US 3470869 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
- Oct. 7, 1969 L. FENTON ET AL 3,470,869
APPARATUS FOR GASTRO-INTESTINAL BARIUM AIR CONTRAST SPRAYLNG Filed July 9, 1965 INVENTORS United States Patent M Ohio Filed July 9, 1965, Ser. No. 470,720 Int. Cl. A61b 1/12, 6/00; G01n 21/34 US. Cl. 128-2 8 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE An apparatus for spraying .portions of the gastrointestinal tract is disclosed which is useful in roentgenology. The apparatus includes a spray nozzle having lateral spray orifices through which a contrast material such as barium sulphate may be aspirated as a fine spray. A pair of flexible concentric tubes connect with the nozzle and define separate and concentric passages. Contrast liquid is supplied to the nozzle through one passage and a gas is separately supplied to the nozzle through the other passage causing the liquid and gas to mix at the nozzle for spraying. The nozzle and tube are proportioned to permit the insertion thereof into the gastro-intestinal tract. The method of roentgenology employs a step of spraying an organ while providing a positive pressure to distend the organ in the zone sprayed and thereafter passing X-rays through the coated portion of the organ to determine its condition.
This invention relates to a novel and improved apparatus for coating portions of the gastro-intestinal tract and is particularly suited for use in roentgenology.
The use of X-rays and a contrast liquid, such as barium sulphate, to locate tumors, ulcers and other maladies in the gastrointestinal tract is well known. However, prior methods have generally included the partial or complete filling of the organ with the contrast liquid prior to the use of the X-ray. Such method provides satisfactory -results in some'instances, however, its use is often unsatisfactory when attempting to X-ray certain sections of the gastro-intestinal tract, such as the upper portions of the stomach and portions of the cecum. The large mass of liquids tends to cause collapse of certain portions of the organs and also tends to blanket certain sections, making it difiicult or impossible to identify small areas of pathology accurately.
In order to overcome these difficulties the present invention provides for the spraying of a portion of the gastro-intestinal tract with a relatively thin substantially uniform coating of contrast liquid, such as barium sulphate, while simultaneously supplying gas under a moderate pressure to the portion of the organ in order to inflate or distend the organ. The X-rays passing through the inflated and coated organ permit improved visualization of the mucosal pattern and on occasion will permit diagnosis of tumors missed by conventional methods.
The apparatus incorporating this invention is arranged to produce a fine spray and controlled pressurization within substantially any portion of the gastro-intestinal tract. The illustrated embodiment includes a spray nozzle mounted on the end of a pair of flexible concentric tubes. The nozzle and tubes are inserted into the appropriate body opening and moved along the gastrointestinal tract to the zone thereof which is to be sprayedgand inflated. When the nozzle is properly positioned the gas under controlled pressure is delivered to the nozzle through the inner of the two concetric tubes and the contrast liquid is delivered, under low pressure, to the nozzle through 3,470,869 Patented Oct. 7, 1969 the passage defined between the exterior of the inner tube and the interior of the outer tube. Thus, the gas and contrast liquid are separately delivered to the nozzle where they mix and the gas blows out the barium causing a finely divided spray emerging from orifices formed in the nozzle. The gas performs a dual function of atomizing the contrast liquid and also pressurizing the organ to cause it to distend.
The apparatus includes a manifold mounted at the end of the concentric tubes remote from the nozzle which connects the appropriate passage in the concentric tubes to a pair of separate supply tubes through which the two fluids are supplied.
It is an important object of this invention to provide a novel and improved apparatus for gastro-intestinal spraying which permits the spray coating of substantially any desired portion of the gastro-intestinal tract.
It is another object of this invention to provide a novel and improved apparatus including a spray nozzle and attaching tubes proportioned and arranged for insertion into substantially any portion of the gastr c-intestinal tract wherein such apparatus is operable to produce a finely nebulized spray of liquid.
It is another important object of this invention to provide a novel and improved apparatus for gastro-intestinal barium contrast spraying which operates to produce a substantially uniform coating on the surface of a desired portion of the gastro-intestinal tract while also providing controlled inflation of the sprayed portion.
It is another important object of this invention to provide a spray nozzle and supply tubing structure wherein the nozzle is formed with a central axial passage with spray orifices leading therefrom and concentric tubes supplying separated gas and liquid under pressure to a position adjacent such passage with the structure arranged so that the flow of gases breaks up the stream of liquid producing thorough mixing of the liquid and gas within the central passage.
Further objects and advantages will appear from the following description and drawings wherein;
FIGURE 1 is a view of a preferred form of spray apparatus incorporating this invention;
FIGURE 2 is an enlarged cross-section of the manifold illustrating its connection with the tubes; and
FIGURE 3 is an enlarged longitudinal section of the spray nozzle and adjacent concentric tubes.
Referring to the drawings, the illustrated embodiment of this invention includes a manifold 10 provided with two supply tubes 11 and 12. A contrast liquid, such as barium sulphate, is introduced into the system through the supply tube 11 by any suitable means 11a, such as a large syringe, and a gas under controlled pressure is supplied from a source 12a through the tube 12. Carbon dioxide is the gas supplied to the tube 12 in many instances because it is readily absorbed into the body. However, other gases and even air may be used in certain instances. When carbon dioxide gas is used the supply tube 12 is connected to a cylinder of such gas through suitable pressure control valves and flow control devices well known in the art.
The manifold 10 is connected to a nozzle element 13 by a flexible concentric tube 14. An inner tube 16 extends along inside the outer tube 14 and selected to have an outside diameter less than the inside diameter of the outer tube 14 so that the two tubes 14 and 16 cooperate to provide concentric but separate passages 17 and 18 with the passage 17 in the general [form of an annulus around the inner tube 16 and the passage 18 located within the inner tube 16.
The manifold 10 is provided with a through bore 19 open at one end through a nipple 21 and at its other end through a nipple 26. The end of the outer tube 14 closely