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Publication numberUS3474582 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 28, 1969
Filing dateJan 16, 1967
Priority dateJan 16, 1967
Publication numberUS 3474582 A, US 3474582A, US-A-3474582, US3474582 A, US3474582A
InventorsJohnson Theodore A, Wah Joe M
Original AssigneeBuilding Research Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Building system
US 3474582 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Oct. 28, 1969 J. M. WAH l-rrAL 3,474,582 I BUILDING SYSTEM Filed Jan. 16, 1967 6 Sheets-Sheet .l

INVENTOR. Joe M. Wah y Theodore A. Johnson 1%, W, vz4 m w W Attorneys Oct. 28, 1969 J. M. WAH ETAL BUILDING SYSTEM 6 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Jan. 16, 1967 Attorne s 4 mvsw'rox J08 M. Wah heodore A. Johnson #M, M

Oct. 28, 1969 J. M. WAH ETAL BUILDING SYSTEM 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed Jan. 16, 19s


Joe M BY Th Oct.28, 1969 J; M. mm :m 3,474,582

BUILDING SYSTEM Filed Jan. 16, 1967 6 Sheets-Sheet 4 /I INVENTOR.

Joe M Wah BY Theodore A. Johnson Attorneys Ot.28, 1969 MWA HAL v 3,474,582 v BUILDING SYSTEM Filed Jan. 16, 1967 l 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 v INVENTOR. Joe M. Wah BY Theodore A. Johnson M, [1 31; M 9 M Attorneys Oct. 28, 1969 J. M. WAH FI'AL BUILDING SYSTEM 6 Sheets-Sheet 6 Filed Jan. 16, 1967 INVENTOR. Joe M Wah BY Theodore A. Johnson /M, W 6 am M W Attorneys United States Patent U.S. Cl. 52-263 1 Claim ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A building system using prefabricated components is provided. The basic prefabricated components include side and end panels; foundation jacks; roof and floor truss joists; structural steel framing including support posts and channel joists; interior panels; windows and screens; porch deck canopy, steps, and porch; doors; and flashing, gutters, and downspouts. These components are assembled into two end modules and a number of center modules depending on the desired size of the building. The support posts of the system are fastened to the truss joists at two spaced points at each end. The posts themselves are spaced from one another and include side flanges for receiving wall panels.

The present invention is generally directed to a building system and more particularly to a building system using prefabricated components.

In the construction of temporary housing units, it is desirable that the units be durable, easily erected, as for example by two men, be capable of being put up and taken down many times during their life span, employ few components to minimize the manufacturing, warehousing, and replacement considerations, be flexible in both exterior and interior design, and be low in cost without sacrificing building quality or durability.

It is a general object of the present invention to provide a building system which incorporates all of the above desired features.

Accordingly, there is provided a building system in which a plurality of exterior side wall panels are provided which have a predetermined width. A plurality of floor truss joists are supported from a ground plane by spacer means so that the top surfaces of the joists are coplanar and horizontal. A plurality of roof truss joists are provided which are similar to said floor joists. Vertical support members have ends adapted to interlock with the floor and roof joists at two spaced points on each joist. The vertical supports which are on an exterior side wall are spaced from each other substantially the width of a side wall panel and have at least one flange for receiving an edge of a side wall panel.

The invention will become more clearly apparent from the following description when taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings. Referring to the drawings:

FIGURE 1 is a perspective view of a building system in accordance with the present invention;

FIGURE 2 is an exploded view of the building system of FIGURE 1 showing alternative components also;

FIGURE 3 is a schematic plan view illustrating the modular construction of the present invention;

FIGURE 4 is an enlarged perspective view of a portion of the building of FIGURE 1 broken away in several parts to show interior construction features;

FIGURE 5 is an enlarged cross-sectional view partially broken away taken along the line 5-5 of FIGURE 1;

FIGURE 6 is an enlarged cross-sectional view partially broken away taken substantially along the line 66 of FIGURE 1;

3,474,582 Patented Oct. 28, 1969 FIGURE 7 is an enlarged cross-sectional view taken along the line 77 of FIGURE 1;

FIGURE 8 is an enlarged cross-sectional view taken substantially along the line 88 of FIGURE 2;

FIGURE 9 is an enlarged cross-sectional view partially broken away taken substantially along the line 9-9 of FIGURE 4;

FIGURE 10 is an enlarged cross-sectional view partially broken away taken substantially along the line Ill-10 of FIGURE 1;

FIGURE 11 is an enlarged cross-sectional view partially broken away taken substantially along the line 1111 of FIGURE 1;

FIGURE 12 is an enlarged cross-sectional view similar to FIGURE 8 showing the tiedown of an alternative type of panel on a truss joist;

FIGURE 13 is a broken away perspective view of a modified building having no interior supports and modified truss joists; and

FIGURE 14 is an enlarged cross-sectional view taken along line 1414 of FIGURE 13.

A building incorporating the improved building system of the present invention is illustrated in FIGURE 1 and is shown in exploded form in FIGURE 2. Generally it consists of a very limited number of basic components which may form a building as small as two basic sections or modules or one of several modules as to be described in detail below.

More specifically, the building consists of a number of adjustable foundation jacks 11 which support floor truss joists 12. Jacks 11 are normally placed on concrete footings and adjusted to maintain truss joists 12 level. Each floor truss joist consists of a top chord 13, a bottom chord 14 and interconnecting bracing 16. The top and bottom chords 13, 14 provide two spaced points which may interlock with vertical support members 17. This is best shown in FIGURE 4 where each support 17 has U-shaped ends 18 at the top and 19 at the bottom. End 19 is fastened to the top and bottom chords 13, 14 by spaced pins. Actually the vertical support members are of several different types. The type designated may be termed an interior support post. The other types of support posts include an exterior middle side post 17a which has flanges 23 and 24 on each side which are for the reception of side wall panels 26. These posts, 17a, also have one side of their U-shaped ends covered to present a smooth and continuous exterior surface at both extreme ends of the support post. Another type of the post is an exterior corner post 17b (FIGURE 4) which has a single flange 25 instead of a double since end panels 27 are directly fastened to the flat surface of the support post. The opposite corner post would naturally have its corresponding flange 26 on the opposite side. Lastly, exterior middle end posts 17c serve as support members for both the end panels 27 and the door structure and are similar in configuration to interior post 170.

The roof of the building is supported by roof truss joists 28 which are constructed similarly to the floor truss joists 12. Again they interlock with the U-shaped ends of the vertical support posts and are fastened at two spaced points for providing a rigid structure.

Between each pair of floor truss joists 12 there extends several floor channel joists 31 (FIGURE 4) which are attached to top chords 13 of the floor joist to form a flush surface. The channel joists provide rigidity for the structure in a direction perpendicular to that of the truss joists 12 and in addition support floor panels 32.

Similarly, roof truss joists 28 are interconnected by roof channel joists 33, the channel joists also providing support for roof panels 34 which are similar to floor panels 32.

Windows are provided in the side panels 26 by use of a side panel 260 (FIGURE 2) with a U-shaped cut-out for receiving a window unit 30. Alternatively, an offcenter window may be provided for the use of panel portions 35, 36 and 37 with a window unit 38. All of the above units 35-38 will form a panel the same the same size as panel 26. The window units 30 as shown in FIG- URE 1 are also provided with screens 39 which are attached to framing 40 which in turn is fastened to the side of the building in a convenient manner.

The front and rear walls of the building are formed by end panels 27 and in the case of a rear wall the remaining space would be filled by an additional filler panel 41 (FIGURE 3). However, for the front of the building panel 41 is replaced by a ,door unit 42 having upper and lower filler slabs 43 and 44. Alternatively, a door unit 45, which is of a single door type construction, may be a filter panel 46.

Additional front door accessories are a porch canopy 47 and a porch deck, stairs, and railing 48 (FIGURE 1). In addition, a louver 49 may be substituted for filler panel 43 at the top of the door unit 42. Appropriate flashing gutter and down spouts are also provided indicated generally at 50 which will be described in detail below.

The building as described above thus consists of essentially ten basic components which are: side and end panels 26, 27; adjustable foundation jacks 11; truss joists for both floor and roof 12, 28; structural steel framing which basically includes the support posts 17, 17a, 17b and 17c and channel joists, 31, 33; floor and roof panels 32, 34; interior panels (not shown); window and screens 36, 37; porch deck canopy 47, steps and porch 48; doors 42; and flashing, gutters and down spouts 50.

The modulator construction is shown in FIGURE 3 and consists of three basic modules; namely, an end modulus 51 with door, a center module 52, and an end module 53 without a door. The first module 51 which, for example, may have a dimension of 8 by 24 feet, contains two sets of truss joists 12, 28 for both floor and roof with appropriate vertical support members 17 and wall panels. The other two modules, 52 and 53-, contain only set of truss joists along with appropriate foundation jacks. Center module 52 has only side walls 26 which may include windows as shown. End module 53 includes the end filler panel 41. Thus, it is obvious that by the addition of a series of center modules 52, a building of any length can be constructed. Interior partition kits, plumbing cores and electrical kits may also be provided for each module.

FIGURES through 11 show several important details of the construction which has been generally outlined above. FIGURE 6 shows an exterior middle support post 170! having the flanges 23 and 24 to which side panels 26 are fastened by bolts 55. These exterior side support posts 17a are spaced a predetermined distance so that the side panels 26 will fit between them and their flanges. Truss joist 12 is shown as being interlocked with a support post 17a. Floor panels 32 abut the post 17a and its associated wall panels 26 and angle trim 54 is provided between the intersection of floor panels 32 and wall panels 26, the angle trim being fastened by screws 56 to wall panels 26. Alternatively, wood baseboard may be substituted for angle trim 54.

In the case of a corner, FIGURE 5 illustrates this construction which includes the use of a special corner post 17b which has a single flange 25 for receiving a side panel 26; an end panel 27 is fastened to the flush side of the post.

Channel joists 3-1 connecting the floor truss joists are coupled to the floor 32 as best shown in FIGURE 8. The roof construction is essentially identical. The roof and floor construction illustrated is of the honeycomb type and the mode of fastening shown applies only to this type of construction.

Referring to FIGURE 7, the top of the end panels 27 are joined to a roof panel by appropriate metal flashing 57 which is screwed or nailed to the respective roof and wall end panels.

FIGURE 11 illustrates a top portion of the building where a side wall panel 26 meets the roof panel 34 and here a gutter assembly 58 provides a U-shaped trough which catches any rainwater. Gutter 58 is attached to an exterior middle post 17 by fastening members 59 and the other end of the gutter unit 58 is screwed to the roof panel 34 by screws 61. On the inside of the building the junction between a wall panel 26 and roof panel 34 is joined by angle trim 62 which is fastened to the respective side and roof panels by screws 63. Wood ceiling moulding may be substituted for angle trim 62. A bottom portion of the side wall panels 26 on the interior is protected by a side bottom angle plate 64.

FIGURE 9 is a detail view showing the intersection of a floor truss joist 12 with a typical exterior side post 17a and also illustrates the manner in which the fioor panel 32 is joined to the side wall panel 26 by the angle trim 54 as also shown in FIGURE 6. In addition, the detail illustrates the interlocking of the top and bottom chords 13, 14 or a floor truss joist 12 with post 17:: at two spaced points.

FIGURE 10 illustrates a front wall panel 27 crosssection showing its relationship to a floor panel 32 and a floor truss joist 12. More specifically, the floor panel 32 is coupled to the end panel 27 by angle trim 66 and the side panel 26 (as also illustrated in FIGURE 9) is coupled to the same floor member by angle trim 54. Coupling of the side panels may also be accomplished by use of wood blocking in cavity 65 and the use of a wood baseboard and floor covering. Side wall panel 26 is received in the flange 25 of the exterior corner type post 17b. Side bottom plate 64 is fastened on the bottom portion of panel 26. The mode of joining the two floor panels 32 is also illustrated in FIGURE 10 where two panels are shown resting on a top chord 13 of a floor truss joist 12. Suitable sealing material 67 is applied between the two floor panels such as neoprene tape. A suitable floor covering may also be used to cover the joint bet-ween panels.

The wall panels 26, end panels 27, and roof and floor panels 32, 34 as illustrated in the preferred embodiment are of a honeycomb core structure. However, where greater load bearing capacity is necessary, the roof and floor panels may be of a stressed skin-type construction which is surfaced with plywood with an appropriate inner core. FIGURE 12 illustrates the tie-down of a floor or roof panel of this type on a wood truss joist 12 where a machine bolt 71 joins the two panels together and holds a tie-down angle 72 through which a nail 73 is driven to affix the panels to the top chord 13 of the truss joist. Different panel materials may be substituted if the specific application permits. The roofing panels are surfaced with neoprene roofing materials and all joints are taped before coating.

Where the elimination of interior support posts is desired, a steel truss joist construction is used as illustrated in FIGURE 13. More specifically all steel floor and roof truss joists 76 and 77 are provided to which exterior support posts 17 interlock at two spaced points in a manner similar to the wood truss joists 12 and 28. Diagonal angle bracing 78 between parallel joists maintains the rigidity of the building. Special channel joists 79 couple the truss joists for supporting the roof and floor panels.

FIGURE 14 shows the connection of the steel truss joists 76 and 77 to stress skin-type roof and floor panels. A machine bolt 81 couples the two panels and the bolt itself tied down to the top chord of steel truss 76 by an eyebolt 82.

Thus, in summary, the present invention has provided a building system in which units are durable in that they are made of plywood or other similar materials and metal frames, and are easily erected by two men such that each separate wall panel or end panel is small enough and lightweight enough to be handled by two men; in addition the structural steel is easily handled such as the vertical support posts. Moreover, because of the bolt and screw type construction, the building is easily put up and taken down many times during its life span. The design is highly flexible in that additional modules may be added at any time and in a very relatively simple manner.

We claim:

1. In a building system, a plurality of exterior wall panels having a predetermined width, a plurality of floor truss joists supported from a ground plane by spacer means so that the top surfaces of the joists are coplanar and horizontal, each of said floor truss joists comprising top and bottom chords connected by bracing members, a plurality of roof truss joists identical to said floor joists, a plurality of vertical support members each having U- shaped ends sitting astride said floor and roof joists, said U-shaped ends being interlocked with the top and 'bottom chords of each joist, at least a part of said supports being on an exterior side or end wall, said vertical supports which are on an exterior side wall being spaced from each other substantially the width of a side wall panel and having at least flange for receiving an edge of a side wall panel, a plurality of substantially identical channel joists coupled and perpendicular to adjacent roof and floor truss joists and including a plurality of substantially identical fioor panels and a plurality of substantially identical roof panels similar in configuration to said floor panels, said floor panels being afiixed to channel joists 25 modules, consisting of first and second end modules and a center module, said modules having as components said floor and roof truss joints, wall panels, and said vertical support members adapted for interlocking with said joists, said first module having tWo pairs of floor and roof truss joists and a plurality of said vertical support members for coupling said truss joist pairs, predetermined pairs of said support members being spaced and having flanges for receiving a 'wall panel, said second and center modules having one pair of truss joists.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,795,014 6/1957 Kelly 5279 3,152,366 10/1964 McCrory 5279 3,251,163 5/1966 Russell 52-126 X 3,256,652 6/1966 Van Der Lely 5279 3,349,527 10/1967 Bruns 52-648 X FOREIGN PATENTS 1,313,383 11/1962 France.

974,704 11/ 1964 Great Britain.

ALFRED C. PERHAM, Primary Examiner.

U.S. Cl. X.R.

Patent Citations
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US2795014 *Apr 30, 1954Jun 11, 1957Kelly Marvin JComplete factory produced dwelling
US3152366 *Dec 27, 1960Oct 13, 1964Donald T KoppelPrefabricated building unit
US3251163 *Apr 5, 1962May 17, 1966Lockheed Aircraft CorpClamp joint construction for prefabricated panels
US3256652 *Oct 3, 1961Jun 21, 1966Patent Concern NvBuilding of assembled box-shaped elements
US3349527 *Aug 6, 1964Oct 31, 1967Brunspile CorpMulti-level building construction including a combination pile and column
FR1313383A * Title not available
GB974704A * Title not available
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3796014 *Jun 19, 1972Mar 12, 1974Garbrick VMetal roof construction
US3927498 *Nov 28, 1973Dec 23, 1975Sylvette KirniskyDevice for building construction
US4033081 *May 16, 1975Jul 5, 1977Perkins Jr Fred MModular building system
US4045937 *Jun 21, 1974Sep 6, 1977Credelca A.G.Method of constructing a prefabricated room element and a building of a plurality of said elements
US4129968 *Jun 21, 1977Dec 19, 1978Fernand RoyerModular construction element
US4894964 *Jan 25, 1989Jan 23, 1990U.S. Truss Steel Buildings, Inc.Building structure and method
US6253499May 22, 2000Jul 3, 2001Victor E. SidyHuman habitat structure for placement upon a non-uniform, non-level site
US8112968Jun 23, 2000Feb 14, 2012Simpson Strong-Tie Company, Inc.Pre-assembled internal shear panel
US8397454Nov 21, 1997Mar 19, 2013Simpson Strong-Tie Company, Inc.Building wall for resisting lateral forces
US8479470Aug 3, 2001Jul 9, 2013Simpson Strong-Tie Company, Inc.Building wall for resisting lateral forces
US9085901Feb 13, 2012Jul 21, 2015Simpson Strong-Tie Company, Inc.Pre-assembled internal shear panel
EP0485317A1 *Nov 4, 1991May 13, 1992Florez Josť Carlos GoyenechePrefabricated modular construction
U.S. Classification52/263, D25/35, 52/653.1, 52/693, 52/126.1, D25/4
International ClassificationE04B1/24, E04B1/343
Cooperative ClassificationE04B1/24, E04B2001/2484, E04B2001/2472, E04B2001/2496, E04B1/34315, E04B2001/2481
European ClassificationE04B1/24, E04B1/343C