 29 thus take-up alternately the positions of FIG. 10 and FIG. 11, reproducing the natural movements of the heart.
1. A deformable diaphragm for impulsing and pumping fluids, comprising at least one tubular element of noncircular cross section, said at least one element being disposed in a plurality of juxtaposed turns that are secured laterally to each other and that communicate with each other defining a continuous diaphragm surface, said at least one element constituting substantially the whole of the diaphragm from the central portion of the diaphragm out to the margin of the diaphragm, and means to connect said at least one element to a source of fluid under pressure whereby admission of said fluid into said at least one element causes deformation of the cross section of said at least one element during inflation of the diaphragm and movement thereof transverse to said diaphragm surface.
2. A deformable diaphragm as claimed in claim 1, said at least one tubular element being wound in the form of a continuous spiral from the center of the diaphragm out to the periphery of the diaphragm.
3. A deformable diaphragm as claimed in claim 1, and at least one deformable sheet secured to at least one lateral surface of the diaphragm.
4. A deformable diaphragm as claimed in claim 1, said at least one tubular element being formed of concentric tubular portions that communicate laterally with each other.
5. A deformable diaphragm as claimed in claim 1, which is flat and substantially circular in its undeformed condition.
6. A deformable diaphragm as claimed in claim 1, which has the form of a rounded pocket in its undeformed condition.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 737,154 8/1903 Sayer 9292 X 1,619,866 3/1927 Hoeschen 92--91 2,212,128 8/1940 Richter 92-92 X 2,289,549 7/1942 Norstrom 92-91 2,376,634 5/1945 Tellkamp 92-91 2,376,635 5/1945 Tellkamp 92-91 2,549,597 4/1951 Harris et a1. 92-92 X 3,327,322 6/1967 Norton 3-l 3,343,864 9/1967 Baer 92-92 X 3,379,411 4/1968 Vanderjagt 92-92 X MARTIN P. SCHWADRON, Primary Examiner I. C. COHEN, Assistant Examiner U.S. Cl. X.R. 31-1, 1.2; 9298