|Publication number||US3472411 A|
|Publication date||Oct 14, 1969|
|Filing date||Mar 4, 1968|
|Priority date||Mar 4, 1968|
|Publication number||US 3472411 A, US 3472411A, US-A-3472411, US3472411 A, US3472411A|
|Inventors||Turner Lloyd S|
|Original Assignee||Basic Products Dev Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (3), Referenced by (30), Classifications (7)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Oct. 14, 1969 L. STTURNER 3,472,411
SAFETY CLOSURE FOR A BOTTLE Filed March 4, 1968 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 I IXWENTOR. L LOYD' TUBA/E2 Oct. 14, 5. TURNER SAFETY CLOSURE FOR A BOTTLE Filed March 4, 1968 5 SheetsSheet 2 Fig 17 mwsmoa LLaYD 5. TUBA/E2 III P'lllll I/II I,
Oct. 14, 1969 5, TURNER SAFETY CLOSURE FOR A BOTTLE 3 Shets-Sheet 5 Filed March 4. 1968 INVENTOR.
LLOYD S. TURNER ATTORNEY United States Patent 3,472,411 SAFETY CLOSURE FOR A BOTTLE Lloyd S. Turner, Los Gatos, Calif., assignor to The Basic Products Development Company, Oakland, Calif., a corporation of California Continuation-impart of application Ser. No. 661,092, Aug. 16, 1967. This application Mar. 4, 1968, Ser. No. 716,681
Int. Cl. B65d 55/02 US. Cl. 215-9 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A bottle cap is enclosed within a cover member. Ratcheting parts lock the cap to the cover member for one direction of rotation to screw the cap onto a bottle, but release the cap for the other direction of rotation. The top surface of the cover member is formed as a pliable diaphragm which may be depressed to engage mating parts between the cap and cover to unscrew the cap from the bottle. The diaphragm may be transparent, and may have a trade name or distinctive mark formed in relief on the under side which may be depressed to engage with the trade name or mark in complementary relief on the surface of the cap. Alternatively, the top surface of the diaphragm may have irregularities or raised lettering to facilitate unscrewing by the combination of hand pressure and rotation without a grasping of the sides.
This invention relates to improved safety closures for bottles or the like which may contain medicines, pills or other potentially dangerous substances to prevent access thereto by small children. This patent application is a continuation-in-part of a copending application of this inventor, Ser. No. 661,092, filed Aug. 16, 1967, and now abandoned.
Present day households have medicine cabinets or the like for storage of drugs, medicines, and other potentially dangerous substances. Although the medicine cabinets are usually placed high above the floor level, children have been known to climb on furniture or other objects to gain access thereto, and have been known to take the tablets or capsules with disastrous consequences. To safely store such potentially harmful substances, and to protect children therefrom, it is desirable to use bottles or other containers that may not be opened by small children.
It is an object of this invention to provide an improved safety closure for a bottle or the like, and more particularly, it is an object to provide such a bottle closure that can be opened only by the application of pressure against a surface which is not normally used in removal of a bottle cap or closure.
Another object is to provide an improved bottle closure having a cap and a rotatable cover whereby the cap is not directly accessible and may not be unscrewed by mere rotation of the outer cover-it being necessary to depress a pliable diaphragm of the outer cover to engage mating parts for locking the cap to the cover such that rotational movement of the cover will be transmitted to the cap.
A further object is to provide an improved bottle cap and cover with a ratchet arrangement such that the cap may be screwed onto or tightened on a bottle by rotating the cover in one direction, but the cap may not be unscrewed or loosened from the bottle by mere rotation of the cover in the opposite direction.
Another object of this invention is to provide an improved safety cap and cover assembly wherein a pliable diaphragm part of the cover must be pressed downwardly to engage mating parts between the cap and the cover;
3 ,472 ,41 1 Patented Oct. 14, 1969 ice and more particularly, it is an object to provide a transparent diaphragm with a distinctive trade name or other mark formed in relief and in complementary relief on the engageable surfaces of the cover diaphragm and on the cap to provide the mating parts whereby the parts on the cap and on the cover may be alined by viewing through the transparent diaphragm.
Yet another object is to provide an improved safety closure for a bottle or other container wherein a pliable or resilient diaphragm cover may be depressed and r0- tated by an arthritic or other person who may not have the full use of his fingers for grasping and turning the sides of the safety closure; and more particularly, it is an object to provide irregularities such as raised letters or the like on the upper surface of the pliable diaphragm such that the safety closure may be removed from the bottle by placing the bottle on a firm supporting surface, and then pressing downwardly and twisting with the palm of ones hand to depress and turn the diaphragm cover without a necessity of grasping the sides.
Other objects and advantages will become apparent throughout the progress of the specification which follows. The accompanying drawings illustrate certain selected embodiments of this invention and the views therein are as follows:
FIGURE 1 is a bottom view of a cover member which is a part of the bottle closure of this invention;
FIGURE 2 is a top view of the bottle cap member which may be assembled within the cover member;
FIGURE 3 is a perspective view of the cover member;
FIGURE 4 is a similar perspective view of the cap member which may be fitted over or screwed on a bottle;
FIGURE 5 is a vertical section of the cover member;
FIGURE 6 is a similar vertical section of the cap;
FIGURE 7 is a vertical section of the assembled cap and cover assembly as it would be fitted over a bottle;
FIGURE 8 is a bottom view of another embodiment of the cover member;
FIGURE 9 is a top view of a corresponding cap member;
FIGURE 10 is a section of the cover member of FIGURE 8;
FIGURE 11 is a side view with a section broken away of the cap member of FIGURE 9;
FIGURE 12 is a section of the cap and cover members assembled;
FIGURE 13 is a bottom view of a cover member of yet another embodiment;
FIGURE 14 is a top view of the cap of the embodimerit corresponding to FIGURE 13;
FIGURE 15 is a section of the cap member of FIG- URE 13;
FIGURE 16 is a side view of the cap member of FIG- URE 14;
FIGURE 17 is a section of the cap and cover members assembled;
FIGURE 18 is an exploded view of cap and cover members for a further embodiment of this invention; wherein a distinctive mark is provided in complementary relief on the engageable surfaces;
FIGURE 19 is a similar exploded view of cap and cover members wherein a distinctive :name is provided in complementary relief on the engageable surfaces;
FIGURE 20 is a perspective view of a cover member illustrating another embodiment of this invention, wherein the upper surface of the diaphragm contains irregularities in the form of raised radial segments; and
FIGURE 21 is a similar perspective view of another cover member wherein irregularities are provided by raised letters.
Briefly stated, according to this invention, a safety closure for a bottle 21 includes a cap 22 which may be screwed upon the bottle, and a cover member 23 positioned to enclose and rotate about the cap 22. Ratcheting means may be provided between the cap 22 and the cover 23 by inclined surfaces 24 formed integrally with the cap 22 and further complementary surfaces 25 similarly formed with the cover 23. The cover member is generally cylindrical with a pliable diaphragm-like top closure 26. In addition to the complementary ratcheting parts, the cap 22 and the cover 23 contains complementary mating parts which normally are disengaged, but will become engaged when the top diaphragm 26 of the cover 23 is depressed by pressure from above (see FIG- URE 7). When depressed, the mating parts engage to lock the cover and the cap together, whereupon the safety closure assembly may be unscrewed from the bottle 21.
In the embodiment shown by FIGURES 1 through 7, the cap member 22 is formed with internal threads 27 to cooperate with the threads of the bottle top, such that the cap may be secured thereon by screwing or twisting. The cover member 23 encloses the sides and top surfaces of the cap 22 and is positioned to rotate thereover. An inwardly extending lip 28 provides a reduced diameter opening in the cover member 23, which is sufficiently pliable to be pressed or forced over an enlarged lip 29 of the cap 22. After assembly the lips 28 and 29 will prevent the cover 23 from separating from the cap 22.
The cover member 23 is formed with cylindrical side walls 31 with a thin pliable top closure 26. As shown more clearly by FIGURE 6 the top surface 32 of the cap 22 may be concave to receive and closely underly the pliable top or diameter 26 of the cover member 23. As particularly shown by FIGURES and 6, the cover member is formed with rounded protrusions 33 extending downwardly; and the cap 22 is formed with complementary depressions 34. As shown by FIGURES 1 and 2 the protrusions 33 and the depressions 34 are equally separated about a circle in the corresponding surfaces the center of the circle being the axis of the assembly. The protrusions 33 and depressions 34 constitute mating parts which will lock the cap to the cover when the top diaphragm 26 of the cover is depressed as indicated at FIGURE 7. The unscrew the cap 22 from a bottle 21 the diaphragm 26 is depressed by pressure thereagainst, and the entire assembly is rotated. The torque from the cover 23 will be transmitted to rotate and unscrew the cap 22.
In the embodiment of FIGURES 1 through 7, ratcheting means are provided by peripheral inclined or cam surfaces 24 which will cooperate with complementary surfaces 25 in the interior of the cover 23. The safety closure assembly may be screwed onto a bottle 21 in a normal manner since the abutting surfaces of the cams 24-25 will transmit torque from the cover 23 to the cap 22 to permit the screwing on or tightning of the cap upon the bottle. If the cover 23 is rotated in the opposite direction (without depressing the diaphragm 26) the cam surfaces 24-25 will simply ratchet past each other with the pliable cover 23 raising slightly in its normal position over the cap 22, while the protrusions 33 and mating depressions 34 will not be engaged and will pass clear of each other.
In the embodiment of this invention shown by FIG- URES 8 through 12, the ratcheting means constitutes a modified cam surface 24' formed as a part of the cap 22 and downward protrusions 36 formed integrally with the cover 23. The protrusions or studs 36 ride upon the cam surface 24' and ratchet therewith in a manner similar to that shown by the prior embodiment.
As shown by FIGURES 8 through 12, the mating parts constitute radially extending grooves 37 which intersect and may form perpendicular diameters across the top surface of the cap 22. A pair of radial or diametrical ribs 38 is formed extending downwardly from the inner surface of the diaphragm 26 within the cap 23. The grooves 37 are positioned and dimensioned to receive the ribs 38 when the diaphragm 26 is depressed as indicated by FIGURE 12. In the embodiment of FIGURES 13 through 17, the ratcheting means includes similar studs or protrusions 36 and cammed or inclined surfaces 24 as in the prior embodiment FIGURES 8 through 12 The mating parts for the embodiment FIGURES 14 through 17 comprise elongated radially extending grooves or depressions 37 formed in the outer surface of the cap 22, and similar elongated radially extending protrusions 38 formed in the inner surface of the cover 23. As shown in FIGURES l3 and 14, the mating parts are equally spaced about a circle and may be several in number to form a perpendicular or other configuration similar to the parts 37-38 of FIGURES 8 and 9.
As shown and described above, the mating parts have been protrusions extending from the cover member 23 and depressions or grooves formed in the cap 22. Obviously, the parts could be reversed such that the protrusions could be formed in the cap 22 and the depressions or holes may be formed in the cover member 23. Similarly, the embodiments shown by FIGURES 8 through 17 include cammed or inclined surfaces formed about the periphery of the cap 22 and protruding surface formed about the periphery of the cap 22 and protruding surfaces extending downwardly from the inside of the cover 23. Obviously, these parts may also be reversed such that the cammed surfaces may be formed in the cover 23 and the protrusions which bear against the cammed surface may be formed on the cap 22.
In the embodiments shown in FIGURES 1-17, it is contemplated that the mating surfaces have symmetry about the axis of rotation; and that when the top diaphragm is depressed, the mating surfaces will engage without any special alinement of one member with respect to the other. The mating surfaces of the cap 22 and cover 23 will engage with no more than a quarter turn while downward pressure is exerted to depress the diaphragm surface of the cover member. On the other hand, the embodiments of FIGURES 18- and 19 have mating surfaces which form distinctive marks or names which are not symmetrical with respect to the rotatable axis of the members. In these embodiments, additional security is provided in that the cover 23 must be rotated to a position of alinement with respect to the cap 22 before the mating surfaces may be engaged. In the embodiments of FIGURES l-l7, the mating parts may be engaged in various positions of alinement; but in the embodiments of FIGURES 18 and 19', the mating parts may be engaged in only one special position of alinement.
In FIGURE 18, a screw on bottle cap 22 is formed with cam surfaces 24 about the periphery of the top surface thereof. A cooperating lug or downward protrusion 36 is formed on the inside peripheral portion of the outer cover member 23. These surfaces 24 and 36 provide a ratcheting arrangement such that a torque or rotation-a1 force may be transmitted from the cover member 23 to cause the cap 22 to rotate in one direction only. Thus, the cap 22 may be screwed on a bottle by clockwise rotation of the cover 23; but the cap may not be unscrewed from a bottle by counter-clockwise rotation of the cover 23. The cover member is somewhat pliable to permit a degree of deformation, such that the protrusions 36 may ratchet or move over the cam surface 24 without transmitting counter-clockwise rotation to the cap 22.
A distinctive mark 41 is formed in relief on the inside surface of the pliable diaphragm 26 of the cover 23. A similar mark 42 is formed in complementary relief on the top surface of the cap 22. By way of example, the configuration of an arrow is shown in FIGURE 18 which is intended to represent a distinctive trademark, or the like, for identifying a particular product such as capsules, pills or other medicines contained in a bottle 21 having the safety closure of this invention. As shown in FIGURE 18 the arrow 41 protrudes downwardly in a thickened portion of the pliable diaphragm 26; and the similar arrow 42 is formed as a recess in the top surface of the cap 22. When the cap and cover are assembled together the pliable diaphragm 26 will normally be in a raised position over the top surface of the cap 22 as shown by the dashed lines in FIGURE 7. In the raised position, there is sufficient clearance between the pliable diaphragm 26 and the top surface of the cap, such that the parts 41-42 will not be engaged with each other. In this condition, the cover will be free to ratchet and turn without unscrewing the cap from the bottom. To remove the cap, it is necessary that the distinctive marks 41-42 be alined with each other; whereupon the diaphragm may be depressed by a downward force, represented by the arrow of FIGURE 7, to engage the marks 41-42.
FIGURE 19 shows a cap 22 and cover 23 similar to the structure of FIGURE 18, but with a distinctive name formed from characters in relief and in complementary relief. Thus, the characters are shown in letters of increased thickness protruding downwardly from the inside of the pliable diaphragm 26, and similar letters formed as recesses in the top surf-ace of the cap 22. The relief characters of the members are engageable with each other to provide the mating surfaces which are engageable for transmitting a torque from the cover 23 to the cap 22.
The pliable diaphragm 26 0f the cover member 23 may be formed of a clear plastic or other substance which is transparent to a degree such that the distinctive mark 41 or trade name 43 of the inner surface of diaphragm 26, and the similar mark 42 or name 44 of the top surface of the cap will be visible from above. Thus, an adult desiring to remove the safety closure from the bottle may see both marks 41 and 42 or both names 43 and 44 through the diaphragm closure 26. With both parts in view, the cover member 23 may be rotated into alinement with the cap 22, and then the diaphragm 26 may be depressed to engage the mating parts for unscrewing the cap.
It will be appreciated that a person opening the security closure of this invention must exert pressure against the diaphragm or top of the cover 23; and simultaneously must rotate or twist the assembly. The pressure required against the top diaphragm may be determined by the pliability of the plastic or other material used in forming the cover 23, and by the thickness dimension of the diaphragm 26. This pressure may be adjusted to be sufiiciently great to prevent successful operation by a small child, but should be within the capability of an adult.
The embodiments of this invention which are shown in FIGURES 20 and 21 provide a security closure which may not be opened by small children, but which may nevertheless be opened by an adult having impaired hands without full finger movement. More specifically, the security closures illustrated in part by FIGURES 20 and 21 may be opened by a crippled person or an arthritic by pressing down and twisting with the palm of his hand, and without grasping the sides thereof.
FIGURE 20 illustrates the upper surface of a cover member 23 which may be used in conjunction with the structures shown in FIGURE 7, FIGURE 12 or FIG- URE 16. The cover member 23 comprises generally cylindrical sidewalls 31 and a top closure 26 which is a resilient or pliable diaphragm. The pliable diaphragm 26 is formed as a high friction surface. In FIGURE 20 the top diaphragm 26 is formed with a plurality of raised segments 47 which extend radially and are uniformly spaced about the center of the diaphragm cover. These raised radial segments 47 constitute a means for increasing friction for transmitting a torque from an external body such as a persons hand pressing against the upper surface of the diaphragm cover.
FIGURE 21 illustrates a similar cover 23 having sidewalls 31 and a pliable diaphragm top closure 26. In this case, the means for increasing the rotational friction are a series of raised characters or letters 48 which are formed on the upper surface of the pliable diaphragm 26. Thus, the raised letters 48 constitute irregularities in the surface of the top closure 26. As shown the raised letters 48 provide instructions which are understandable to an adult, but not to a pre-school child. The raised characters 48 could alternatively spell out a trademark or other information to identify the product or the like.
If an arthritic or other incapacitated person were to remove the safety closure of this invention from a bottle, the bottle would be placed upright as shown in FIGURE 7, and the diaphragm 26 would be depressed as shown by the arrow of FIGURE 7. Thus, the arrow of FIGURE 7 may be representative of the palm of a persons hand. The person may then rotate his hand, and the rotation thereof will be transmitted to the cover member by the frictional means 47 (FIGURE 20) or 48 (FIGURE 21). Since the pliable diaphragm 26 is depressed and the mating parts are engaged as shown in FIGURE 7, the rotation will be transmitted to the cap 22 which may be thereby unscrewed from the bottle 21.
As indicated heretofore, the parts may be assembled by pressing the cover member 23 downwardly over the cap 22. The cover member 23 may be molded of a plastic that is somewhat pliable or resilient such that the inwardly extending flange 28 on the cover member 23 may be forced over the outwardly extending flange or head 29 on the cap 22. After assembly, the flanges 28 and 29 will secure the cover member 23 over the cap 22, permitting rotational movement but preventing any substantial axial movement of the cover member 23 with respect to the cap 22. The cover 23 may ratchet over the cam surfaces 24, but the mating parts 33-34, 37-38, 41-42 or 43-44 may not be engaged by shifting the whole member as a unit in an axial direction. As shown in FIGURE 7, the peripheral parts of the cover 23 will engage the peripheral parts of the cap 22 preventing any downward movement of the cover 23. The mating parts must be brought into engagement by applying pressure to the center of the pliable diaphragm 26 such that the diaphragm is deformed downwardly. To unscrew and remove the safety closure of this invention, a person must press down the center of the top while simultaneously untwisting the assembly. This act requires manual dexterity Within the capabilities of an adult, but exceeding the capabilities of a small child. Therefore, this invention provides an important safety feature not provided by an assembly wherein the whole outer cover may move axially as a unit to engage mating parts for unscrewing an enclosed cap.
Since the cover member 23 may be forced over the flange 29 of a cap to provide a safety closure for a bottle, it follows that the cover member need not be used in certain instances where the safety feature is not desired. Thus, a pharmaceutical manufacturer may store his drugs and other products in bottles with only the caps 22 thereon. When a sale of his products is made for a hospital or for a doctors office or the like, the capped bottles may be delivered without cover members 23. On the other hand, when a sale is made to be used in a household, the cover members 23 may then he placed upon the bottles to protect small children of the household.
The safety closure of this invention provides an additional advantage in that the cover member 23 may be forced off from the lip 29 to separate the cap and the cover for cleaning or other puropses. There are no inaccessible cavities into which particles of food or medicine may be permanently lodged to grow stale or rancid. Thus, the entire assembly may be easily and properly cleaned.
This safety closure for a bottle or like container is economical to manufacture, since it consists of two parts-both easily molded from plastic. The cap member 22 may be molded from a hard material such as ureaformaldehyde polyethylene, and the cover member may be of a pliable plastic material.
Changes may be made in the form, construction and arrangement of the parts without departing from the spirit of the invention or sacrificing any of its advantages, and the right is hereby reserved to make all such changes as fall fairly within the scope of the following claims.
The invention is claimed as follows:
1. A safety closure assembly for a bottle comprising a cap member adapted to be screwed on and secured to the bottle, and a cover member enclosing the cap member over the bottle, said cover member having cylindrical sidewalls mounted to rotate about the cap member and secured from axial movement with respect to the cap member, said cover member having a continuous and unbroken pliable diaphragm closing over the cap member, said pliable diaphragm having a peripheral area integrally attached to the cylindrical sidewalls and held from axial movement thereby, said pliable diaphragm being deformable and having a central area which may be depressed by external pressure exerted thereagainst, said pliable diaphragm of the cover member and said cap member having mating parts which are normally disengaged and which are engageable when the central area of said pliable diaphragm is depressed, said mating parts being operable to engage and transmit torque from the cover member to unscrew the cap when the diaphragm is depressed by external pressure.
2. A safety closure assembly for a bottle in accordance with claim 1 wherein the mating parts comprise a plurality of rounded depressions uniformly spaced in a circle around a surface of one of the members, and a corresponding plurality of rounded protrusions uniformly spaced in a corresponding circle around an opposed surface of the other member, said rounded depressions being dimensioned and positioned to receive the rounded protrusions.
3. A safety closure for a bottle comprising a cap member adapted to be screwed on and secured to the bottle, and a cover member enclosing the cap member over the bottle, said cover member having cylindrical sidewalls mounted to rotate about the cap member and secured from axial movement with respect to the cap member, said cover member having a continuous and unbroken pliable diaphragm closing over the cap member, said pliable diaphragm being deformable whereby the diaphragm may be depressed by external pressure exerted thereagainst, said pliable diaphragm of the cover member and said cap member having mating parts which are normally disengaged and which are engageable when the pliable diaphragm is depressed, said mating parts being operable to engage and transmit torque from the cover member to unscrew the cap when the diaphragm is depressed by external pressure, said pliable diaphragm being transparent such that the mating parts on the pliable diaphragm of the cover member and on the cap member are visible through the diaphragm from points thereabove.
4. A safety closure for a bottle in accordance with claim 3 wherein the mating parts compirse a distinctive mark formed in relief on the pliable diaphragm, and a similar mark formed in complementary relief on the cap member, both said marks being visible through the diaphragm whereby the cover member may be rotated to aline the marks with respect to each other.
5. A safety closure for a bottle in accordance with claim 3 wherein the mating parts comprise a distinctive name formed in relief on the pliable diaphragm, and a similar name formed in complementary relief on the cap member, both said names being visible through the diaphragm whereby the cover member may be rotated to aline the names with respect to each other.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,055,524 9/1962 Glasbrenner 215 9 3,245,563 4/1966 Tuuri 215 9 3,338,444 8/1967 Velt 215-9 GEORGE T. HALL, Primary Examiner U.S. Cl. X.R. 21543
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|U.S. Classification||215/220, D09/454, D09/434|
|International Classification||B65D50/04, B65D50/00|