US 3470571 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct. 7, 1969 J. HRBOTICKY 3,470,571
PROCESS OF AND APPARATUS FOR TREATING SHEET MATERIALS Filed March 13. 1968 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR.
Oct. 7, 1969 J. HRBOTICKY 3,470,571
PROCESS OF AND APPARATUS FOR TREATING swam MATERIALS Filed March 13. 1968 3 Sheets-Sheet l) Oct. 7, 1969 J. HRBOTICKY 3,470,571
PROCESS OF AND APPARATUS FOR TREATING SHEET MATERIALS Filed March 13. 1968 3 Sheets-Sheet United States Patent 3,470,571 PROCESS OF AND APPARATUS FOR TREATING SHEET MATERIALS Jiri Hrboticky, Dvur Kralove nad Labem, Czechoslovakia, assignor to Vyzkumny Ustav Zuslechtovaci, Dvur Kralove nad Labem, Czechoslovakia Filed Mar. 13, 1968, Ser. No. 712,691 Claims priority, application Czechoslovakia, Mar. 17, 1967, 1,971/67 Int. Cl. B05c 1/04; D06c 1/00 US. Cl. 8-151 10 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE In a process of and apparatus for treating sheet materials an elongated web of sheet material is advanced in a zig-zag shaped path in upward direction. On each level of this path a treating liquid is directed against the median section of the respectively upwardly directed surface por tion of the travelling sheet material and in such a manner that the liquid will flow to the opposite outer edges of the sheet material. At these edges the liquid is collected and guided to the next-lower stage counter to the direction of advancement of the sheet material and at this next-lower stage the collected liquid is dispensed against the median section of that surface portion of the sheet material which on this level or stage is upwardly directed.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates generally to the treating of sheet materials and more particularly to the wet treating of textile fabrics in open width. Still more particularly, the present invention relates to a method for the wet treating of such sheet materials and to an apparatus for carrying out the method.
Known approaches to the washing of sheet materials, and particularly of textile materials in open width, are mostly based on passing the sheet material in question through a washing liquid over a system of rollers. For various reasons, however, the approaches of this type have a relatively low washing efficiency. This has led to attempts at improvement by using such intensifying elements as heating rollers, impellers, vibrators, ultrasonic generators, and the like. However, the washing efiiciency thus obtained was still not as good as desirable, aside from the fact that the utilization of such auxiliary elements necessarily increases the expense involved as well as rendering apparatus provided for this treating purpose much more susceptible to mechanical difiiculties.
In a departure from these approaches it has been pro posed to utilize vertically arranged washing units through which the sheet material to be treated is conducted in open widths upwardly along a convoluted or sinusoidal path, while the treating liquid penetrates the advancing sheet material and flow by gravity from an upper to a low treating level, that is in counterflow to the direction of advancement of the sheet material. This is based on the realization that the penetration of the treating liquid through the structure of the sheet material can be attained in this manner in that a film of the liquid is always applied to the surface of the sheet material which bears upon the surface of the respective rollers which entrain the sheet material at the various levels, that is at the locations where the sheet material changes direction during advancement in its sinusoidal path. The treating liquid is transported by the upwardly advancing material into the wedge-shaped hollow space which is defined between the surface of the respective roller and the incoming sheet material. In this hollow space the liquid is pressed through the. material and is, finally, hurled off the outwardly directed surface of the material, that is the surface facing away from the roller, by the combined. effects of centrifugal force and gravity. A repeated counterflow effect of the treating liquid which is thus pressed through the sheet material is attained in that the hurled 01f liquid is collected by means of aprons which are positions in the region of each of the rollers and which serves to guide the liquid alternately from each other roller to the next-lower roller which is transversely spaced from the upper roller, that is which rotates about an axis downwardly spaced from but parallel to the axis of the upper roller.
The rate of radial movement of the liquid in the sheet material guided by the rollers depends upon certain variable factors such as the linear speed at which the sheet material advances, the angular speed of the rotating rollers over which the sheet material passes, the viscosity and surface tension of the treating liquid being used, the flow resistance of the sheet material being treated, and the amount of liquid which is applied to the sheet material. It has been found that if the values of flow resistance, viscosity, surface tension and the amount of treating liquid are too high, or if, on the other hand, the speed of linear advance of the sheet material and the angular speed of the rotating rollers are too slow, the penetration of the liquid through the sheet material will not be complete and the liquid will flow away at either side of the advancing sheet material. Thus, further improvements in this field are definitely desirable as will be appreciated, and it is the general object of the present invention to provide such improvements.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In accordance with my invention I provide a method of wet treating sheet materials, and specifically in accordance with my novel method, the sheet mate-rial is passed in upward direction over a sinusoidal path, whereas the treating liquid is applied substantially to the median section of each upwardly-facing surface portion of the sheet material for flow from the median section towards the opposite side edges of the sheet material. At these side edges the treating liquid is collected and is recirculated to the next lower upwardly directed surface portion of the sheet material advancing in the aforementioned sinusoidal path, there to be applied substantially to the median section of this next-lower upwardly directed surface portion.
An apparatus for carrying out my novel process includes a treating column, consisting of two parallel systems of vertically superposed guide rollers having horizontally extending mutually parallel axes of rotation. Each guide roller of one vertical system is located at a level intermediate two successive guide rollers of the other intermediate system so that sheet material passing over these guide rollers will move in a zig-zag or sinusoidal path. Means is provided for collecting the liquid which is hurled off from either end of the respective guide rollers and this means serves to apply the collected treating liquid to the sheet material at the next lower level.
The flow of treating liquid obtained in accordance with my invention is characterized in that its plane of movement is parallel to that of the surface of the sheet material, and in that the treating liquid flows in two opposite or diverging directions from the median section of the sheet material to both lateral edge portions thereof, that is alternately onto the opposite surfaces of the sheet material.
The novel features which are considered as characteristic for the invention are set forth in particular in the appended claims. The invention itself, however, both as to its construction and its method of operation, together with additional objects and advantages thereof, will be best understood from the following description of specific embodiments when read in connection with the accompanying drawings.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING FIG. 1 is a schematic illustration, showing the movement of treating liquid applied to the median portion of the advancing sheet material which is to be treated according to the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a side-elevation, in schematic illustration, of three treating stages provided in a treating column of an apparatus embodying my invention;
FIG. 3 is a top-plan view of two successive treating stations such as the ones shown in FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 is an axonometric view of a collecting trough for collecting treating liquid;
FIG. 5 is a sectional view of a complete treating apparatus, including ancillary components, in a somewhat schematic illustration;
FIG. 6 is an axonometric view of a complete treating stage including a liquid collecting trough in one embodiment and in one operative condition; and
FIG. 7 is a view similar to that of FIG. 6, but showing the liquid collecting trough in another operative condition.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFFERRED EMBODIMENTS Discussing now the drawing in detail, and firstly the complete apparatus illustrated in FIG. 5, it will be seen that this may consist of a plurality of upright treating columns 13. Each of these treating columns 13 houses therewithin a plurality of treating stages, such as are illustrated by way of example, in FIG. 2. In other words, there is provided in each of the treating column 13, a back wall of which is indicated broken away in FIG. 2 with the arrow 13 a-left-hand column of vertically superposed guide rollers 2 whose axis are arranged horizontally in parallelism with one another. A right-hand column of similar guide rollers 2a is provided (only one shown) and these guide rollers are arranged in the same manner as the rollers 2, except that each of the rollers 2a is located, as illustrated in FIG. 2, on a level intermediate two successive superposed rollers 2. Thus, a web of sheet material 1 which passes through the column 13, in upward direction, as indicated by the arrows, will move in a zig-zag path from level to level between the rollers 2 and 2a, as is clearly visible in FIG. 2.
Returning to FIG. 5, it will be seen that the apparatus illustrated therein further comprises a large-diameter winding-oil? device or beam 8, two stretch rollers 9, a guide roller 10, a tentering device which is here identified as a foxwell tentering device 11, a further guide roller 12, and, downstream or subsequently to the ultimate one of the columns 13, a roller 17 over which the treated sheet material 1 is guided to the winding-up device or beam 19 onto which it is wound by means of the roller 18 associated therewith.
FIG. 5 illustrates three of the treating columns 13, namely a first column located adjacent the beam 8, an ultimate column, located adjacent the beam 19, and a penultimate column, located between the first and ultimate columns 13. It will be clear, however, that the number of such columns can be reduced, or indeed increased, without departing in any way from the concept according to the present invention.
FIG. 1 illustrates that each of the treating stages which are shown in FIG. 2, is provided with a liquid supply tube 3, which is so arranged and positioned as to extend substantially to the middle of the space defined by the ascending and descending portions or flights of the sheet material 1 which advances towards the rollers 2 in the direction of the straight arrow 1, and away from the roller 2 in the direction of the curved arrow shown in FIG. 1. The supply tubes 3 are arranged so as to apply the treating liquid to that sheet surface which bears upon the guide roller 2, and specifically in two streams, indicated in FIG. 1, by the arrows S which are applied to the median section of the sheet 1 and which diverge towards the lateral edges of the sheet material 1.
This results in even distribution of the treating liquid over the entire width of the sheet material 1. Some of the treating liquid, will pass into the wedge-shaped. gap defined between the incoming flight of the sheet material, that is the sheet material portion which moves towards the roller 2 (or 2a), and will be caused topass through the sheet material. Other quantities ofthetreating liquid will move laterally towards the lateral edge portions as indicated by the arrows F in FIG. 1. To collect "all this liquid I provide collecting means which is associated with each of the rollers 2, 2a. FIGS. 2 and 3 showthe positioning of this collecting means, and FIG."4 shows one embodiment thereof. In the embodiments of FIGS. 2-4 collecting means is seen to be configurated as a trough 4 located below the respective rollers 2, 2a, and in fact below the material passing around these rollers. Each of the troughs'is inclined, as is most clearly visible in FIG. 2, towards the vertical plane of symmetry of the treating column 13 and comprises lateral walls 5 and front walls 6 connected to the lateral walls 5 and converging towards one another and towards the vertical plane of symmetry. In the region of their convergence the walls 6 are provided with a cutout or slot 7 whose width corresponds to the density of the sheet material to be treated and to the amount of liquid applied to such material. The precise width needed in a given instance can be readily deter mined by experimentation and will always be smaller than the width of the sheet of material being treated.
Each of the treating columns 13 shown in FIG. 5 is provided in its upper region with a positive drive and squeeze device for the sheet material 1. This is not illustrated because it is conventional and is of no importance for the purposes of the present invention. Also arranged in the upper region of each of the treating columns 13 and between each adjacent pair of such columns, are arranged a guide roller 14 for the advancing sheet material 1, and a tensioning device consisting of rollers 15 and a so-called dancing roller 16. The drive of the entire apparatus is controlled by a non-illustrated conventional control device, for instance a Ward-Leonard control, so that in each of the treating columns 13, the positive drive means and the squeeze device are driven, which in turn may serve to supply the motive power for all or at least selected ones of the rollers 2 and/or 2a. Again, these details are not illustrated as not being of importance for the purposes of the present invention.
The apparatus illustrated in FIG. 5 is further equipped with liquid distributing, receiving, pumping and flowmetering means. The pipeline 20 supplies fresh treating liquid which is fed via a throttle Valve 21 and a flow meter 28 to the upper portion of the ultimate column 13 where it is supplied to the uppermost treating stage in the ultimate column 13. Thus, it will be seen that liquid is supplied in counterflow to the direction of advancement of the sheet material through the three illustrated feeding columns 13.
Arranged below each of the columns 13 is a receptacle 23 which is equipped with a sludge-evacuation valve 24 and which communicates, via a respective suction tube 25, pump 26, throttle valve 21, and flow meter 22 with the upper portion of the preceding treatingcolumn 13, that is the treating column 13 which is located upstream as seen in the direction of movement of the sheet material 1. It is to be noted that the receptable 23 under the first of the treating columns 13, that is the left-hand one in FIG. 5, is provided only with an outlet conduit 27 and with a sludge-evacuation valve 24, there being no further use for the treating liquid once it has reached the receptacle of the first treating column 13 so that it is dis-- carded from this receptacle.
Each of the receptacles 23, except for that associated with the left-hand or first treating column 13, is provided.
tion of the following table in which there are identified four types of fabrics together with such main characteristics of these fabrics as are relevant to attain the described conditions of liquid flow through the sheet upstream receptacle, downstream and upstream always 5 material.
TABLE I Treating liquid Warp setting! Critical linear Air permea- Warp Nm/ cmJweft sheet speed Critical bility, litre Fabric Material weft N m setting/cm. mJmin. viscosity, cp. sq. metre/sec.
Tent cloth Cotton.-. 18/20 29/24 300 0. 35 75 Tarnanlin dn 22/2/21/2 21/18 300 1. 00 100 D do 22/2/21/2 21/18 300 0.28 100 Callotm--- .do 88/ 74 54/24 100 l. 00 400 Do- "do- 88/74 54/24 40 D. 46 400 Cellophane foil- Regenerated cellulose Immaterial Immaterial Zero REMARK! tThedair permeability is to be considered at an overpressure of milimetres water column and the room temperature of 20 cen igra e. I
referring'to the direction of movement of the sheet material 1 in FIG. 5. The float valve 28 communicates with the inlet conduit 20 for fresh treating liquid and will provide for a supply of fresh liquid into the respective receptacle 23 in the event that an unforeseen drop should 13. This is mentioned only by way of further information.
The operation of the apparatus illustrated and described thus far, will already be clear. The treating liquid is supplied to the uppermost treating stage of the respective treating columns 13, first of course, to the uppermost treating stage of the right-hand orlast treating column 13 in FIG. 5 and flows downwards through the respective treating column to the next lower stage where it is collected by the liquid collecting means 4. Such liquid col-. lecting means then applies the collected treating liquid to the upwardly directed surface portion of the sheet material passing through this lower stage. In other words, the collected treating liquid is applied to the surface portion which, when moving onto the next higher treating stage, will become the downwardly directed surface portion. As FIGS. 1-4 indicate, and as has already been pointed out, the collected liquid is supplied by the liquid collecting means to the median section of the sheet material. Now, the run-olf and collection of the liquid on the next ,lower level or treating stage is'repeated until the liquid finally arrives at the lowermost treating stage in the respective treating column 13. Thus, the descent of treating liquid results under the influence of gravity in the direction oppositely the direction of upward movement of the sheet material 1 in the zigzag path defined by the rollers 2, 2a. The treatment eflect obtained is multiplied, of course, by repeating the passage of the liquid through the successive portions of the sheet material as the liquid moves from the top to the bottom of the respective treating column 13.
Additionally, the utilization of treating liquid in successive treating columns further enhances the treating effect and the economic attractiveness of the present invention. There is thus provided high liquid utilization which makes possible a substantial reduction in the consumption of treating liquid. The present invention can be used for treating even such fabrics whose flow resistance is high enough to prevent penetration of the liquid through the fabric or sheet material within a certain range of values.
This will be more clearly understood froma considera- As the table clearly illustrates, the present invention is usable within an unlimited range even for the treating of practically impermeable sheet material. Furthermore, the invention can be used for the treating of sheet material of medium to dense characteristics of which the equivalent air-permeability ranges from 400 to 50 liter per square meter per second over a pressure of 20 mm. water column and at a room temperature of 20 C. in case of lower operating speeds as well as higher viscosity values.
The invention thus makes it possible to completely utilize the treating liquid when treating purely permeable or fully impermeable sheet materials by repeatedly applying to such materials a single quantity of treating liquid flowing in counterflow to the direction of advancement of the sheet material which is to be treated.
To make it possible to utilize the apparatus disclosed herein for the treatment of the aforementioned sheet materials having a flow resistance corresponding to an air permeability of 400 liters/m. /sec. and lower, at an overpressure of 20 mm. water column, and at a room temperature of 20 C., as well as for treating sheets having a higher permeability and with which liquid penetration just begins to be manifested, I have provided the liquid collecting means 4 which has been described earlier. A further embodiment of this liquid collection means is illustrated in FIGS. 6 and 7, and this is particularly well suited for treatment of the last-mentioned categories of sheet material.
As shown in the embodiment of FIGS. 6 and 7, the liquid collecting means illustrated therein is constituted by a stationary trough 30 which embraces or surrounds the guide rollers 2 (or 211) and which slopes downwardly towards the central plane of symmetry of the respective treatment column 13. At either axial side of the trough 30 is again provided with the side walls 31 while its longi tudinal inner edge portion carries a flap 32 which is provided with at least one outlet slot 33. If only one outlet slot 33 is provided then it will be located centrally as illustrated in FIGS. 6 and 7, but it is to be understood that a plurality of such slots may also be utilized. FIG. 6 shows that the flap 32 is secured to a shaft 34 mounted in sleeves 35 for rotation, and the sleeves 35 in turn are supported on the trough 30. A lever 37 is journalled at 38 in a sleeve 39 which in turn is secured to a vertical tie rod 40, and the hub 36 shown in FIGS. 6 and 7 has secured thereto the rotatable shaft 35 so that, when the tie rod 40 moves upwardly or downwardly, in FIGS. 6 and 7, the shaft 34 will rotate.
In FIG. 6 the tie rod 40 is in its lowermost position and accordingly the shaft 34 is rotated in such a manner that the flap 32 engages the side walls 31 thus defining with the same a receptacle having an outlet slot 33.
In this position, the trough 30 collects liquid passing through the sheet material 1 across the entire width thereof and serves to direct it against the median section of the sheet material passing through the treating stage higher than 400 liters/mF/sec. at an overpressure of 20 v niml' water pressure and 'at the room temperature of moved downwardly 'by rotating the shaft 34 so that the flap in effect constitutes an extension of the bottom wall of the trough 30. In this position the liquid which enters into the trough30 from above, will immediately be discharged onto the sheet material in. the next lower treating stage, but across the entire width of the sheet material rather than to the median section thereof. In this configuration the trough 30 permits a high utilization of the treating liquid which is to be applied to the sheet material and makes it possible to treat impermeable foils, heavy dense fabrics, such as tarpaulins and tent cloth, as well as medium-heavy to light fabrics, such as suitings and dressings.
Resort to my novel method and apparatus makes possible utilization of the treating liquid and thus reduces the consumption thereof, the counterfiow effect being attained spontaneously, that is by gravity. Furthermore, the utilization of my liquid collecting means as disclosed herein makes it possible to control the treating regime with res'pect to the flow resistance value of the sheet material being treated so that a high rate of utilization of the liquid can be obtained, regardless of whether the sheet material is such that the liquid passes therethrough or whether the sheet material permits only wetting of the surface with the liquid. The vertical arrangement of the treating stages in form of treating columns substantially reduces the floor space required for an apparatus according to my invention and consequently shortens the length of such apparatus. Of course, my present invention permits continuous treatment of sheet materials, and treatments within a relatively wide range of linear or advancing speeds. It is thus highly versatile and in some cases permits a reduction of slagging times between the particular treating steps for the materials in question to a minimum or permits the elimination of lagging times entirely.
Insofar as the sheet materials to be treated are at all permeable, it will be appreciated that their permeability will be enhanced by the mechanical treatment which the sheet material undergoes while passing around the respective guide rollers 2, 2a. The sheet material of course never envelops these guide rollers over their entire circumference, but only over substantially one-half of their circumferential dimension. The tension of the sheet material is only such that the material will not come loose from the surfaces of the guide rollers or rub itself around the latter. These surfaces incidentally, may be either smooth, rough, or be supplied with depressions or recesses which may be arranged in various different ways so as to increase the available surface area.
It will be understood that each of the elements described above, or two or more together, may also find a useful application in other types of applications, differing from the types described above.
While the invention has been illustrated and described as embodied in a method and apparatus for the treatment of sheet materials, it is not intended to be limited to the details shown since various modifications and structural changes may be made without departing in any way from the spirit of the present invention.
Without further analysis, the foregoing will so fully reveal the gist of the present invention that others can by applying current knowledge readily adapt it for various ap plications without omitting features that from the standpoint of prior art, fairly constitute essential characteristics lence of the following claims.
of the gerieric or specific aspects of this invention and, therefore,, such adaptions should and are intended tobe comprehended within the meaning and range equivaf What is claimed as new and desired to be protected by Letters Patent is set forth in the appended claims:
1. A method of treating sheet material, comprising the steps of advancing a web of sheet material in upward direction in a predetermined path having an upper section, a lower section and an intermediate section; directing a treating liquid against said web in said upper section of said path; recovering at least the major :part of said liquid in the region of said upper section'of said path, and directing the thus recovered liquidfagainst said web in said intermediate section of said path; -and again recovering at least-the major part of said liquid in the region of said intermediate section of said path, and directing the recovered liquid against said web in said-lower section of said path.
2. A method as defined in claim 1, wherein saidliquid descends from said'u'pper section tofsaid lower'section under "the influence ofgr'avity. "j; Y 3. A method as defined in 'claiin 2, wherein directing said'liquid against said web comprises directing the liquid against the median portion of said web.
4.'Appa'ratus for treating sheet materials, comprising, in combination, firstmeans' constructed and arranged for advancing a web of sheet material in upward direction in' a predetermined path having anup'persection, a lower section and an intermediate section; second meansoperative for directing a treating liquid against said web in said upper section of said path; and a plurality of third means constructed and arranged for recovering at least the major part of said liquid in the region of said upper section and directing the recovered liquid againstsaidjweb in the region of said intermediate section, and for recovering at least the major part of said liquid in the region of said intermediate section and directing the thus recovered liquid against said web in said lower section of said path.
5. Apparatus as defined in claim 4, wherein said first means comprises a plurality of rollers arranged for com ducting and advancing said web in upward direction and in a zig -zag path.
6. Apparatus as defined in claim 5, wherein said rollers? comprise a first column of axially parallel rollers located in a vertical plane at vertically spaced levels, and aftransve'rsely spaced second column of similar rollers, each roller of said second column being located on a level intermediate two consecutive rollers of said ,first column.
7. Apparatus as defined in claim 6,whereinsaid third means comprises a plurality of collecting receptacles each arranged below one of said rollers and having a width greater than the width of said web, said receptaclesbeing constructed and positioned for receiving therewithin treat-f ing liquid which passes through said web as well as treating liquid which overflows the'side edges of said web.
8. Apparatus as defined in claim 7, wherein said receptacles are trough-shaped and have an upper open side facing the respective associated roller said receptacles each having an inner wall extending transversely of the web across the width of said receptacle facing the respective opposite column of rollers and being provided with at.
least one aperture, and said receptacles also being in clined downwardly in the direction towards the respectively opposite column of rollers. 9. Apparatus as defined in claim 8, wherein said inner wall comprises two wall sections which converge towards one another in the region of the median portion of said web, said aperture being provided at the juncture of, said wall sections. i
10. Apparatus as defined in claim 8, wherein said inner wall is mounted for movement between a firstposition in which it extends across the width of said receptacle so asto prevent issuing of liquid therefrom except through said aperture, and a second position in which the interior of 9 10 said receptacle is exposed so that liquid can issue from FOREIGN PATENTS said receptacle across the entire width thereof. 19,071 1892 Great Britain.
References Cited 24,576 4/ 1907 Sweden.
UNITED STATES PATENTS 5 WILLIAM I. PRICE, Primary Examiner 989,622 4/1911 Malard 68205 1,788,840 1/1931 Mantius 6822 X US 3,144,033 8/1964 Stulberg et a1 -1 68205X 8' 158;68 205