US 3468746 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sept. 23, 1969 s. c. SCHEIER 3,463,745
Y FABRIC HAVING RAVEL RESISTANT EDGE PORTION Filed Sept. 9, 1966 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTORLI STANLEY C .SCHHER MM /%@4/M ATTORNEYS Sept. 23, 1969 s. c. SCHEIER FABRIC HAVING RAVEL RESISTANT EDGE PORTION Filed Sept. 9, 1966 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR 7 STM\LEY cbcuaER BY W 'f/ML ATTORNEYS 3,468,746 FABRIC HAVING RAVEL RESISTANT EDGE PORTION Stanley C. Scheier, Charlotte, N.C., assignor to Kendall Company, Boston, Mass, a corporation of Massachusetts Filed Sept. 9, 1966, Ser. No. 578,259 Int. Cl. D03d 27/00; 1332!: 3/02 US. Cl. 16163 13 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A textile fabric having at least one corespun yarn extending along an edge portion of the fabric to provide ravel resistance to the fabric by having sheath fibers of the corespun yarn formed at least in part of thermoplastic fibers fused to contiguous yarns to secure the yarns together and wherein the core of the corespun yarn is at least predominantly unfused so that substantial pliability and integrity thereof is maintained.
The present invention relates to textile fabrics formed of yarns, and wherein the fabrics and articles formed therefrom have ravel resistant characteristics imparted to the edge portions thereof.
The raveling of yarns from the edges of a fabric, and particularly cut edges, can be an acute problem unless some means is employed to impart ravel resistant characteristics thereto. Probably the most commonly used means of imparting ravel resistant characteristics to the edges of such fabirc is a hem formed by folding the edge portion of the fabric and stitching the fabric in folded condition. Another very commonly used means is normally referred to as over-edging and comprises stitches which penetrate through the fabric and extend over and around the edge to lock the yarns in the fabric. Both of these means require sewing machines and relatively skilled operators to achieve the ravel resistant characteristics. Accordingly, the time and expense involved in these procedures make the same somewhat unattractive.
It has also been proposed to provide anti-ravel characteristics in edge portions of a fabric by a pinking bar construction. This construction comprises a portion of fabric wherein considerable crowding of yarns is effected to resist raveling when the fabric is pinked along the edge. This procedure is unattractive since best results can only be achieved when the pinking bar extends fillingwise and, therefore, its use is somewhat limited. Also, this procedure' requires a variable speed take-up on the loom weaving the fabric and also because the crowded nature of the filling yarns, while reducing raveling, does not provide the desired ravel resistant characteristics for all end uses of the fabric.
Additional means for imparting ravel resistant characteristics to edge portions of a fabric, often used in conjunction with pinking bars, have been proposed and include binders or adhesives applied to the edge portion of the fabric to bind the yarns in the fabric along the edge portion. This procedure results in a considerably stiffened edge portion which is highly undesirable and also the application requires considerable time and expense. Accordingly, the use of this means has been rather limited.
It has also been proposed to provide anti-ravel characteristics along the edge of an article by incorporating in the fabric all-thermoplastic yarns in areas along which the fabric will be cut in the formation of the article. These all-thermoplastic yarns are then fused to the adjacent yarns in the fabric and thereby act as a binder in resisting raveling of the yarns. Difficulties have been encountered with this procedure since it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to control the amount of fusing United States Patent 0f the yarns and because of the deleterious effects which such fusion has upon the strength of the yarns. In this respect, the all-thermoplastic yarns substantially lose their integrity as yarns during the fusing operation, and the edge portion of the article suffers a destructive loss of strength in the direction of the thermoplastic yarns.
With the foregoing in mind, it is an object of the present invention to provide a fabric having a ravel resistant edge portion which is devoid of any stitching, undue stiffening and destructive loss of strength.
A more specific object of the present invention is to provide a fabric of the character described wherein at least the edge portion thereof is formed at least partially of corespun yarns in at least one direction, which corespun yarns have sheaths formed at least in part of thermoplastic fibers and cores formed at least predominantly of non-thermoplastic textile material and the sheaths are fused to contiguous yarns to impart ravel resistant characteristics to the edge portion.
A further more specific object of the present invention is to provide a fabric adapted to form articles having ravel resistant edge portions and wherein spaced portions of the fabric, along which the fabric is adapted to be cut to form the articles, include corespun yarns having fusible sheaths and predominantly non-fusible cores.
Some of the objects of the invention having been stated, other objects will appear as the description proceeds when taken in connection with the accompanying drawings in which FIGURE 1 is a fragmentary plan view of fabric incorporating the features of the present invention;
FIGURE 2 is an isometric view of a diaper formed by severing a section from the fabric illustrated in FIGURE FIGURE 3 is a fragmentary isometric view of a yarn utilized in spaced areas of the fabric shown in FIGURE 1 and at least one edge portion of the diaper shown in FIGURE 2;
FIGURE 4 is a greatly enlarged, fragmentary plan view of one end edge of the diaper shown in FIGURE 2;
FIGURE 5 is a fragmentary isometric view of another embodiment of fabric formed in accordance with the present invention;
FIGURE 6 is an enlarged fragmentary isometric view of an edge portion of an article formed by severing a section from the fabric of FIGURE 5; and
FIGURE 7 is a fragmentary isometric view of the reverse side of an article similar to that shown in FIG- URE 3 but incorporating additional features in accordance with still another embodiment of the present invention.
Referring more specifically to the drawings and more particularly to FIGURE 1, there is illustrated therein a fabric '10 constructed in accordance with the present invention. Fabric 10 may be single or multi-layer in accordance with end-use requirements and generally comprises a web of an indeterminate length having selvages 11 and 12 at opposite sides thereof. Selvages 11 and 12 may be of conventional woven structure to provide the desired ravel resistant characteristics therein, but preferably have the desired ravel resistant characteristics imparted thereto in accordance with the present invention in a manner to be presently described. In this respect, the present invention is particularly adapted to impart ravel resistant characteristics to the selvages of fabric formed on looms incapable of forming conventional woven selvages, such as the Sulzer Loom or other shuttleless looms utilizing cut lengths of filling. Also, while the present invention is described in connection with woven fabric, it should be understood that the same is equally applicable to other fabrics having yarns therein, such as knit fabric and fabric formed of cross-layed yarns.
Fabric also includes transversely extending, spaced bands 13 which define areas along which fabric 10 is to be severed into articles 14, such as the diaper shown in FIGURE 2, and which will provide cut edge portions 13a with ravel resistant characteristics when finished in accordance with the present invention.
Fabric 10 may be formed of a Width to form a single article when severed along bands 13 or may be formed of a width capable of forming several articles widthwise thereof when severed. In the embodiment illustrated, a band 15 extends longitudinally of the medial portion of fabric 10 perpendicular to and intersecting bands 13, and defines an area along which the fabric is to be longitudinally cut for forming two articles widthwise of the fabric. Such articles will have a cut edge portion, such as edge portion 15a in FIGURE 2, defined by band 15 which will be provided with ravel resistant characteristics when finished in accordance with this invention.
In accordance with the present invention, bands 13 and 15, and also preferably selvages 11, 12, are woven at least partially of one or more corespun yarns 16 (FIGURE 3) having sheaths 17 formed at least in part of thermoplastic fibers fusible at a given temperature. Sheaths 17 are spun from rovings of staple fibers in conventional manner (US. Patent No. 3,070,950) to surround and intermingle With cores '18 formed at least predominantly of material nonfusible at said given temperature. Sheaths 17 may be and preferably Will be in most instances formed completely of a particular cut staple thermoplastic fiber, such as polypropylene or polyethylene terephthalate, or may be formed of a blend of thermoplastic fibers, fusible at a given temperature, with non-thermoplastic fibers or with other thermoplastic fibers which are non-fusible at the given temperature, but are fusible at a higher temperature.
The minium amount of thermoplastic fibers fusible at a given temperature utilized in sheaths 17 will depend upon many factors including fabric construction, the number of corespun yarns 16 present in the edge portion, and the amount of ravel resistance required in the edge portions of the article dictated, at least in part, by the use and handling to which the article will be subjected. For example, if the corespun yarns 16 are incorporated in a pinking bar construction, which is envisioned by the present invention, the desired additional ravel resistance may be provided by a relatively small amount of thermoplastic fibers fusible at the given temperature in sheaths 17. Contrastingly, if the corespun yarns 16 are relied upon to impart the entire ravel resistance to the edge portions of a diaper or other articles subjected to frequent and repeated launderings by commercial laundries, a commensurately increased amount of such thermoplastic fibers must be utilized in sheaths 17. In other Words, the amount of such thermoplastic fibers utilized in sheaths 17 will depend upon the desired amount of ravel resistance to be imparted to the edge portions of the article by corespun yarns 16.
Similarly, cores 18 may be and preferably will be in most instances formed completely of non-thermoplastic fibers or filaments, such as cotton or rayon, or such cores may be formed completely of thermoplastic fibers or filaments non-fusible at the aforesaid given temperature at which the sheath fibers are fusible. Also, cores 18 may be formed of blends of fibers or filaments non-fusible at the given temperature and thermoplastic fibers or filaments fusible at the given temperature so long as the non-fusible fibers or filaments predominate and the integrity and substantial pliability of the cores are maintained after fusing of the sheath fibers.
Corespun yarns 16 may extend in either or both directions of fabric 10 in the bands '13, 15 and selvages 11, 12, but preferably these yarns extend only longitudinally of the bands and selvages so that in selvages 11, 12 and band 15, the corespun yarns extend in a warpwise direction and in bands 13, these yarns extend in a fillingwise direction. When the corespun yarns extend longitudinally of the bands and selvages, a single corespun yarn 16 positioned in the outer portions thereof may be sufiicient to provide the desired anti-ravel characteristics, but preferably, a plurality of these corespun yarns are employed and, in many instances, these corespun yarns should comprise a majority of the yarns extends longitudinally of the bands and selvages. As stated earlier, the fabric construction and ravel resistance desired for end-use requirements will dictate in large part the number and positioning of the corespun yarns in the edge portion of the fabric.
After the fabric 10 is formed, heat, with or without pressure, is applied thereto to fuse the sheaths 17 of the corespun yarns to contiguous yarns (FIGURE 4) to provide the desired ravel resistant characteristics in the edge portion without destroying the integrity of the corespun yarns and without a destructive loss of strength in the bands and selvages. These ravel resistant characteristics are also provided without any undue stiffening of the edge portion or portions since the amount of thermoplastic material in the edge portion or portions is relatively small and since it has been determined that the fusion of the sheaths 17 of corespun yarns 16 to contiguous yarns is not suflicient to unduly stiffen the edge portions. Desirably, fusion of the corespun yarns should occur only at the points of intersection thereof with the other yarns and this desired condition may well be achieved with many fabric constructions. However, in very dense weave constructions, fusion of the adjacent corespun yarns to each other will sometimes occur, but it has been determined that this does not unduly stiffen the edge portions and that the desired pliability therein is maintained.
In the selvages 11, 12 and band 15, corespun Warp yarns are fused to the filling yarns therein to lock the warp yarns in the fabric 10. In the bands 13, the corespun filling yarns are fused to the warp yarns for the same reason. It is noted that the corespun warp yarns in selvages 11, 12 and band 15 and the corespun filling yarns in bands 13 are fused together at the corners of the article to provide the greatest ravel resistant characteristics where raveling is oftentimes likely to originate. This fusion may be accomplished either before or after fabric 10 is severed into the articles.
Fabric 10 may be of any desired fabric construction, such as number of yarns per inch, weave design, etc., and band 13 and 15 may also be of any desired fabric construction, but preferably are of the same fabric construction as the remainder of fabric 10. Similarly, selvages 11 and 12, which normally are of different construction, may be of the same fabric construction as the remainder of the fabric which is one of the material advantages of the present invention. In the embodiment illustrated in the drawings, fabric 10 is woven with a plain weave design (FIGURE 4) as are the selvages 11, 12. and bands 13, 15. This plain weave design provides excellent ravel resistant characteristics because of the maximum number of interlacings and therefore fusion points between the corespun yarns and the other yarns. However, the present invention may be employed with other weave designs with satisfactory results.
The present invention also contemplates the provision of ravel resistant characteristics in pile fabrics and one embodiment of such a pile fabric is illustrated in FIG- URES 5 and 6 and another embodiment thereof is illustrated in FIGURE 7. It should be understood that these illustrated embodiments are merely examples of pile fabrics with which the present invention may be utilized and that the present invention is equally applicable to other pile fabrics not specifically illustrated.
In FIGURE 5, a pile fabric 20 comprises a base 21 of suitable textile fabric having spaced apart, transversely extending bands 22 formed in the same manner as bands 13 in fabric 10. Base 21 may also have the longitudinal side edges thereof formed by selvages, such as selvages 11, 12 or bands, similar to band 15 in fabric 10.
A central, longitudinally extending portion of base 21 has pile yarns 23 penetrating therethrough and forming a pile surface on one face thereof and interknit stitch loop cha'ms (not shown) on the opposite face thereof to anchor the pile yarns in the base 21. This fabric and process of forming the same, except for the bands 22, are more particularly disclosed in my co-pending application Ser. No. 471,216, filed July 12, 1965, now Patent 3,367,333.
Bands 22 define spaced apart areas along which fabric 20 is adapted to be severed to form suitable articles having pile central panels, such as the diaper disclosed in the above-identified co-pending application. Bands 22 include corespun yarns 16 which preferably extend longitudinally thereof or fillingwise in base 21 and which also preferably constitute a majority of the yarns extending in this direction in the bands 22. Before or after severing, the bands 22 are subjected to heat, with or without pressure, to fuse the sheaths of the corespun yarns woven in the bands to contiguous yarns to impart ravel resistant characteristics to the cut edges of base 21 when articles are severed from fabric 20 and to additionally fuse the corespun yarns to the pile yarns penetrating through base 21 to lock the pile yarns in the base and prevent withdrawal thereof. Therefore, ravel resistant characteristics are provided in both the base and pile of an article formed from the fabric 20.
In addition, the pile yarns in the central panel may also be corespun yarns, as indicated at 23' in FIGURE 7, having sheaths formed at least in part of thermoplastic fibers fusible at a given temperature spun around cores formed predominantly of material non-fusible at the given temperature. Therefore, upon fusion of band 22, the sheaths of the pile yarns will also be fused to base fabric 21' to further anchor the pile yarns in the base adjacent the cut edge to securely lock both the pile and base fabric yarns therein and reduce the tendency of the base fabric as well as the pile yarns in the edge portion to ravel.
It is believed apparent that the present invention provides novel fabrics and articles formed therefrom having improved integrity and ravel resistant characteristics without stitching, undue stiffening and destructive loss of strength which have heretofore been encountered with prior ravel resistant fabrics.
In the drawings and specification there have been set forth preferred embodiments of the present invention, and although specific terms are employed, they are used in a generic and descriptive sense only and not for purposes of limitation, the scope of the invention being defined in the claims.
1. In a textile fabric formed of yarns, the improvement which comprises a ravel resistant edge portion including at least one corespun yarn extending longitudinally of the edge portion in the outer portion thereof, said corespun yarn comprising a pliable core formed of textile material and a sheath formed entirely of staple fibers intermingled with and surrounding said core, said sheath being formed at least in part of thermoplastic staple fibers fused to contiguous yarns to secure the yarns together and resist raveling thereof, and said core being at least predominantly unfused so that substantial pliability and the integrity thereof is maintained.
2. In a textile fabric according to claim 1 wherein said thermoplastic fibers of said sheath are fusible at a given temperature and said core is formed at least predominantly of textile material non-fusible at said given temperature.
3. In a textile fabric according to claim 1 wherein said core is formed at least predominantly of non-thermoplastic textile material.
4. In a textile fabric according to claim 3 wherein said sheath is formed at least predominantly of thermoplastic fibers.
5. In a textile fabric according to claim 4 wherein said core is formed substantially of cellulosic material.
6. In a textile fabric formed of yarns, the improvement which comprises a ravel resistant edge portion including corespun yarns each comprising a pliable core formed of textile material and a sheath formed entirely of staple fibers intermingled with and surrounding said core, said sheaths of said corespun yarns being formed at least in part of thermoplastic staple fibers fused to contiguous yarns to secure the yarns together and resist raveling thereof, and said cores being at least predominantly unfused so that substantial pliability and the integrity thereof is maintained.
7. In a textile fabric according to claim 6 wherein said fabric is formed of interwoven sets of warp and filling yarns, and the ravel resistant edge portion is a selvage extending along one longitudinal edge of the textile fabrics.
8. In a textile fabric according to claim 6 wherein said fabric is formed of interwoven sets of warp and filling yarns, and the ravel resistant edge portion extends in a fillingwise direction of the textile fabric and is pinked along its outer extremity for additional ravel resistance.
9. In a textile fabric according to claim 6 including pile yarns forming raised pile on a face of the fabric, including said ravel resistant edge portion thereof, and wherein the continguous yarns to which said corespun yarns are fused include contiguous pile yarns to more firmly anchor these contiguous pile yarns in the fabric.
10. An article according to claim 9 wherein said pile yarns are also corespun yarns having sheaths formed at least in part of thermoplastic fibers fusible at a given temperature spun around cores formed predominantly of material non-fusible at said given temperature and said sheaths of said corespun pile yarns being fused to contiguous yarns in said edge portion to further anchor the pile yarns in the base and resist raveling thereof.
11. A textile fabric adapted to be severed into articles having ravel resistant edge portions, said fabric being formed of yarns and including parallel, elongate portions spaced a predetermined distance apart, each of said elongate portions having corespun yarns therein with each of said corespun yarns comprising a sheath formed entirely of staple fibers being at least in part of thermoplastic fibers fusible at a given temperature and a core of textile material surrounded by and intermingled with said sheath fibers and being formed at least predominantly of textile material non-fusible at said given temperature, and said sheaths of said corespun yarns being adapted to be fused to contiguous yarns to provide ravel resistant characteristics in these portions of the fabric.
12. A textile fabric according to claim 11 wherein said parallel elongate portions extend laterally of said fabric and define areas along which said fabric is adapted to be severed into the articles, and wherein said fabric further includes an elongate portion extending longitudinally of said fabric perpendicular to and intersecting said parallel elongate portions and having corespun yarns therein with each of said corespun yarns also having the above-recited corespun yarns components and characteristics.
13. A textile fabric according to claim 11 wherein said fabric is a woven fabric and wherein said parallel elongate portions are selvages extending along opposite longitudinal side edges thereof to provide ravel resistant characteristics in the selvage edges of the fabric.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,316,117 4/1967 Clifiord et al. 161-61 X 3,070,950 1/1963 Thomas 57-140 X 2,840,117 6/1958 Scruggs 161-86 X 2,619,089 11/1952 Swartz 161-86 X 2,255,890 9/1941 Knowland 156-88 X ROBERT F. BURNETT, Primary Examiner M. A. LITMAN, Assistant Examiner US. Cl. X.R.