US 3469315 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sept. 30, 1969 P, c. uss 3,469,315
ORTHODONTIC APPLIANCE Filed Feb. 8, 1967 3 Sheets-Sheet l FIG.3
Ivvm TOE PA TP/cK F R 0 55 A WORNEVS' SEpt. 30, P. C. RUSS ORTHODONTIC APPLIANCE] Filed Feb. 8, 1967 v 3 Sheets-Sheet I FIG.9 FIGJO FIGJI FIG. I2
F G. I6 72a FIG .I7 mum; F l G. l 8 72b NVENTO AWoR/vew;
Sept. 30, 1969 P. c. RUSS 3,469,315
3 Sheets-Sheet 3 FIG.2O
. jvv/vroe ATRICK C Puss 1/ #000, ausr s'jem/ United States Patent 3,469,315 ORTHODONTIC APPLIANCE Patrick C. Russ, 4319 Drury Lane, Fort Wayne, Ind. 46807 Filed Feb. 8, 1967, Ser. No. 614,654 Int. Cl. A61c 7/00 US. Cl. 32-14 6 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE An orthodontic appliance comprising means for securing detachably a bracket to a tooth, said bracket having a lingually opening notch for receiving an arch wire interposed between a tooth and the bracket, said means including two anchoring devices spaced apart vertically on the labial surface of a tooth, said bracket having opposite end portions secured to said anchoring devices, respectively, said bracket having said notch located between the ends thereof.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Field of the invention The present invention relates to apparatus employed in orthodontics, and more particularly to an orthodontic attachment for use in attaching the arch wire of an orthodontic appliance to a tooth which is to be repositioned.
Description of the prior art In the practice of orthodontics, it is common to straighten teeth by means of an arch wire secured to certain teeth of a dental arch. The arch wire commonly is secured to the teeth by means of an attachment, there having been developed up to the present time a multiplicity of different designs for such attachments which are variously preferred within the practice. In common installations, the opposite ends of the arch wire are normally secured to anchor teeth, which usually are molars near the back of the dental arch. The wires are passed over the labial surfaces of the teeth constituting the dental arch at preselected angles and are usually tensioned so as to apply forces to the teeth which tend to move them in directions which will effect straightening.
In the use of these prior art apparatuses, practitioners have developed a variety of techniques for installing and adjusting the same in treating a patient. In many instances, certain techniques require particularly designed apparatuses, and techniques in many instances are dictated by particular apparatus design. Certain of these techniques and designs require the use of ligatures which are tedious and time-consuming to install and adjust. In almost all of these, certain difliculties are encountered in connection with installation and adjustment by the orthodontist.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention constitutes an improvement over prior art apparatuses in the respect of facilitating installation and adjustment. In this connection, ligatures are eliminated and installation and adjustment are facilitated by the use of brackets detachably secured in place.
It is an object of the present invention to provide an orthodontic appliance which may be installed and adjusted with facility and can be used in connection with a variety of different techniques employed in the profession.
It is another object of this invention to provide an orthodontic appliance in which a bracket for imparting a straightening force to a tooth is removably secured in place and does not require ligatures, in contrast with common practice to secure the brackets fixedly and to anchor arch wires by means of ligatures.
Patented Sept. 30, 1969 "ice BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a labial side view of the crown portion of a tooth on which the orthodontic appliance of this invention is mounted;
FIG. 2 is a similar view illustrating one operational step involved in the detachable mounting of the bracket portion of this invention;
FIG. 3 is another similar view with the bracket removed;
FIG. 4 is a fragmentary sectional view of the tooth and appliance taken substantially along section line 44 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 5 is a similar sectional view taken substantially along section line 5-5 of FIG. 3;
FIG. 6 is a side view of the bracket of this invention;
FIG. 7 is an edge view thereof;
FIG. 8 is a cross-section taken substantially along section line 8-8 of FIG. 7;
FIGS. 9, 10, 11 and 12 are edge and side views, respectively, illustrating the bracket of this invention provided with different wire-receiving notches;
FIGS. 13, 14 and 15 are fragmentary side views, partially sectioned for clarity, of different notch and wire configurations which may be employed in the use of this invention;
FIG. 16 is a side view of a molar attachment;
FIG. 17 is a cross-section taken substantially along section line 1717 of FIG. 16;
FIG. 18 shows two different set screw designs which may be employed in the arrangement of FIGS. 16 and 17;
FIG. 19 shows a series of differently shaped tubes, in perspective, which may be used in the arrangement of FIGS. 16 and 17; and
FIG. 20 is a diagram of a partial dental arch showing the use of the attachments of this invention.
DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Referring to the drawings, and more particularly to FIGS. 1 through 8, a typical tooth 30 has applied to the crown thereof a conventional metal band 32 which completely surrounds the tooth in tight-fitting relation. As shown more clearly in FIGS. 3 and 5, secured to the labial side of the band 32 are two retaining sockets or anchoring devices 34 and 36 formed of a suitable metal which is to some degree resilient, these anchors 34 and 36 being vertically spaced as far as possible on the band 32 and positioned adjacent to and on opposite sides of the longitudinal center line 38 of the tooth as shown. Preferably, the band 32 covers substantially the entire labial side of the crown so that the two anchors 34 and 36 can be spaced relatively far apart.
The two anchors 34 and 36 are constructed identically, such that a description of one will suflice for both. Referring more particularly to FIGS. 3 and 5, each anchor is channel-shaped, being provided with upstanding sides 38, a bottom 40, and two inturned flanges 42 as shown. The ends of the flanges 42 are spaced slightly apart so as to provide a slot-like gap 44 therebetween as more clearl shown in FIG. 3.
These anchors 34 and 36 may be fastened to the band 32 by any of the usual means, such as by welding, soldering or the like.
The bracket which detachably fits the anchors 34 and 36 is indicated by numeral 40 and is shown in detail in FIGS. 6, 7 and 8. This particular bracket 40 in crosssection is H-shaped as shown more clearly in FIG. 8; however, as will become more apparent from the following description, other cross-sectional shapes may be used without departing from the spirit and scope of this invention. This bracket 40 in side view, as shown in FIG. 6, is Z-shaped, having opposite, parallel extending end attachments as indicated by the numerals 48 and 50, respectively. The stem or midportion 52 of the bracket 46 is straight and elongated as shown and is joined at the opposite ends thereof in relatively smooth curves to the bar-like attachments or ends 48 and 50, respectively.
As shown more clearly in FIGS. 1, 2 and 4, the ends 48 and 50 of the bracket snugly fit into the channels 34 and 36, respectively, the flange portion 54 of the bracket end 48 fitting into the cavity or channel portion of the anchor 34 as shown more clearly in FIG. 4 so as to be gripped frictionally thereby. The bar portion 56 of the bracket as viewed in FIG. 4 extends outwardly through the slot 44 and preferably is frictionally engaged by the anchor flanges 42. This positions the outermost flange 58 in overlying relation with respect to the anchor 34.
The bracket end 48 is insertable into the anchor 34 and frictionally interfits therewith. The bracket end 50 similarly frictionally interfits into the respective bracket 36.
As shown more clearly in FIG. 2, by rotating the bracket 46 in the direction of the two arrows 60, the bracket 46 may be easily and quickly removed from the anchors 34 and 36. Reverse rotation of the bracket 46 results in insertion of the bracket ends 48 and 50 into the respective anchors 34 and 36.
As shown more clearly in FIG. 4, when the bracket end is inserted into its respective anchor, the anchor flanges 42 are engageable with the bracket flange 54 to prevent outward or labial movement of the bracket 46 with respect to the anchor 34, 36. counterclockwise rotation of the bracket 46 is limited, as viewed in FIG. 1, by engagement of the bracket ends 48 and 50 with the respective anchors 34 and 36. The significance of this will become apparent from the description later on.
As shown clearly in FIGS. 6, 7 and 8, at some point along the stem 52 of the bracket 46 there is provided in the lingual side thereof a notch 62 of rectangular shape. While this particular notch 60 is shown rectangular, as will appear from the description that follows, the shape may vary to fit the cross-section of any given arch wire or any assemblage of such wires. Of importance is the fact, as clearly shown in FIG. 1, that the notch 62 opens immediately adjacent to band 32 which provides a closure therefor, thereby locking or trapping the arch wires in place as will be explained more fully later on. This is more clearly shown in FIG. 4, wherein an arch wire 64 of rectangular cross-section is shown fitted into the notch 62 and as abutting against the band 32. When the bracket 46 is locked into the anchors 34 and 36, the arch wire 64 is firmly secured in place by engagement by the notch sides and bottom.
The shape and the position of notch 62 in the stem 52 constitute a variable which especially adapts this invention for exerting proper forces for either uprighting or torquing a tooth. This is best explained by reference to FIGS. 9 through 12 wherein notches of different shapes and positions are illustrated. In FIG. 9, two different notches in two different positions are shown, one shown in full line and the other dashed, these being indicated by numerals 62a and 62b, respectively. The notch 62a is located about midway between the ends of the bracket stem 52 but is at an angle to the axis thereof. The notch 62b is farther removed from the center and is at a sharper angle. FIG. serves to illustrate the condition in which the notches 62c, 62d and 62:: may extend at substantially right angles to the stem axis but be located at different positions along the length of the stern. FIGS. 11 and 12 serve to illustrate that the notches 62 and 62g may extend at different transverse angles with respect to the length of the stem 52. As will now appear obvious, the notches (there being only one notch per bracket) may be of any size or shape and may be positioned at any desired angle in the stem 52 of the bracket 46. This, of course, permits the orthodontist to make adjustments and use various techniques in order to secure the results desired.
Different sizes, designs and shapes of arch wires may be used in the various notches, as is graphically illustrated in FIGS. 13 through 15. In FIG. 13 is illustrated a square notch 6211 having a circular arch wire 64a snugly fitted therein. In FIG. 14, the notch 62 is wider so as to receive two such arch wires 64a in side-by-side relation. In FIG. 15, the notch 62k is rectangular so as to receive snugly an arch Wire 64b in ribbon form. Thus it is demonstrated in these FIGS. 13 through 15 that the notches may be varied in size and shape so as to accommodate different sizes and shapes of arch wires.
In using molar teeth as anchors, it is desirable to apply the molar attachment of FIGS. 16 thorugh 19 thereto for accommodating the ends of the arch wires. This molar attachment is securely mounted on a molar band 32a, substantially like the previously described band 32, and includes a mounting plate 66, a tubular retainer 68 of square cross-section and a variety of different arch wire recep tacles, all as shown in FIG. 19. If the receptacle 70 of FIG. 19 is used, this is telescopically fitted into the retainer 68 and is secured in place by means of a set screw 72. The receptacle 70 has a central pasage 74 for receiving the end of an arch wire. The set screw 72 may have a pointed end as indicated by the numeral 72a of FIG. 18 or a flat end as indicated by the numeral 72b, the screw 72a being used when it is desired to clamp tightly the arch wire in place and the screw 72b when it is desired to permit the arch wire to slide within the passageway 74. The pointed end on the set screw 78 is adapted to dig into the arch wire and hold the same against movement, whereas the flat end on the screw 72b is adapted to either only lightly engage the arch wire or not at all. Since arch wire sizes and shapes vary, it is necessary to use a variety of differently shaped receptacles 70 as indicated in FIG. 19. A round wire may be accommodated by a receptacle 70b which telescopically fits into the retainer 68 the same as the previously described receptacle 70. This receptacle 70b is of circular cross-section and is therefore adapted to receive a circular wire.
The receptacle 70c is rectangular and adapted to receive a ribbon wire. The receptacle 70d of FIG. 19 consists of two different tubes, one a round wire tube 71 rigidly fastened to a laterally offset headcap tube 78, both tubes being of circular cross-section. The tube part 71 is adapted to be received by the retainer 68, this retainer also being adapted to receive all of the receptacles shown in FIG. 19 and there secured in place by means of the set screws previously described.
The present invention is utilized as will now be explained in connection with FIG. 20. The molar attachments are attached to two molar teeth 76 and 78 as shown, While the attachments which include the brackets 40 are ap lied to the teeth 80, 82, 84 and 86. With all of the bands 32 and anchors 34 and 36 in place on the labial sides of the teeth, the orthodontist determines the magnitude and direction of the forces which he desires to apply for uprighting, torquing or altering the longitudinal position of the teeth as may be necessary. In this connection, the orthodontist selects particular brackets 40 having notches at the positions and at the angles desired in the brackets 40.
In the initial application, all the brackets 40 are removed from the respective anchors 34 and 36 and the arch wire 64 is extended across the labial surfaces of the bands 32 as shown with one end thereof passed through the receptacles 70 in the two molar attachments. In this example, let it be assumed that the set screws are those indicated in FIG. 18 by the numeral 72a and are tightened securely against the wire 64 to prevent the same from moving. Depending upon whether it is desired to apply a torquing, uprighting, intruding or elongating force on the tooth, brackets 40 having appropriately positioned and shaped notches are selected. With respect to the tooth 80, the bracket 40 to be applied thereto is first applied to the wire 64 with the notch 62 straddling the same. The opposite ends of the bracket 40 are then rotated in a direction to insert them into the respective anchors 34 and 36. The bracket 40 for the tooth 82 is applied in the same way first to the wire 64 and then fastened to the respective anchors 34 and 36. This process is repeated for each successive tooth 84, 86, etc., until the project has been completed. The wire 64 is tensioned, as is conventional, so that the particular angles and positions of the notches in the bracket 40 will exert the desired forces on the respective teeth.
If it is desired to make an adjustment, it is only necessary to rotate the particular bracket 40 until the ends thereof are withdrawn from the anchors 34 and 36 and then merely lift the bracket off the wire 64. A new bracket having a slightly different positioned or shaped notch is then fitted over the wire and the ends of the bracket are inserted into the anchors 34 and 36 to apply a slightly different force to the tooth. It is thus seen that both installation and adjustment are greatly facilitated by the mere fact that the brackets 40 may be simply and easily changed until the desired force action is obtained.
As will now be obvious, no ligating wires are necessary in order to secure the arch wire 64 in place. This is for the reason that the notches 62 in the brackets 40 are located on the sides of the bracket adjacent to the teeth, such that once the brackets are installed, the wire 64 is locked in place. This further simplifies and facilitates installation and adjustment.
Recapitulating, from the foregoing description it will appear as obvious to persons skilled in the art that the present invention is adapted to be employed even though the techniques may vary. The particular shapes, sizes and positions of the notches on the brackets can result in obtaining the corrective action desired such as rotation, elongation, instrusion, torquing and the like.
Of particular importance in this invention is the fact that the anchoring devices 34 and 36 are located as far apart as possible in a direction longitudinally of the tooth. This permits the application of maximum force moments to the teeth without requiring excessive stresses on the arch wire and brackets themselves. The anchoring devices on the various bands will be positioned such that a series of brackets of the same size will fit, the only difierence in the brackets being the locations, positions and sizes of the notches therein. Thus, diiferent series of brackets will be provided for difierent bands, respectively.
What is claimed is:
1. An orthodontic appliance comprising means for securing a bracket to a tooth, a bracket secured to said means, said bracket having a linqually opening notch for receiving an arch wire interposed between a tooth and said bracket, said means including two anchoring devices spaced apart vertically on the labial surface of 'a tooth, said bracket having opposite end portions detachably secured to said anchoring devices, respectively, said bracket having said notch located between the ends thereof.
2. The appliance of claim 1 in which said bracket is elongated and Z-shaped and said anchoring devices have laterally opening sockets into which the ends, respectively, of said bracket frictionally telescopically fit.
3. The appliance of claim 1 including a band adapted to encircle and clamp onto a tooth, and said anchoring devices being fixedly secured to said band.
4. The appliance of claim 3 in which each anchoring device is channel-shaped with the distal ends thereof turned inwardly toward each other, the bracket end being restrained against movement in a labial direction by engagement therewith of said distal ends.
5. The appliance of claim 4 in which the channels of said anchoring devices extend substantially parallel, and said anchoring devices being of a resilient material preformed to grip frictionally the respective bracket ends.
6. The appliance of claim 5 including an arch wire fitted into said notch and located contiguously with respect to said band, said bracket engaging said band thereby locking said wire within said notch.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,767,469 10/1956 Gladstone 32-14 3,085,335 4/1963 Kesling 32--14 3,087,244 4/1963 Huettner et a1. 32-14 3,091,857 6/1963 Rubin et al. 32-14 3,158,934 12/1964 Waldman 3214 ROBERT PESHOCK, Primary Examiner CHARLES R. WENTZEL, Assistant Examiner