US 3471907 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct. 14, 1969 e. BECKERS 3,471,907
APPARATUS FOR CONTINUOUSLY AND MECHANICALLY COMPACTING WEBS OF FIBROUS MATERIAL Filed July 19. 1965 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 t, I 101i 3,471,907 LLY 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Oct. 14, 1969 G. BECKERS APPARATUS FOR CONTINUUUSLY AND MBCHANICA COMPACTING WEBS OF FIBROUS MATERIAL Filed July 19. 1965 \EE Y;//////////// /I m FIG. 5
Oct. 14, 1969 G. BECKERS APPARATUS FOR CONTINUOUSLY AND MEG COMPACTING WEBS 0F FIBROUS MATERIAL Filed July 19, 1965 5 t e E h s S 9 w United States Patent 3,471,907 APPARATUS FOR CONTINUOUSLY AND MECHANTCALLY CGMPACTIN G WEBS 0F FIBROUS MATERIAL Gustav Beckers, 57 Gracht, 407 Rheydt, Rhineland, Germany Filed July 19, 1965, Ser. No. 472,821 Claims priority, application Germany, July 18, 1964, M 61,784; Feb. 24, 1965, M 64,305 Int. Cl. D06c 21/00 U.S. Cl. 26--18.6 7 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Apparatus for longitudinally or transversely compacting a fibrous material web includes rotary first and second rolls having exterior surfaces spaced a given gap distance from one another such that a web transported between the rolls is in continuous contact with the exterior surfaces, a pair of slide members respectively situated at opposite ends of and adjacent to the gap between the rolls and respectively having concave slide surfaces having curvatures corresponding to those of the exterior roll surfaces di rected toward the latter to define additional gaps therebetween through which the web travels.
My invention relates to apparatus for continuously and mechanically compacting webs of fibrous material, such as textile or paper, in order to reduce the dimensions thereof. In a more particular aspect, the invention relates to apparatus for converting such webs to a stretchable product.
While machines are already known for the same general purpose, the known machines suffer from several serious drawbacks. Thus, on one type of known machine the web is fed through a gap between a feed roll and a heated slide member to a second roll which turns at a speed less than that of the feed roll and which forms with the feed roll a zone of restriction through which the web must be pushed, inasmuch as the width or thickness of the zone of restriction is substantially less than the thickness which the web itself tends to naturally assume at the place where the zone of restriction is located. The second roll has a rough exterior surface preventing the web from sliding with respect thereto. Because of the different speeds of rotation of the rolls, the web backs up into the gap between the feed roll and the slide member to be compacted in this gap; and since the web becomes thicker as it moves through the gap, it is necessary for the discharge end of the gap to have a depth greater than the inlet end thereof.
With another type of known machine there is also a rotary feed roll and a retarding roll rotating at a lesser speed than the feed roll and having a rough exterior surface to prevent slippage of the web. The retarding roll defines with the feed roll a zone of restriction through which the web is pushed. However, with this machine there is no slide member defining a gap with the feed roll. Instead, just before the zone of restriction defined between the pair of rolls there is a bar or rail which presses the web against the surface of the feed roll so as to compel the web to take the speed of movement of the exterior surface of the feed roll, and all of the forces tending to advance the Web into the gap between the pair of rolls act on the web at the edge of this rail from which the web moves into the gap between the rolls. Because of the restricted zone provided by this gap between the rolls, there are forces directly in the gap itself tending to oppose the movement of the web through the gap between the rolls, so that in this way compacting of the web takes place within 3,471,907 Patented Oct. 14, 1969 the relatively small distance between this gap and the edge of the rail which is nearest to the gap and which presses the web against the feed roll.
With these known machines the web is subjected in the zones of restriction to large and harmful pressing and pushing forces, resulting not only from the forcing of the web through a zone of restriction whose size is less than the thickness which the web naturally tends to assume, but also from the fact that the rolls which advance the web are themselves moving at different speeds. In addition to the stressing of the web itself to an undesirably large extent, the rolls of the machine wear away quite rapidly, and where an element such as a rail is used for pressing the web against the surface of a roll, this rail also is subjected to a high degree of friction and wears away quite rapidly.
It is accordingly a primary object of my invention to provide an apparatus capable of mechanically and continuously compacting webs while at the same time avoiding the abovementioned drawbacks.
More specifically, it is an object of my invention to provide an apparatus which will continuously and mechanically compact a web of fibrous material without requiring the web to be pushed through a zone of restriction whose thickness is substantially less than the thickness which the web itself tends to naturally assume. As a result, it becomes possible to use the machine of my invention for materials too delicate to be treated with the known machines, since the apparatus of my invention will not damage the web even if it is made of a relatively sensitive material.
It is also an object of my invention to provide a machine whose components will not rapidly wear away, and this result also follows from the fact that the compacting is achieved with my invention without subjecting the web to the stresses required by the known machines. Therefore, the extent of frictional rubbing applied to the components of my apparatus is far less than has heretofore been possible.
Yet another object of my invention is to provide an apparatus which is readily adjustable so as to be adapted to the particular requirements of the particular material which is treated.
Also, it is an object of my invention to provide an apparatus which can act on an elongated web of flexible fibrous material so as to compact the web in a selected direction, which is to say either transversely or longitudinally, or both.
Further objects of my invention include the provision of a simple rugged structure which is capable of operating reliably over a long period of time to produce the desired results in a highly efiicient manner and which at the same time is easily adapted to carry out not only the compacting of my invention but together with this compacting, or before or subsequent thereto, additional treatment processes.
According to my invention, the apparatus includes a first roll which rotates about its axis and has an exterior surface for engaging the web so as to continuously transport the latter. A first slide member having a concave surface of the same curvature as the exterior surface of the first roll is coaxially arranged with respect thereto so that the concave surface of the slide member defines with the exterior surface of the first roll an elongated gap through which the web travels during rotation of this first roll. A second roll has an exterior surface which receives the web from the first roll, and this second roll is parallel to the first roll and has an exterior surface which defines with the first roll a gap through which the web also moves when leaving the gap between the first slide member and the first roll. A second slide member has a concave surface of the same curvature as and directed toward the exterior convex surface of the second roll to define with the latter a further gap through which the web is advanced during rotation of the second roll, after the web leaves the gap between the first and second rolls. The relative speeds of rotation of the first and second rolls is such that compacting of the web will take place as it travels successively through the above gaps, and in accordance with an important feature of my invention these gaps have Widths which are set or so adjustable that the web, during its entire passage, does not travel through any zone of restriction whose thickness is substantially less than that which the web would naturally assume, so that with my apparatus the Web is not forcefully pushed through such a zone of restriction.
The invention is illustrated by way of example in the accompanying drawings in which:
FIG. 1 is a schematic side elevation of one possible embodiment of a structure according to my invention, this structure shown in FIG. 1 providing longitudinal compacting of a Web of fibrous material;
FIG. 2 shows, also in a schematic manner, a structure similar to that of FIG. 1 but having added thereto an additional compacting stage;
FIG. 3 is a schematic illustration, on an enlarged scale, as compared to FIGS. 1 and 2, of the treatment of a web of woven fabric by the apparatus of my invention;
FIG. 4 is a fragmentary schematic side elevation of an embodiment of my invention which is adapted to provide for transverse compacting of an elongated web;
FIG. 5 is a fragmentary top plan view of the treating rolls of FIG. 4, showing the ends of these rolls, the intermediate portions of the rolls being broken away for the sake of convenience;
FIG. 6 is a top plan view of a roll of my invention for providing transverse compacting of an elongated web;
FIG. 7 is a fragmentary side elevation showing in a schematic manner how the slide members of my invention can be adjusted;
FIG. 8 is a schematic fragmentary side elevation of one possible embodiment of a complete machine for treating a web of woven fabric according to my invention; and
FIG. 9 is a schematic side elevation showing a further embodiment according to which a web is compacted both longitudinally and transversely.
The apparatus of my invention schematically illustrated in FIG. 1 comprises a first roll 10 supported for rotation about its axis and driven in a clockwise direction, as indicated by the arrow in FIG. 1. This first roll 10 serves to introduce the web which is to be treated into that part of the apparatus where the web is treated according to my invention. A slide member 11 cooperates with the roll 10, and this slide member 11 has a concave surface directed toward and of substantially the same curvature as the exterior surface of the roll 10.
The apparatus includes a second roll 12 whose axis is parallel to the roll 10, and a slide member 13 cooperates with the roll 12, this slide member 13 also having a concave surface of substantially the same curvature as and coaxially arranged with respect to the exterior cylindrical surface of the roll 12. After leaving the second roll 12 the web which is treated with the structure of my invention is transported by a transporting means, formed by an endless band 14, which serves to deliver the web to the fixing calender roll 15, schematically indicated.
The first roll 10 defines together with the concave curved surface of the slide member 11 an elongated gap 16 of substantially uniform thickness, and the second roll 12 defines with its cooperating slide member 13 an elongated gap which forms a guide for the material as it moves between the slide member 13 and the roll 12. The gap between the roll 12 and the slide member 13 also has a substantially uniform thickness. The thickness of these gaps through which the web 17 moves can be adapted to the particular web by suitable adjustments of the rolls as well as of the slide members while maintaining their axes at all times parallel.
FIG. 1 also illustrates how the second roll 12 and the slide member 13 cooperating therewith are both hollow and provided with bores 30 through which physical or chemical treating agents can be directed to the web. The roll 12 has its outer cylindrical wall surrounding stationary interior walls 31 which limit the angular range about the axis of the roll 12 through which the treating agent will issue, and this range is limited so as to correspond to the range along which the concave surface of the slide member 13 extends.
The apparatus which is illustrated in FIG. 2 is precisely as shown in FIG. 1, except that the assembly of the rolls 10 and 12, and slide members 11 and 13, is turned in a clockwise direction by from the attitude thereof shown in FIG. 1, and to this structure is added a third roll 18 which has a third slide member 19 cooperating therewith to define an elongated gap through which the web 17 travels. Thus, while the rolls 10 and 12 provide one stage of compacting treatment to a web 17, the additional roll 18 will cooperate with the immediately preceding roll 12 of the series of rolls 11, 12, 18 to provide a second compacting stage, and thus a plurality of compacting stages may be provided according to a further feature of my invention. The roll 12 will have at its exterior surface a speed less than that of the exterior surface of the roll 10, so as to provide compacting of the web 17 between the rolls 10 and 12, and the roll 18 will in turn have at its exterior surface a speed less than the exterior surface speed of the roll 12, so that in this way further compacting will be provided in the gap between the rolls 12 and 18. If desired, the exterior surface of the roll 12 can have a coefiicient of friction greater than that of the exterior surface of the roll 10, and in the same way the exterior surface of the roll 18 may be provided with a coefiicient of friction greater than that of the exterior surface of the roll 12, and this may be achieved simply by making the exterior surface of roll 12 somewhat rougher than the exterior surface of the roll 10, and the exterior surface of the roll 18 somewhat rougher than the exterior surface of the roll 12.
The action which takes place at each compacting stage of my invention is illustrated in detail in FIG. 3. Of course, the illustrated compacting zone extends transversely across the entire width of the elongated web of fabric or the like which is treated as it moves continuously through my apparatus. Diagrammatically shown in FIG. 3 are a pair of adjustable rails 20 and 21 which respectively form parts of the slide members 11 and 13 and which are adjustable toward and away from each other in any suitable way such as, for example, that described below in connection with FIG. 7. Thus, the ends of the slide members 11 and 13 which are directed toward each other and which are situated adjacent the gap between the rolls 10 and 12 can be moved toward and away from each other while remaining parallel to each other, so that in this way the length of the compacting zone in the direction of travel of the web can be increased or decreased. This compacting zone of my invention has an approximately rectangular cross section, and the length A-B of the compacting zone will be determined by the distance between the tips or free edges of the end rails 20 and 21 of the slide members 11 and 13. The thickness or depth C-D of the compacting zone is determined by the dis tance between the exterior surfaces of the rolls 10 and 12. Because of the relatively large diameters of these rolls, as compared to the distance between the tips or free edges of the slide members which define the dimension A-B of the compacting zone, the exterior surfaces of the rolls can be considered as substantially flat directly at the compacting zone itself, so as to provide it with the substantially rectangular configuration indicated in FIG. 3.
One of the important features of my invention resides in maintaining the thickness C-D of the gap between the cooperating rolls and 12 at a size, with respect to the thickness of the web 17 which is treated, enabling the web to slide freely through the compacting zone, although the zone is kept at a small enough size to prevent any buckling of the web in the compacting zone. In the event, however, that it is desired to provide the web of textile material or the like with transversely extending fold lines, then of course the depth C-D of the compacting gap can be increased, and, if desired, the speed differential between the rolls 10 and 12 can also be increased, so that in this way transversely extending fold lines can be introduced into the web. Of course, all of the above remarks made with respect to the cooperation of the rolls 10 and 12 are equally applicable to the cooperation between the rolls 12 and 18.
As was indicated above, FIG. 3 shows adjustable rails 20 and 21 of the slide members 11 and 13, and FIG. 7 illustrates one possible example of a structure for adjusting these rails which form the free, tip edges of the slide members. Thus, referring to FIG. 7 where the structure is shown for the slide member 11, it will be seen that the adjustable rail 20 is connected by an elongated strip 27 to the body 25 of the slide member 11, and this strip 27 is formed with an elongated slot 28 through which a pair of screws 29 extend. These screws are threaded into the body 25 so that the shanks of the screws form together with the slot 28 a pin-and-slot guide for the rail 20, and when the position of the latter is adjusted the screws 29 can be tightened so as to maintain the adjusted position. As is apparent from FIG. 7, the concave surface of the slide member 11 which is directed toward the roll 10 is made up almost entirely of the surface 32, while the final tip portion of the slide member is provided by the surface 33 of the slide rail 20. This surface 33 forms an extension of the surface 32 with practically no perceptible change from the surface 32, as a result of the inclination of the surface 33 with respect to the surface 32, as indicated in FIG. 7, so that in this way while the rail 20 can be adjusted nevertheless there is no perceptible interruption in the concave surface of the slide member 11. Of course, a pair of strips 27 are respectively provided at the opposed ends of the rail 20 and are connected to the body 25 in the manner shown in FIG. 7, and this structure shown in FIG. 7 for the slide member 11 is of course repeated for the remaining slide members.
Referring now to FIG. 4, it will be seen that the embodiment of my invention illustrated therein includes the same first roll 10 which serves to introduce the web 17 into the compacting zone providing the treatment of my invention. The same slide member 11 also cooperates with the roll 10. However, with the embodiment of FIG. 4 the second roll 22 has a structure which will provide transverse compacting of the web, so that the web is compacted from its outer side edges toward its center in a direction transverse to the direction of longitudinal movement of the web. A slide member 23, identical with the other slide members, cooperates with the roll 22. This embodiment also includes the endless band 14 which forms a transporting means for transporting the web, without any further stressing thereof, to a fixing device such as the calender roll 15.
Referring now to FIG. 5, the rolls 10 and 22 as well as the slide member 11 are shown in a top plan view, with the central intermediate portions of these elements omitted for convenience. FIG. 5 clearly shows the plurality of guide means 24 carried by the roll 22 for guiding the web inwardly away from the ends of the roll 22 toward the center thereof so as to produce the transverse compacting. This plurality of guide means 24 takes the form of elongated endless surface portions of the roll 22 which extend around the axis thereof and which are respectively situated in planes, or at least substantially in planes, which are inclined with respect to a plane passing transversely across and through the axis of the roll 22 so as to be normal thereto. The structure of the endless guide means 24 may take the form of grooves which are formed in the exterior surface of the roll 22 or they may take the form of ribs which are raised from the exterior surface of the roll 22 and which are endless and situated in the planes which are inclined with respect to the plane normal to the plane of the axis of the roll 22. Of course, these endless guide means 24 may be curved somewhat as indicated in FIG. 5, although the results of the invention will also be achieved with guides which are situated in planes. Where the guides 24 are in the form of ribs raised from the surface of the roll 22, these ribs may be formed by suitable wires having a predetermined cross-sectional configuration and welded or otherwise joined to the exterior surface of the roll 22. With the roll 22 rotating in the direction of the arrow X indicated in FIGS. 4 and 5, it is apparent that the plurality of guide means 24 acting on the web will have a component directing the web inwardly toward the center of the roll, so as to produce the transverse compacting. FIG. 6 shows a developed view of the exterior surface of the roll 22 indicating how the plurality of guides 24 not only are situated in planes which are inclined with respect to a plane normal to the axis of the roll, but in addition illustrating how the extent of an inclination gradually increases from the center toward the outer ends of the roll, so that the forces compacting the web transversely toward the center of the roll are greater at the ends of the roll and gradually diminish toward the center of the roll.
Thus, the structure of FIGS. 4 and 5, when the roll 22 turns in the direction of the arrow X, will act on the web 17 with the plurality of guide means 24 so as to transversely compact the web inwardly toward the center of the roll while the web travels through the gap defined between the rolls and between the slide member 23 and the roll 22. Therefore, when the treated web is in the form of a woven fabric having warp and weft yarns, the warp yarns will of course be crowded in toward each other by the transverse compacting structure of my invention and the bulging of the weft yarn about the warp yarns, over and under which the weft yarns pass, will be increased. Of course, the extent of movement of the outermost warp yarns toward the center of the web is greater than the extent of movement of the central warp yarns in order to compensate for the shifting of all of the yarns toward the center of the web.
It is apparent from the above description that with the apparatus of my invention the web which is treated is nowhere pushed through a zone of restriction whose thickness or depth is substantially less than the thickness which would naturally be assumed by the web itself, and at the same time the web is guided so that it slides at all times along relatively large surfaces of the structure of my invention.
In the case where a particularly great degree of compacting is desired, such as where the difference between the speeds of rotation of the pair of cooperating compacting rolls is relatively great, the compacting force will 0ppose the movement of the web through the gap defined between the first roll and the slide member cooperating therewith. The distance between the pair of cooperating compacting rolls as well as between the latter and the slide members which cooperate therewith is as a rule so selected that the web cannot yield transversely. However, it is possible to adjust this distance so that after compacting the web has a crepe or pleated structure.
The web which is treated travels along the completely smooth surface of the slide members as a result of the clinging of the web to the exterior surfaces of the rolls, and of course the rate of travel of the web in the region of the second roll will be less than in the region of the immediately preceding first roll. In order to adapt the second roll to the properties of different textile qualities, the second roll can have its exterior surface provided with a greater coeflicient of friction than that of the first roll,
and the slide member which cooperates with the second roll can also have a greater coefiicient of friction than that of the first slide member. Moreover, it is possible to adjust the distance of the second slide member from the second roll, with which it cooperates, in such a way that a light uniform pressure will be applied to the web in the gap defined between the second roll and the second slide member cooperating therewith. Of course, reference here to a second roll is intended to refer to the second roll of any given stage so that the second roll is to be taken here as meaning with reference to an immediately preceding treating roll and can refer not only to the roll 12 with respect to the roll 16, but also to the roll 18 with respect to the roll 12. By the addition of further rolls which progressively rotate at slower speeds it is of course possible to add as many compacting stages as desired, and this of course has been indicated in FIG. 2.
Furthermore, the structure of FIGS. 46 which provides a transverse compacting of a web in the direction of the weft yarns is also a highly desirable feature which heretofore has not been produced by the known machines. Thus, with the structure of my invention it is possible to arrange subsequent to the rolls which provide longitudinal compacting the structure of FIGS. 4-6 for providing transverse compacting. As may be seen from FIG. 9, a structure precisely like that of FIG. 2 is provided except that instead of an additional roll 18 cooperating with the roll 12 to provide a second stage of longitudinal compacting, the roll 22 of FIG. 4 is used to replace the roll 13 so as to provide with the roll 12 an additional stage of transverse compacting of the web, and in this way both longitudinal and transverse compacting can be achieved.
Naturally a plurality of rolls similar to the rolls 22 may be arranged in a series to provide a plurality of transverse compacting stagesl Transverse compacting roll 22 will in general be driven so that its exterior surface travels at a speed greater than that of the immediately preceding roll, such as the roll 10 or the roll 12, and the guide means 24 can either be somewhat curved as indicated in FIG. or can be situated in planes inclined to a plane normal to the axis of the roller 22, as indicated in FIG. 6. However, these guides can also be stepped so that instead of being straight or curved they have intermediate portions which extend for a short distance parallel to the axis of the roll 22, for example, and thus a considerable variation in the configuration of the guides 24 can be provided.
It is of advantage to provide a structure for heating the rolls and/or the slide members cooperating therewith, so that in this way the compacting can be prefixed before the final fixing which takes place at a calendering roll or the like. The final fixing can of course take place in a known way by a heat treatment such as that provided by a felt calendering roll. Immediately after the last compacting stage the web is received by the transporting means 14 which operates to transport the web to the final fixing treatment, provided by the calendering roll 15, without any further stressing of the web as it is transported by the transporting means 14.
Of course, with the structure of the invention, structure such as the bores 30 and the walls 31 shown in FIG. 1 can be used to treat the compacted web with steam, air or any chemical agents, as is well known in the treatment of textiles. The structure such as the apertures 30 and walls 31 of FIG. 1 can be used to direct into engagement with the web a fluid in gas or liquid form or even a powder.
The entire machine which has the structure of my invention incorporated therein can take many different forms depending upon the particular treatment. One possible example of such a machine is shown in FIG. 8. Thus, the table 40 of the machine is supported at a suitable elevation above the floor by standards 41. At the left end of the machine, as viewed in FIG. 8, is a supply roll 42 from which the web 17, which is to be treated, can be derived. The machine will in general have 8 a Width of 2 meters corresponding to the usual width of lengths of fabric.
From the supply roll 42 the web 17 is passed over steam-furnishing units 43 so as to dampen the Web before it is given the treatment of the invention, and in this way the setting of the compacting is enhanced. A suitable hood 44 is arranged over the steam-furnishing units 43. From the humidifying assembly 43, 44 the web travels around a guide roller 45, supported on any suitable standards 46, to the structure of my invention per see, this structure being supported between a pair of standards 47 which are mounted on top of the table 40. The standards 47 are provided with suitable cutouts so as to support for movement bearings 48 and 51 in which the ends of the rolls 10 and 12 are supported. The bearing 48 is connected to an adjusting structure 49, and of course the other end of the roll 10 which is not visible in FIG. 8 is supported in precisely the same Way. The adjusting structure 49 can take the form of a suitable cylinder slidably supporting a piston whose rod is connected to the bearing 48, and this cylinder may be supplied with liquid or air under pressure for adjusting the position of the bearings 48 of the roll 10 so that the axis of the latter may be shifted while remaining at all times parallel to itself. However, any other adjusting structure, such as suitable rotary nuts engaging screws connected to the pair of bearings 48 at the ends of the roll 10, can also be provided.
In much the same way the shaft of the compacting roll 12 is supported at its ends in the pair of bearings 51 which are supported for slidable horizontal movement in a suitable guide formed in the pair of standards 47, both of which are constructed as shown for the standard visible in FIG. 8, and here again an adjusting structure 52 may be connected with the bearings 51 for adjusting the latter and the roll 12 therewith. The adjusting structure 52 will of course be identical with the adjusting structure 49, and these adjusting structures may be used to adjust the size of the compacting gap between the pair of rolls 10 and 12.
In addition, the slide members 11 and 13 are respectively connected with adjusting devices 54 and 55 which also may be hydraulic, pneumatic, or mechanical, as well as electrical, if desired, and with these structures it is possible to raise and lower the slide members 11 and 13 so as to control the width of the gaps which they define with their cooperating rolls 10 and 12, respectively. In addition it is to be noted that the adjusting devices 49, 52, 54 and 55 can also be actuated for the purpose of withdrawing the rolls and the slide members to initial starting positions providing easy threading 0f the web initially through the structure of my invention, and thereafter the structure may be returned to positions providing the gaps of the required thickness.
The rolls which support the endless transporting band 14- are also carried by any suitable standards supported on the table 40, and the same is true of the roll 15 which provides the final fixing in the manner described above.
A suitable drive such as an endless chain 50 delivers rotation from any suitable gearing, motor, or the like to a sprocket which is fixed to the shaft connected to the roll 10, and another drive which includes an endless sprocket chain 53, for example, transmits the drive to the roll 12, and of course these rolls will be driven at dififerent speeds to provide the compacting of my invention. In the same way a sprocket chain 56 is driven from any suitable source and passes about a sprocket wheel fixed to the shaft which is coaxially connected to the calendering roll 15 so as to rotate the latter.
Finally, the web 17 is received on a take-up roll 57 wound about a shaft or the like whose free ends are received between pairs of parallel vertically extending guide ribs 58 fixed to the inner faces of a pair of standards 59 carried by the table 40 and serving to support a pair of rolls 6% on which the take-up roll 57 is supported.
The left roll 60 is driven from a suitable chain drive 61 so that the take-up roll will rotate in a counterclockwise direction, as viewed in FIG. 8, and thus the web 17 will continuously travel from left to right, as viewed in FIG. 8, receiving the treatment of my invention and being wound up onto the take-up roll 57 whose central axis can continually rise while the roll is driven by the left roll 60 of FIG. 8.
Of course, the primary advantages which are achieved by my invention are on the one hand that the web itself is very greatly protected against becoming damaged by the treatment, and on the other hand the treating rolls and the slide members which cooperate therewith are not stressed to any appreciable extent so that they do not become worn. Further advantages reside in the possibility of providing multiple stages of compacting as well as providing physical or chemical treatment of the web simultaneously with the compacting thereof. In addition, the further transporting of the web in a completely unstressed condition by the endless band 14 to the fixing means provides a great advantage since the compacting is not disturbed in any way prior to the final fixing thereof. Above all, the highly reliable constructive features of my apparatus, as compared to the prior machines, are of very great advantage. While with the known machines it is critical to provide a uniform resistance to movement of the web through the zone of restriction so that any curving of a pressure rail or the like is a fault which must be corrected with the prior art machines, with the apparatus of the invention such a high degree of accuracy and precision in the structure, not only as it is manufactured but also during the operation, is not required.
Furthermore, the possibility of achieving both longitudinal and transverse compacting effects is of great advantage, particularly when these effects are achieved by the single machine according to my invention, and especially where there are a plurality of compacting stages such as, for example, two longitudinal compacting stages and one transverse compacting stage.
Naturally my invention is not limited to the combination of longitudinal and transverse compacting, since my invention can be used either for longitudinal compacting alone or for transverse compacting alone. Such separate compacting either only longitudinally or only transversely can then be carried out in separate machines, whereever it is desired to provide only a longitudinal compacting or only a transverse compacting.
As a result of the treatment provided by the apparatus of my invention it is possible to achieve in a mechanical way a degree of stretchability, of textile webs particularly, in the warp direction or in the weft direction or in both directions, which heretofore has not been possible by treatment of a fabric after it is woven. Similar effects have been achieved only with thermoplastic yarns which are crimped before they are woven into a fabric.
1. In apparatus for continuously and mechanically compacting an elongated web of flexible fibrous material in a transverse direction, a rotary first roll having an exterior surface for engaging the Web and transporting the latter, a first slide member having a concave surface of substantially the same curvature as the exterior surface of said first roll directed toward and coaxially arranged with respect to the latter to define therewith a gap through which the web moves while transported during rotation of said first roll, a rotary second roll parallel to said first roll and having an exterior surface receiving said web from said first roll to continue the transportation of said web, said second roll defining with said first roll a gap through which the web travels when moving from said first to said second roll, a second slide member having a concave surface of substantially the same curvature as said exterior surface of said second roll directed toward the latter and located adjacent thereto substantially coaxially therewith for defining with said second roll a third gap through which the web moves during transportation by said first and second rolls, said slide members respectively having ends situated adjacent said gap between said rolls, and guide means carried by said second roll at the exterior surface thereof for guiding the Web inwardly away from the ends of said second roll and toward the center thereof as said web moves successively through said gaps, so that said web is transversely compacted, said second roll having a speed of rotation greater than that of said first roll.
2. In apparatus as recited in claim 1, said guide means comprising a plurality of endless guiding portions all extending around the axis of said second roll and respectively situated substantially in planes which are inclined with respect to a plane which is normal to said axis of said second roll, said planes respectively having with respect to said plane normal to said axis of said second roll inclinations which in the region of an intermediate portion of said second roll are less than in the region of the ends of said second roll.
3. In apparatus as recited in claim 1, said guide means being in the form of a plurality of surface portions of said second roll extending around the axis thereof and respectively formed with grooves which are endless and which are respectively situated substantially in planes which are inclined with respect to a normal plane extending perpendicularly across the axis of said second roll.
4. In apparatus as recited in claim 1, said guide means including a plurality of endless ribs respectively fixed to and projecting from the exterior surface of said second roll and respectively situated substantially in planes which are inclined with respect to a plane normal to and extending across the axis of said second roll.
5. In apparatus as recited in claim 1, at least a third roll having an exterior surface receiving the web from said second roll, said third roll also carrying a guide means for guiding the web inwardly toward the center of and away from the ends of said third roll and said third roll rotating at a speed greater than that of said second roll.
6. In apparatus for compacting in a continuous mechanical manner an elongated web of fibrous material, a rotary first roll having an exterior surface for engaging and transporting the web, a rotary second roll parallel to said first roll and having an exterior surface for receiving the web from said first roll, said surfaces of said rolls defining between themselves a gap through which the web moves, said second roll cooperating with said first roll to compact the web mechanically and continuously as the web is transported by said rolls, and a pair of slide members respectively having concave surfaces directed toward said exterior surfaces of said rolls and defining with said exterior surfaces gaps through which the web travels, said slide members being respectively situated adjacent the ends of said gap defined between said rolls and all of said gaps having a thickness substantially corresponding to that of the web so that the web is not pushed through any restricted zone of substantially lesser thickness than that which the web naturally assumes, said second roll having a speed of rotation greater than that of said first roll and carrying a guide means for guiding the web inwardly away from the ends of said second roll toward a central portion thereof, so as to transversely compact said web.
7. In apparatus for mechanically and continuously compacting a flexible web of fibrous material, a plurality of parallel rolls respectively having exterior surfaces engaging the web for transporting the latter from the exterior surface of one roll to the exterior surface of the next roll, each pair of successive rolls defining between themselves a gap through which the web passes, and
said plurality of rolls including at least one roll which cooperates with the next preceding roll and has a speed of rotation less than that of said next preceding roll for longitudinally compacting the web and at least one additional roll which cooperates with the next preceding roll and has a speed of rotation greater than that of said next preceding roll for transversely compacting the Web, and a plurality of slide members respectively having concave surfaces directed toward and being substantially coaxial with the exterior surfaces of said rolls and defining with said exterior surfaces gaps of substantially uniform thickness situated adjacent the gaps defined between the successive rolls, and all of said gaps having thicknesses respectively corresponding substantially to the thickness pushed through any restricted zone of a thickness substantially less than that Which the web naturally assumes.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,263,712 11/1941 Wrigley et a1. 2618.6 2,765,514 10/1956 Walton 2618.6 3,015,145 11/1962 Cohn et a1. 2618.6 3,100,925 8/1963 Messinger 26l8.6 3,226,796 1/1966 Fox et al. 2618.6 XR 3,235,933 2/1966 Catallo et a1. 26l8.6 3,236,718 2/1966 Cohn et al 2618.6 XR 3,287,784 11/1966 Loftin et al.
of the web so that the latter is advanced without being 15 ROBERT R. MACKEY, Primary Examiner