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Publication numberUS3470894 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 7, 1969
Filing dateJun 8, 1967
Priority dateJun 20, 1966
Publication numberUS 3470894 A, US 3470894A, US-A-3470894, US3470894 A, US3470894A
InventorsRimmer Ronald
Original AssigneeDowty Fuel Syst Ltd
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Fluid jet devices
US 3470894 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

US. Cl. 137-815 United States Patent 3,470,894 FLUID JET DEVICES Ronald Rimrner, Cheltenham, England, assignor to Dowty Fuel Systems Limited, Cheltenham, England, a British company Filed June 8, 1967, Ser. No. 649,068 Claims priority, application Great Britain, June 20, 1966, 27,493/66 Int. Cl. F15c 1/14 5 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A fluid jet device having a power jet nozzle and two outlet passages arranged to operate either as a fluid switch or as a fluid amplifier, includes a vortex chamber into which one outlet passage opens radially and into which the other outlet passage opens tangentially, the vortex chamber having a power outlet on its central axis.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Field of the invention Fluid switches and fluid amplifiers.

Description of the prior art In known forms of fluid switch or fluid amplifier, the deflection of a fluid jet into one or other of two outlet passages is controlled by the fluid pressure acting on opposite sides of the jet.

The object of the present invention is to reduce fluid energy losses which diminish the maximum pressure obtainable at the fluid power outlet.

SUMMARY The invention provides a vortex chamber into which the flow of fluid from a source under pressure is controlled by a deflectable jet whereby fluid flows either radially across the vortex chamber, or as a vortex, to a fluid power outlet, while the pressure at the periphery of the vortex chamber is fed back to the discharge side of the jet and thus reduces the fluid pressure diflerence between the inlet and the discharge side of the jet.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS In FIGURE 1, a power jet nozzle 11 opens into a switch chamber 12. Control passages 13 and 14 open through fixed restrictors 15 and 16 respectively into the switch chamber 12 on opposite sides of the nozzle 11. Two outlet passages 17, 18 lead from the chamber 12 at positions which are spaced from the nozzle 11 and which lie on opposite sides of the central axis of the nozzle. The side walls 19, 21 of the switch chamber 12 are parallel and their separation is considerably greater than the width of the nozzle 11. The side walls 19, 21 blend into side wallsof the respective outlet passages 17, 18, while the other side walls of the outlet passages are joined by a rounded jet divider surface 22. The outlet 3,470,894 Patented Oct. 7, 1969 ice passage 17 is slightly divergent to provide pressure recovery of a fluid stream therein, and it opens radially into a circular vortex chamber 23. The other outlet passage 18 turns to open tangentially into the vortex chamber 23.

A circular vent 24 is formed on the central axis of the vortex chamber 23 in one end wall 25, FIGURE 2. The cross-sectional area of the vent 24 is less than that of the power jet nozzle 11. A fluid power outlet 26 is formed in the opposite wall 27, also on the central axis, and it has a diameter less than that of the vent 24. The power outlet 26 opens into a delivery pipe 28 for operation of a servomotor or the like, and the vent 24 opens into a pipe 29 which is connected to low pressure.

The fluid jet device operates as a bi-stable switch which is controlled by a fluid pulse, or by continuously applied pressure, selectively in either the control passage 13 or the control passage 14. Thus, a pulse or continuously applied pressure in the control passage 13 deflects a jet flowing from the nozzle 11 into the outlet passage 18, and from this tangentially into the vortex chamber 23. Due to the swirling motion of the fluid, the pressure falls rapidly towards the centre where the fluid is discharged with whirling motion through the vent 24. The pressure in the smaller diameter power outlet 26 is then substantially equal to the low pressure in the pipe 29. Fluid returned in the pipe 28 as the result of servomotor operation may then discharge with the vortex fluid to the low pressure pipe 29. The pressure at the periphery of the vortex chamber 23 is fed back through the passage 17 to the switch chamber 12.

A pulse, or continuously applied pressure, in the control passage 14 deflects the jet flowing from the nozzle into the outlet passage 17. The kinetic energy of the jet is partially recovered as pressure in the divergent passage 17 and the pressure prevails without loss from the periphery to the centre of the vortex chamber 23 since there is substantially no rotation of fluid. The peripheral pressure is also fed back through the outlet passage 18 to the control chamber 12 wherein it reduces the pressure difference across the nozzle 11 between the fluid source and the chamber 12. The velocity of the power jet from the nozzle is therefore low, and hence the kinetic energy losses are small. When there is no rotation of fluid in the vortex chamber 23, the pressure at the centre is at a maximum and is therefore present in the power outlet 26 for operation of the servomotor or the like. The discharge area of the vent 24, being less than the area of the nozzle 11, is chosen whereby there is no substantial pressure loss in the vortex chamber 23 due to fluid flow through the vent 24, though the vent is not so small as to produce a substantial pressure in the power outlet 26 when the power jet flows into the outlet passage 18 to cause a vortex in the chamber 23.

When the power jet flows into the outlet passage 17 and the output pressure is applied to the power outlet without any substantial flow therethrough, a maximum pressure is available which may be up to or thereabouts of the pressure supplied to the nozzle 11.

Although the fluid switch may be operated as described by the application of fluid pressure to the control passage 13 or 14, it is possible to connect each control passage to low pressure through a pilot valve. If, for example, the pilot valve controlling the passage 13 is opened, there will be a fall of pressure on the side of the power jet adjacent to the restrictor 15 whereby the power jet is deflected into the outlet passage 17, and remains so deflected even when the pivot valve is closed.

In the embodiment of the invention shown in FIGURE 3, each element having its counterpart in FIGURE 1 is given a like reference numeral. The arrangement differs in that a second divergent outlet passage 31 from the switch chamber 12 opens radially into a second vortex chamber 32 which is similar to the vortex chamber 23. A central vent 33 in the vortex chamber 32, and the vent 24 are connected to the low pressure pipe 29, while a central power outlet 34 opens into a delivery pipe 35. An interconnecting passage 36 opens tangentially at its pposite ends into the respective vortex chambers 23 and 32.

The control of the power jet from the nozzle 11 is similar to that in the embodiment of FIGURE 1. If, for example, the power jet enters the outlet passage 17, the recovered pressure acts across the vortex chamber 23 in the power outlet 26 and the delivery pipe 28. Fluid under pressure also leaves the chamber 23 through the passage 36 and enters the chamber 32 tangentially to induce a vortex therein. The pressure at the periphery of the vortex is fed back through the outlet passage 31 to the switch chamber 12 with substantially the same eflect as in FIGURE 1, but there is low pressure, or substantially no pressure at the centre of the vortex in the central power outlet 34 and the delivery pipe 35.

Similarly, if the power jet enters the outlet passage 31, there will be high pressure in the outlet 34 and delivery pipe 35, but little or no pressure in the power outlet 26 and delivery pipe 28. This embodiment provides a fluid jet device with two delivery pipes suitable, for example, for moving a double-acting piston to one end or the other of a cylinder.

FIGURE 4 shows a fluid amplifier, which has a configuration generally similar to that of FIGURE 3, but which differs in the form of the outlet passages 41 and 42. These passages open from a chamber 43 having side walls 44, 45, the spacing of which at the nozzle end of the chamber does not greatly exceed the width of the nozzle 11. The flow divider 46 formed between the passages 41 and 42 is sharp edged. The outlet passages 41 and 42 are not divergent and they do not cause attachment of the power jet to the side Walls 44, 45.

The power jet will, in the absence of a control signal, divide substantially equally between the outlet passages 41 and 42 and flow without rotation into the chambers 23 and 32. Since only half the power jet flows into each chamber, the loss of fluid through the vents 24 and 33 will produce a pressure at the power outlets 26 and 34 intermediate the maximum and minimum values. The proportion of the flows in the outlet passages 41, 42 is varied by differentially controlling the control pressures in the passages 13, 14 whereby the deflection of the power jet varies. If, for example, the flow in the outlet passage 41 is the greater, the pressure is increased in the chamber 23 while the pressure is decreased in the chamber 32, partly due to the effect of the vents 24 and 33, and partly due to the vortex set up in the chamber 32 by fluid flow through the passage 36 from the chamber 23. When the power jet is fully deflected into the outlet passage 41, the pressure will be at a maximum in the power outlet 26 and at a minimum in the power outlet 34.

In the embodiment of FIGURE 5, a fluid supply passage 51 is provided having branches 52, 53 which open radially into vortex chambers 54 and 55 respectively. The vortex chambers have vents 56, 57 and power outlets 58, 59 respectively as in FIGURES 3 and 4. A power jet nozzle 61 is connectable with the same fluid supply and the jet flows through a fluid amplifier chamber 62 under the control of a pair of control passages 63, 64 which have fixed restrictors 65 and 66 therein. The outlet passages 67 and 68 from the chamber 62 enter the respective chambers 54 and 55 tangentially. The nozzle 61, chamber 62, and outlet passages 67 and 68 are arranged as a fluid amplifier as in FIGURE 4.

In operation, the jet when wholly deflected into the outlet passage 67, imparts rotation to fluid entering the chamber 54 from the branch supply passage 52 so that minimum output pressure prevails at the power outlet 58. There is no rotation of fluid entering the vortex chamber 55 from the branch passage 53 so that maximum output pressure prevails at the power outlet 59. When the flow into the outlet passages 67 and 68 is equally divided, there is reduced rotation of fluid in the chamber 54 and an equal rotation in the chamber 55. The pressures at the power outlets 58 and 59 are then substantially equal at a value intermediate the minimum and maximum output pressures.

The device of FIGURE 5 can be modified by forming the nozzle 61, chamber 62, and outlet passages 67, 68 to act as a fluid switch.

A further modification possible is to form the single vortex chamber device of FIGURE 1 as a fluid amplifier.

I claim as my invention:

1. A fluid jet device comprising (A) a power jet nozzle adapted for connection to a source of fluid pressure,

(B) two outlet passages,

(C) pressure control means situated adjacent the nozzle and operable to deflect a power jet issuing from the nozzle into one or other of the outlet pasages,

(D) a vortex chamber,

(E) a radial opening at the periphery of the vortex chamber which is connected to one of said outlet passages and which is adapted to receive fluid from said source, said fluid flowing into the vortex chamber without rotation when the power jet is directed into said one outlet passage,

(F) a tangential opening at the periphery of the vortex chamber which is connected to the other of said outlet passages whereby fluid flowing from the source forms a vortex in said chamber when the power jet is directed into said other outlet passage,

(G) a circular vent opening to low pressure from the vortex chamber on the central axis thereof, the vent forming a fluid flow restrictor having a cross-sectional area which is less than that of the power jet nozzle, and

(H) a circular power outlet also opening from the vortex chamber on the central axis thereof, the power outlet having a diameter less than that of the vent, whereby when the power jet flows through the tangential opening into the vortex chamber and fluid is discharged with whirling motion through the vent, the pressure in the power outlet is substantially equal to the said low pressure, and when the power jet flows through the radial opening into the vortex chamber, the discharge of fluid through the vent occurring substantially without rotation, the pressure in the power outlet is substantially equal to that in the radial opening.

2. A fluid jet device according to claim 1, wherein the vent and the fluid power outlet are formed in opposite end Walls of the vortex chamber.

3. A fluid jet device comprising (A) a power jet nozzle adapted for connection to a source of fluid pressure,

(B) two outlet passages spaced from the nozzle,

(C) pressure control means situated adjacent the nozzle and operable to deflect the power jet issuing from the nozzle into one or other of the outlet passages,

(D) a vortex chamber into which one of the outlet passages opens radially and into which the other of the outlet passages opens tangentially,

(E) a circular vent opening to low pressure from the vortex chamber on the central axis thereof, the vent forming a fluid flow restrictor having a cross-sectional area which is less than that of the power jet nozzle, and

(F) a circular power outlet also opening from the vortex chamber on the central axis thereof, the power outlet having a diameter less than that of the vent, whereby when the power jet flows through the passage opening tangentially into the vortex chamber and fluid is discharged with whirling motion through the vent, the pressure in the power outlet is substantially equal to the said low pressure, and when the power jet flows through the passage opening radially into the vortex chamber, the discharge of fluid through the vent occurring substantially without rotation, the pressure in the power outlet is substantially equal to that in the radially-opening passage.

4. A fluid jet device comprising (A) a power jet nozzle adapted for connection to a source of fluid pressure,

(B) a first outlet passage and a second outlet passage both spaced from the nozzle,

(C) pressure control means situated adjacent the nozzle and operable to deflect the power jet issuing from the nozzle into one or other of the outlet passages,

(D) a first vortex chamber into which the first outlet passages opens radially,

(E) a second vortex chamber into which the second outlet passage opens radially,

(F) a passage having opposite ends opening tangentially into the respective vortex chambers, and

(G) a fluid power outlet on the central axis of each vortex chamber.

5. A fluid jet device comprising (A) a power jet nozzle adapted for connection to a source of fluid pressure,

(B) a first outlet passage and a second outlet passage both spaced from the nozzle,

(C) pressure control means situated adjacent the nozzle and operable to deflect the power jet issuing from the nozzle into one or other of the outlet passages,

(D) a first vortex chamber into which the first outlet passage opens tangentially,

(E) a second vortex chamber into which the second outlet passage opens tangentially,

(F) a fluid pressure supply passage having branches which open radially into the respective vortex chambers, and

(G) a fluid power outlet on the central axis of each vortex chamber.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,143,856 8/1964 Hausmann 137-815 XR 3,182,676 5/1965 Bauer 137-815 3,185,166 5/1965 Horton et al 137-815 3,195,303 7/1965 Widdell 137-815 XR 3,266,510 8/1966 Wadey 137-815 3,267,946 8/1966 Adams et al. 137-815 3,285,265 11/1966 Boothe et al 137-815 3,373,759 3/1968 Adams 137-815 SAMUEL SCOTT, Primary Examiner

Patent Citations
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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3586023 *Mar 13, 1969Jun 22, 1971American Standard IncFluidic throttle
US3592209 *May 26, 1969Jul 13, 1971Lucas Industries LtdFluidic control circuits
US3646951 *Apr 24, 1970Mar 7, 1972Grumman Aerospace CorpFluidic devices with a negative pressure generating venturi
US3760828 *Nov 15, 1971Sep 25, 1973Toyoda Machine Works LtdPure fluid control element
US4259840 *Oct 24, 1979Apr 7, 1981The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The ArmyFluidic waste gate
US4286627 *Oct 25, 1978Sep 1, 1981Graf Ronald EVortex chamber controlling combined entrance exit
US4323991 *Sep 12, 1979Apr 6, 1982The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The ArmyFluidic mud pulser
US4557295 *Nov 9, 1979Dec 10, 1985The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The ArmyFluidic mud pulse telemetry transmitter
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Classifications
U.S. Classification137/809, 137/812
International ClassificationF15C1/02, F15C1/00
Cooperative ClassificationF15C1/02
European ClassificationF15C1/02