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Publication numberUS3469314 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 30, 1969
Filing dateSep 14, 1966
Priority dateSep 14, 1966
Publication numberUS 3469314 A, US 3469314A, US-A-3469314, US3469314 A, US3469314A
InventorsPearlman Lawrence
Original AssigneePearlman Lawrence
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Orthodontic device
US 3469314 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

P 0, 1969 L. PEARLMAN ORTHODONTIC DEVICE 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Sept. 14. 1966 1.1M HMN W ATTORNEYS Sept. 30, 1969 L. PEARLMAN 3,469,314

ORTHODONTIC DEVICE Filed Sept. 14, 1966 2 Sheeta-Shaet 1,

ATTORNEYS United States Patent 3,469,314 ORTHODONTIC DEVICE Lawrence Pearlman, East St., Sharon, Mass.

Fiied Sept. 14, 1966, Ser. No. 579,321

- Int. Cl. A61c 7/00 US. Cl. 32-14 8 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE on teeth and orthodontic procedures are also provided.

This invention relates to bands and attachments used in orthodontics and more particularly comprises new and improved bands, attachments and means for connecting the two, all of which are aesthetically pleasing and useful in overcoming the now characteristic metal look in orthodontics.

Conventionally, bands and attachments used in orthodontics are made of metals such as stainless steel, gold and platinum alloy or a chrome alloy material, and it has been customary to buff the exposed surface to a high metallic luster. The attachments made of the same material are permanently secured to the bands and together they contribute to the metal look, which is unnatural and unattractive. Recently at least one manufacturer has attempted to apply a white coating to bands and attachments to provide an aesthetically desirable product, but the product proved to be unsuccessful.

One important object of this invention is to provide an aesthetic band and attachment in orthodontics colored to blend with teeth.

Another important object of this invention is to provide means for detachably securing attachments to the teeth so that they may be changed as the corrective work progresses.

Another important object of this invention is to provide an attachment base which may be secured either to a band or directly to the tooth and to which the attachment may be detachably secured.

To accomplish these and other objects, one embodiment of the aesthetic attachment of this invention includes a preformed band having a plastic facing molded over the entire labial surface and to which surface is secured a separately fabricated attachment made with a plastic facing. The attachment may have a core of chrome, stainless steel or other material, but the plastic facing performs structurally to give strength to the attachment and provides the aesthetically pleasing appearance which blends with the teeth.

In accordance with another embodiment of this invention the attachment having a plastic outer surface is secured directly to the tooth by cement without the aid of a band or other form of base. The attachment is integrally formed with a handle having gauging means incorporated into it so that it may without difficulty be placed in the proper position on the labial surface of the tooth.

These and other objects and features of this invention, along with its incident advantages, will be better understood and appreciated from the following detailed description of several embodiments thereof, selected for purposes of illustration and shown in the accompanying drawing, in which:

FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a band and bracket constructed in accordance with this invention;

Patented Sept. 30, 1969 FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view taken along the section line 2-2 in FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a perspective view similar to FIG. 1 showing a combination band and detachable bracket constructed in accordance with this invention;

FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view taken along the section line 44 in FIG. 3;

FIG. 5 is a front perspective view of a bracket similar to the bracket shown in FIGS. 3 and 4, but of a larger size;

FIG. 6 is a perspective view of a base for a bracket constructed in accordance with another embodiment of this invention;

FIG. 7 is a perspective view of a bracket to be attached to the base of FIG. 6;

FIG. 8 is a cross-sectional view of the base and bracket of FIGS. 6 and 7, respectively, shown in their assembled relationship;

FIG. 9 is a perspective view of another embodiment of an attachment made in accordance with this invention suitable for use on upper teeth;

FIG. 10 is a side view of the attachment shown in FIG. 9 in juxtaposition to a tooth to which the attachment is to be applied;

FIG. 11 is an attachment similar to that shown in FIG. 9 taut designed for application to one of the lower teeth; an

FIG. 12 is a side view showing the attachment of FIG. 11 positioned on a tooth.

In the embodiments of FIGS. 1 and 2, a band 20 is shown to carry a bracket 22, and the two are permanently secured together. The band 20 in this embodiment is composed of a metal base layer 24, which may be made of stainless steel, Nichrome or some similar material not deleterious when applied in the mouth. The band may be of the appropriate size and design to fit the molars, bicuspids, cuspids or anterior teeth. The particular shape per se of the band forms no part of this invention. The front surface of the metal base 24 carries a plastic layer 28 which is either directly molded to the base 24 or is first molded and subsequently secured to the front surface by cement or other means. In the embodiment shown, the plastic outer layer 28 is molded directly to the base 24, and several integral upstanding staples 30 are provided in the base layer 24 about which the plastic material flows to key the layer 28 to a portion of the metallic base. The staples 30 preferably comprise four rectangularly arranged tabs punched out of the band metal 24 and extend short of the outer surface of the plastic facing layer. When the facing layer 28 is separately molded, complementary recesses are molded in the rear surface thereof to receive the staples 30' and provide a mechanical interlock.

The plastic facing layer 28 may be even with but preferably extends over the upper and lower edges of the base layer 24 as shown at 32 in FIG. 2, and the margins 32 are bevelled to create a fine line juncture between the edge of the band and the tooth surface to which it is applied. The plastic facing 28, colored to match or approximate the color of the teeth to make the attachment much more acceptable aesthetically than the bare metal attachments now commonly used, also function structurally by lending strength to the metal base layer 24.

While integral staples or tabs 30 are shown provided in the base layer 24 to mechanically bond the plastic facing to it, it is to be understood that posts, wire mesh, or some similar mechanical expedient may be secured to the outer surface 26 of the base layer to which the plastic facing may in turn bond.

In FIG. 1, the plastic facing layer 28 is shown to cover the entire front surface and extends gingivally about the sides 34 of the band and terminates along the lines 36. Thus, the entire exposed portion of the band is covered with a white tooth-color plastic facing to provide an aesthetic product. The plastic facing layer 28 is preferably formed of methyl methacrylate although other plastics which are non-irritating to the mouth and retain their structural strength in the body can be used. Such plastics include but are not limited to other acrylates, methacrylates and copolymers thereof. Such plastics can be colored to match a color of teeth by incorporation therein of conventional dyes, pigments and/or fillers. The thickness of the plastic facing material is preferably minimized consistent with maintaining structural strength and in the embodiment shown is approximately thick. Preferably the thickness of the facing layer is greater than the thickness of the band to assure sufficient mechanical strength in the facing layer.

In the embodiment of FIGS. 1 and 2, the attachment 22 is permanently secured to the band, and may be molded either as an integral part of the facing 28 or may be molded independently thereof and subsequently be secured to its labial surface 38. The attachment 22 shown is merely representative of the very wide variety of attachments which are presently available. The bracket attachment shown in place functions as its conventional counterpart made wholly of metal and welded or otherwise secured to a metal band. In some cases a conventional metal bracket can be secured to the plastic facing preferably mechanically, and adhesively interlocked with a preformed recess in the facing. Thus, while the attachment 22 shown is in the shape of a conventional bracket provided with wings for edgewise attachment, it may be replaced by attachments in the form of tubes, double edgewise wings, and other forms of known brackets.

As suggested above, the plastic facing 28 may be indirectly secured to the metal base 24 after the facing is formed. Similarly, the bracket 22 may be secured to the labial surface 38 of the facing 28 rather than being directly molded with or as a part of it. If the facing layer 28 is indirectly secured, the facing surface may be secured to the base metal layer 24 by cement or other form of adhesive. A recess may be provided in the face of the base layer 24 and/or in the rear surface of the plastic facing 28 to accommodate the plastic adhesive. Similarly, the bracket 22 may be secured to the labial surface 38 by having tabs 30 elongated to extend through facing layer 28 into preformed recesses in the bracket 22.

In the embodiment of FIGS. 3 and 4, the bracket 50 is detachably secured to the band 52. The bracket is shown to have the same ultimate configuration as the bracket 22 of the embodiment of FIGS. 1 and 2 but the method of securing it to the band is different. The band 52 is of the same configuration as the band 20 and is composed of a metal base layer 54 and a plastic facing 56 and in the form shown, the facing is mechanically secured to the base layer 54 by the integral staples 58 identical to staples 30.

The labial surface 60 of the band 52 carries a bracket base 62 in the form of an outwardly facing channel composed of sides 64 and bottom 66 and with the outer ends of the sides 64 carrying outwardly extending flanges 68. To this simple bracket base structure, the bracket 50 is secured. The bracket base 62 may be made of metal, plastic, or a combination of the two, and it may be cemented, welded or otherwise adhered to the labial surface 60 or the facing 56 thereover as shown in FIG. 4.

The bracket 50 made of metal with a plastic facing layer of solid plastic is provided with a pair of inturned wings 70 that slide about the flanges 68 of the bracket base 62, and the main body 71 of the bracket 50 lies within the U-shaped channel of the base. The wings 70 may be crimped or otherwise distorted, but preferably a conventional locking device such as a ligating wire (not shown) is provided on the flanges 68 to retain the bracket in place once it is assembled. When assembled, the bracket completely covers the base so that the base is not visible. Consequently, the base may be made of metal, free of a plastic facing, without adversely effecting the aesthetics of the device.

It will be appreciated that while the bracket 50 is in the form of a wing edgewise bracket, it may take other forms, and the wings may be provided merely as a means for interlocking the bracket to the base.

While the bracket shown in FIG. 4 is relatively short and carries but a single continuous wing along each side, as shown in FIG. 5. The break in the wings makes it in longer sizes the bracket may have a plurality of wings easier to slide the bracket in place or to bend over individual wing sections where desired. Thus, in FIG. 5, the bracket is shown to include a central or body portion having three spaced wing sections 82 along each edge, which are formed with an inwardly facing slot 84 to receive the flanges of the bracket base.

The embodiment of FIGS. 6-8 is another form of detachable bracket. In this embodiment, a circular base is provided with a plurality of radially extending flanges 102, and the base is designed to be mounted on the metal band 106. The flanges 102 are spaced above labial surface 108 of the band to allow for a wing to be inserted beneath it. The central portion 110 of the outer surface '112 of the base 100 is recessed and preferably flat. The bracket 114 shown in FIG. 7 carries a number of wings 116 equal in number to the flanges 102 and which fit about the flanges 102 in the same manner as do the wings 70 in the embodiment of FIGS. 3 and 4. The inner surface 118 of the bracket 114 is flat and provided with a circular base as shown at 120 to fit within the recessed flat portion 110 of the bracket base 100.

The base 100 may be made of metal or metal bearing a plastic facing, and the bracket 114 may be a solid plastic material or a metal having a plastic facing. Because the bracket completely covers the base, the base 100 need not be made of an aesthetically acceptable material such as a white tooth-colored plastic, but the bracket 114 is made of such material to achieve a principal object of the present invention.

To mount the bracket 114 on the base 100, the wings 116 are placed in registration with the slots 122 between the flanges 102, and then the bracket is rotated so that the wings 116 capture the flanges 102. A stop 124 may be provided on the bottom of one or more of the flanges 102 to limit the rotation of the bracket.

The recessed flat configuration of the bracket base enables the bracket to sit more firmly on the base, somewhat reduces the thickness of the entire assembly, and generally promotes alignment of the parts. Each of the flanges 102 may be slightly tapered from one edge to the other to facilitate twisting of the bracket onto the base. Thus, if the bracket is to be attached by clockwise rotation on the base 100, the edges 126 of the flanges 102 may be somewhat thinned so that they will easily enter the slot 128 defined by the wings 116.

The labial surface 130 of the bracket disc 114 carries the bracket body 132 which is in the same form as the brackets of the previously described embodiments. When the disc 114' is made of plastic the body 132 can be molded integrally therewith. When the disc 114 is made of metal the body 132 can be of metal or plastic adhered or mechanically interlocked therewith. It is evident that the disc may carry any one of a number of other forms of attachment within the scope of the present invention. The bracket body 114 can carry integral side extensions to cover the entire labial surface of the band. When extensions are used the band need not carry a facing since the exposed surface of the disc can carry the facing and the base 100 is attached directly to the band.

- In the embodiments of FIGS. 4-8 the detachable brackets allow for their interchange not only in the same orthodontic procedure but in others as well. For example, by changing brackets the technique may be changed from a universal to a twin wire technique. The removable bracket also permits the interchange for light or heavier wires and for torquing, and allows for the accommodation of tipped or rotated teeth. In these embodiments all parts can be made of metal alone andthe benefits of interchangeability are obtained without the aesthetic benefits obtained by the use of plastic.

In the embodiment of FIGS. 6-8, the bracket base 100 is shown and described as it may be mounted on a band. However, the base 100 of the embodiment of FIGS. 68 and the base 62 of the embodiment of FIGS. 4-6 may be directly mounted on the tooth. That is, the base may be cemented to the labial surface of a tooth, and the bracket may then be detachably mounted on it and changed in the same manner as if the base was mounted on the band. Moreover, while it is preferred to mount bases 62 and 100 on the metal of the bands, but they can be mounted directly on the plastic facing layers. In the pre ferred embodiment the facing 104 is provided with a cut out portion or hole to permit direct contact of bases 62 and 100 with the metal bands. The cut out portions between wings 116 can be continuous, i.e. 114' can be a uniform dish having a uniform continuous side rim, with the overturned flanges forming slots 128 being at spaced intervals thus providing a complete cover for base 100 in use.

The brackets shown in the embodiment of FIGS. 9-12 are intended to be used without a band or base. Referring to FIGS. 9 and 10, the bracket 140 molded of a plastic material is shown to be integrally formed with a handle 142 and a gauge 144. The bracket 140 in this embodiment is identical in shape to the brackets of the other embodiments and it is to be understood that the bracket shown is merely symbolic of the great variety of attachments conventionally used and the general attachment shape forms no part of this invention. The bracket 140 is provided with a curved rear surface 146 which is designed to conform to the contour of the labial surface 148 of the tooth. This is suggested in FIG. 10.

The gauge 144 is a set selected distance below the channel 150, which distance is a precise incisal measurement for the particular tooth to which the attachment is to be applied. The particular bracket assembly with handle and gauge may be made in a series of sizes to accommodate the standard sizes required.

The lower edge 152 of the bracket 140 is separated from the handle 142 by a weakened or scored line 154 which enables the handle 142 to be broken from the bracket after the bracket has been mounted in place on the labial surface. In FIG. the line 154 is shown to be defined by a V-shaped groove cut in the upper surface of the attachment so that when the handle is broken from the bracket the base 156 of the attachment merges smoothly into the surface of the tooth. Similarly, a bevelled edge 158 is shown in FIG. 10 along the upper margin so that a sharp line is formed by the merging of the base 156 into the tooth surface. The sides of the base may be bevelled as well.

While the attachment is shown and suggested to be made of a plastic material, it is to be understood that the plastic may be a facing over a metal base. In such an arrangement, the plastic and metal may cooperate with one another to provide the necessary strength and rigidity. In some cases conventional metal brackets can be attached to base 156 in place of the integral bracket shown.

While the embodiment of FIGS. 9 and 10 is suitable for application to the upper teeth, it is evident that a handle 142 of the type shown would interfere with the mounting of a similar bracket on the lower teeth. Therefore, in accordance with the embodiment for the lower teeth, the handle extends outwardly rather than upwardly from the plane of the bracket. Specifically, in FIG. 11 the bracket 160 is provided with a base 162 having a curved rear surface 164 designed to conform to the curvature of the labial surface 166 of the tooth upon which it is to be mounted. The handle 168 extends upwardly a short distance from the upper edge 170 of the bracket and then extends in a forward direction as shown at 172. The gauge 174 extends inwardly from the rear edge of the handle 168 above the line 170, and like the embodiment of FIGS. 9 and 10, the distance between the gauge 174 and the slot 176 is a precise measurement determined by the size of the particular tooth upon which the bracket is to be mounted. While the gauge is shown as a flat shelf, it can be in the form of a pin extending inwardly from the rear edge of the handle.

Tests have revealed that the incisal bracket measurements most commonly used are between 3 and 5 /2 millimeters. It is evident that a range of bracket sizes may be made available to eliminate so much of the technical work in adapting and positioning brackets on the teeth. At the present time, the positioning of brackets on the teeth is a particularly time consuming operation because the bands and their attachments have to be shifted very precisely and measurements must be taken to achieve the desired mounting position. In use, the embodiments of FIGS. 9-12 are adhered to the appropriate teeth with the gauges engaging the incisal edge of the particular tooth, and after the band is anchored, the handle is removed by breaking along the scored edge. It is evident that the horizontal arm 172 for the bracket for the lower teeth does not interfere with the upper teeth.

From the foregoing description those skilled in the art will appreciate that the present invention provides a number of different embodiments of brackets, with or without bands, more acceptable aesthetically than any such devices heretofore available. In those bands and brackets which have a metal base or core, a plastic facing is provided which matches the color of the teeth, and the plastic performs not only aesthetically but functionally as well by lending strength to the attachment.

Because numerous modifications of this invention will suggest themselves to those skilled in the art upon a reading of this application, it is not intended to limit the breadth of this invention to those specific embodiments illustrated and described. Rather, it is intended that the scope of this invention be determined by the appended claims and their equivalents.

What is claimed is:

1. An orthodontic tooth band having a labial surface and a metallic tooth encircling band portion,

a plastic facing layer secured to and covering said labial surface of said metallic band and colored to match the color of the tooth with which the band is used,

said plastic facing layer having a thickness greater than the thickness of said metallic band portion to reinforce the mechanical strength thereof,

mechanical attachment lugs extending from said metallic band portion and securing said plastic facing layer thereto with said plastic facing layer extending over upper and lower edges of said metallic band portion,

said tooth band carrying an orthodontic attachment.

2. An orthodontic tooth band in accordance with claim 1 wherein said attachment comprises a bracket body and a bracket base,

said bracket base being secured to said tooth band and said bracket body being detachably, mechanically secured to said bracket base to permit removal and replacement of a bracket body on said base in use, with said bracket body entirely covering said bracket base and being formed of a plastic material colored to match the color of a tooth.

3. An orthodontic attachment for use in connection with an orthodontic wire, said attachment comprising,

a bracket base defining a lower surface constructed and arranged to be mounted over the labial surface of a tooth,

said base having outwardly extending wings,

a bracket body carrying inturned flanges and constructed and arranged to overlie and cover said base, said bracket body being aligned with said bracket base wings to be releasably engaged therewith by a straight line sliding movement of said body over said base, said sliding movement being in a transverse direction to the axis of a tooth with which the attachment is used, said body being constructed of an integral plastic material colored to match the color of a tooth with said body entirely covering said base, said outwardly extending flanges of said base extending away from each other, and said attachment defining an orthodontic wire slot positioned transverse to the axis of a tooth on which the attachment is to be mounted. 4. An orthodontic attachment for use in connection with an orthodontic wire, said attachment comprising, a bracket base defining a lower surface constructed and arranged to be mounted over the labial surface of a tooth, said base having a series of circularly arranged wings, a bracket body carrying means for interlocking said body with said wings with said body overlying said base and releasably engaged therewith, said bracket body defining an orthodontic wire slot for receiving an orthodontic wire in use. 5. An orthodontic attachment in accordance with claim 4 wherein said wings are spaced from each other and extend outwardly of a center of said base,

said interlocking means comprising inturned flanges constructed and arranged to be releasably secured to said wings by a rotary movement.

6. An orthodontic attachment in accordance with claim 5 wherein said body is formed of a plastic material colored to match the color of a tooth.

7. An orthodontic attachment in accordance with claim 6 wherein said base is rigidly secured to a tooth band.

8. An orthodontic attachment in accordance with claim 7 wherein said tooth band has a labial surface and a metallic tooth encircling band portion,

a plastic facing layer secured to and covering said labial surface of said metallic band and colored to match the color of the tooth with which the band is used,

said plastic facing layer having a thickness greater than the thickness of said metallic band portion to reinforce the mechanical strength thereof,

mechanical attachment lugs extending from said metallic band portion and securing said plastic facing layer thereto with said plastic facing layer extending over upper and lower edges of said metallic band portion.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,794,213 2/ 1931 Spahn 32l4 3,250,003 5/ 1966 Collito 32l4 3,303,565 2/1967 Newman 32l4 ROBERT PESHOCK, Primary Examiner

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1794213 *Jan 11, 1929Feb 24, 1931Spahn Charles ATooth band
US3250003 *Dec 8, 1960May 10, 1966Collito Michael BOrthodontic method
US3303565 *Apr 9, 1964Feb 14, 1967Newman George VOrthodontic brackets
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3930311 *Dec 20, 1973Jan 6, 1976Andrews Lawrence FReinforced orthodontic bracket
US4052792 *Jun 3, 1976Oct 11, 1977William BiedermanOrthodontic device
US4107844 *Nov 15, 1976Aug 22, 1978Kurz Craven HOrthodontic appliance
US5254002 *Apr 8, 1991Oct 19, 1993Ormco CorporationOrthodontic plastic bracket
US5358402 *Oct 25, 1993Oct 25, 1994Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing CompanyCeramic orthodontic bracket with archwire slot liner
US5380196 *May 13, 1993Jan 10, 1995Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing CompanyOrthodontic bracket with archwire slot liner
US5595484 *Aug 22, 1994Jan 21, 1997Gac International, Inc.Orthodontic bracket
US5597302 *Oct 14, 1994Jan 28, 1997Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing CompanyAesthetic plastic orthodontic bracket with load bearing framework
US5692898 *Oct 27, 1995Dec 2, 1997Gac International, Inc.Orthodontic bracket
US5769634 *Jun 2, 1997Jun 23, 1998Choi; JohnDental articulator
US5813852 *Jun 2, 1995Sep 29, 1998Gac International, Inc.Orthodontic bracket
US6095808 *Nov 4, 1997Aug 1, 2000Sankin Kogyo Kabushiki KaishaOrthodontic appliance and bracket
US6164964 *Jun 18, 1999Dec 26, 2000Sankin Kogyo Kabushiki KaishaOrthodontic appliance and bracket
US20110207072 *Aug 25, 2011Sirona Dental Systems GmbhBracket system and method for planning and producing a bracket system for the correction of tooth malpositions
Classifications
U.S. Classification433/8
International ClassificationA61C7/00, A61C7/12
Cooperative ClassificationA61C7/12
European ClassificationA61C7/12