US 3474817 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
3 Sheets-Sheet l WESLEY BOBBY L Bum Ml Oct. 28, 1969 w. v. BATES ET AL CONTINUOUS CHEMICAL ADDITIVE DISPENSER FOR SWIMMING POOL SYSTEMS AND THE LIKE File-d lay l1, 1967 0 2 0 0 0100 o M M 4 w w P 9 I .h f J f f f ..4 .VALI. 1.
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f 1 l l r l I l l l l/ l l l 1 o0 4 9 7 b Il Il Il l I f f, f f f f/ 6 r /f /f l 3 z l l z/ l 2 f 2 K 6 l 2 r l l 1 f l/// f /x f //f f l f l f r l m I 2, o i :t 0 3 l' 6 2 55 2 5 o. 6 2 3 Oct. 28, 1969 w. v. BATES E' AL 3,474,817
:NTINUOUS CHEMICAL ADDITIVE DISPENSER FOR SWIMMING POOL SYSTEMS AND THE LIKE s Smets-sneer Filed llay 1l, 1967 FIG rNvENToRs WESLEY V. BATES BY ov L. BATES ATTORNEYS HEMICAL ADDITIVE DISPENSER FOR SWIMMING POOL SYSTEMS AND THE LIKE W. V. BATES ET AL 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 Oct. 28, 1969 CONTINUOUS Filed lay ll, 196
FILTER PUIP LJ FRU: POOL INVENTORS WESLEY V. BATES BY BBBY l.. BTES @zum M ArroRNgvs United States Patent O 3,474,817 CONTINUOUS CHEMICAL ADDITIVE DISPENSER FOR SWIMMING POOL SYSTEMS AND THE LIKE Wesley V. Bates and Bobby L. Bates, San Dimas, Calif.,
assignors to Jacketing Specialty, a corporation of California Filed May 11, 1967, Ser. No. 637,792 Int. Cl. E03b 11/00; E03c 1/046; F17d 1/00 U.S. Cl. 137-268 19 Claims ABSTRACT F THE DISCLOSURE Controlled amounts of chemical additives, such as chlorine and acid are introduced into water circulating in a swimming pool or similar system by continuously bypassing a portion of the water from the pool recirculation line and impinging a jet of water at a controlled rate against a portion of a quantity of dissolvable material containing the chemical additives. A pressure differential may be created to assure mixture of the additive into the circulating water.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates generally to systems for continuously treating a flowing body of liquid with chemicals. More particularly, the invention is directed to ,-syS- tems. for automatically controlling the rate at which chemical additives are introduced into the flowing liquid.
One important application of the present invention is in the control of the addition of chlorine, with or without an acid or alkaline agent, to vswimming pool water which is continuously recirculated during timed ltering cycles. The addition of chlorine prevents the growth of bacteria and algae. The pH of the water is held within recommended limits by the introduction, when necessary, of the acid or alkaline substance. Other chemicals, such as trihydroxy triazine, may be added to resist chlorine burnoff due to sunlight. p
Although the discussion in this application will be directed primarily to use of the invention with swimming pool systems, it will be understood that the invention has broad utility. Thus, it may be utilized in any flowing liquid system in which the introduction of controlled quantit-ies of chemical additives, derived from a dissolvable supply, is desired or necessary. Examples of other systems include potable or process water systems and waste treatment systems in which chlorine is added for sterilization.
. Chemical additives can simply be applied to the wate in batches, by hand. Such intermittent, manual addition of chemicals, however, often entails the handling of dangerous chemicals, results in initial, localized concentrations, and does not permit complete and uniform mixing. Further, the gross addition of chemical additives makes continuous and accurate control of the additive concentration diicult.
There has been a trend, therefore, toward the incorporation of automatic, continuous chlorinators in swimming pool systems. In one known system, the electrolysis of a chlorine-containing salt Vprovides the controlled addition of the necessary chlorinating agentsl during operation of the pumping system. However, this arrangement not only generates dangerous amounts of chlorine gas but is extremely difficult to adjust satisfactorily. Other prior art systems utilize metering arrangements in which pumps feed controlled amounts of gaseous or liquid additives into the pool pipelines. These systems, however, are expensive and diiiicult to keep in proper adjustment. Overchlorination can easily result and this causes rapid corroice sion and deterioration of pipelines and other equipment. In the case of gas chlorinators, there are also, of course, the problems and hazards of maintaining high pressure containers on the premises.
A separate trent has been the development of slow acting, chemical-releasing materials in the form of tablets or powders. These materials, added directly to the water in the pool, release chlorine and other additives over an extended period upon dissolution. Handling ease and safety, because of the slowness of action, are regarded as substantial advantages. Nevertheless, the use of these more recently developed materials involves an intermittent operation and therefore does not afford precise control. Also, their use requires periodic attention that is burdensome on pool owners. To overcome these problems, chlorine dispensers have been devised in which controlled amounts of water are passed over a solid, dissolvable chemical supply. This technique provides some control over the addition of the chemicals into the recirculating water. However, because the entire surface area of the chemical supply. This technique provides some control function of the amount of supply material remaining. Also, some of these systems are expensive and generate dangerous chlorine fumes.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Basically, theobjects and purposes of the present invention are achieved by a system in which some of the recirculating water is bypassed through a chemical dispensing apparatus. The apparatus houses a chamber containing a supply of dissolvable, chemical-releasing material. At least a portion of the bypassed water is directed, in the form of a concentrated jet, against a small portion of the material to slowly dissolve the material at a constant rate. The apparatus also includes a pressure reducing means in communication with the outlet of the chamber. The pressure reducing means withdraws the water and chemical mixture from the chamber, along with any fumes which may have been generated, for introduction into the recirculatiing water.
According to a specific example of the present invention, a chemical dispenser is provided which includes a primary bypass conduit connected in parallel with the pool recirculation line downstream of the pool pump. The dispenser also houses a vertically-oriented chamber or magazine, having a side wall and a bottom Wall, for receiving a supply of dissolvable, chemical-releasing material in the form of a stacked column of tablets. A water inlet port and an outlet port are formed in the magazine side wall and bottom wall, respectively. A secondary bypass conduit, shunted across aportion of the primary bypass conduit, is coupled to the inlet and outlet ports, thereby diverting a portion of the water owing in the primary bypass through the magazine. The column of dissolvable, chemical-releasing tablets rest upon a screen supported by the bottom wall and positioned over the magazine outlet port. The inlet port is located immediately above the screen so that the water issuing therefrom impinges only against the bottom tablet. A jet pump eductor, disposed within the portion of the primary bypass conduit shunted by the secondary bypass, creates a low pressure region in the primary bypass conduit. The eductor action induces flow through the magazine and facilitates the removal of water and released chemicals, including chlorine and other hazardous fumes. The magazine, conduits, ports and jet pump eductor may all be formed as part of a single, transparent plastic block 0r housing thus minimizing fabrication costs.
The apparatus may be oriented with respect to the level of the water in the pool so that when water is not being recirculated, it rises to some extent within the magazine. This standing water tends to soften the chemical tablets and thereby precondition them to facilitate their subsequent dissolution by the impinging Water jet. Preconditioning for dissolution is enhanced, according to another aspect of the present invention, by incorporating a central aperture in each tablet so as to expose more surface area to the standing water and simultaneously and more uniformly presoften portions of the tablet.
A further aspect of the present invention is the combination with apertured tablets of a removable insert cornprising a screen and a stem made integral with the screen and projecting upwardly from the screen. The magazine is therefore easily iilled by removing the insert, running a number of apertured tablets onto the stem, and reinstalling the loaded insert, or refill pack, in place Within the magazine. Because the inserts are simple and inexpensive, and may be molded as disposable, plastic units,
for example, readily replaced rell packs may also be BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS A better understanding of the invention may be had by reference to the Detailed Description below, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a swimming pool water circulation system incorporating a chlorinator and related system in accordance with one specific example of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a front elevation view, in section, of the chlorinator of FIG. l taken along the plane 2 2;
FIG. 3 is a side elevation view, in section, of the chlorinator of FIGS. 1 and 2 taken along the plane 3 3;
FIG. 4 is a perspective view of a tablet refill package used in connection with a chlorinator in accordance with the teachings of the present invention;
FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram of a swimming pool circulation system incorporating a chlorinator, a cross-sectional, 'side elevation view of which is shown, in accordance with an alternative exemplication of the present invention;
FIG. 6 is a perspective view of a heavy duty or industrial version of a chlorinator and related system according to yet another example of the present invention; and
FIG. 7 is a side elevation View, in section, of the chlorinator of FIG. 6 taken along the plane 7-7.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION Referring now to the drawings, and FIGS. l-3 in particular, there is shown a reservoir, such as a swimming pool 10, containing a relatively large body of liquid, generally water. The water in the pool 10 is continuously recirculated from a drain 12 and surface skimmer 14 back to one or more inlet openings 16 provided in the sidewall of the pool 10, via a recirculation system 18. 'Ihe surface skimmer 14 removes oating particles of dirt, leaves and other windblown debris. The main function of the recirculation system 18 is to continuously filter the pool water during the daily filtering cycle, typically extending over an S-hour period, to remove dust, dirt and suspended particles. The recirculation system 18 includes a Suction pipe 20 connected to the drain 12 and skimmer -14 for supplying a motor driven pump 22. The output of the pump 22 is fed to a suitable iilter 24 which screens out the various solid impurities. Water from the iilter 24 is conducted back to the pool inlets 16 via return pipes 26 and 28. A heater (not shown) is sometimes provided in the return pipe 26, just downstream of the filter 24, for maintaining the pool water at a comfortable temperature.
In the exemplication of FIGS. 1-3, chemicals, such as chlorine and a suitable acid or alkaline agent, are added to the Water flowing in the return pipe 26 by means of a chlorinator 30 connected in parallel therewith. The chlorinator 30 connected in parallel therewith. The chlorinator 30 may simply be coupled to the return pipe 26 by means ofua pair of straight T lfittings 32., a feed linei34 connecting the chlorinator 30 to one of the fittings 32,V and a discharge line 36 connecting the chlorinator 30 j to lthe other fitting 32. A line 38, shunted by the4 chlorinator 30, interconnects the T fittings 32 to complete the connection. By mounting the chlorinator unit 30 downstream of the pump 22, cavitation and other flow problems are avoided. In addition, installation 'of the bypass on one side of the pumpy 22 eliminates the necessity lfor long connection lines otherwise required to straddle the pump. It is advantageous to place the installation downstream of the pool filter 24 so that onlyltered water flows through the chlorinator 30, thus minimizing clogging and maintenance problems. l
V-The chlorinator 30 comprises generally a housing 40 defining a vertically-oriented, cylindrically-shaped chamber orrnagazine 42, open at the top, for receiving a supply of dissolvable, chemical-releasing material-13,. and a series of conduits and passageways for conducting bypassed water through" the housing and magazine. The housing 40 readily lends itself to unitary construction and it may be fabricated from a single block of non-corrosive, transparent plastic, such as Lucite, or from any other material which is resistant to chemical attack by any of the chemicals being handled. The magazine 42 has a side wall 44 and a bottom wall 46. Formed in the side wall 44 and bottom wall 46, respectively, are an inlet port 48 and an outlet port 50.
Also provided in the housing 40, below the magazine 42, is a horizontal, primary bypass conduit' 52 having its ends connected by suitable threaded fittings 53 to the feed and dischargelines 34 and `36. Inside the primary bypass conduit 52 is a jet pump eductor 54 which operates on the well-known Bernoulli principle of fluid ow as applied to aspirators. The eductor 54 has an inlet 56, a converging section 5'8 and a discharge opening 60 which is substantially smaller in cross-section than the inlet 56.` During operation, the high velocity jet of water issuing from the discharge opening 60 and the surrounding region 62 within the conduit k52 are at a reduced pressure.l
The housing 40 further defines a secondary bypass loop or conduit 64, connected in parallel with the primary bypass conduit 52, for diverting a portion of the water bypassed thrugh the magazine 42. The secondary bypass conduit 64 comprises a first, vertical passageway 66 leading from the primary bypass conduit 52, upstream of the eductor inlet 56, to a second, horizontally-disposed passageway 68 terminating at the magazine inlet port 48. A third, vertical passageway 70 connects the magazine outlet port 50with the primary bypass conduit' 52 at apoint communicating with the lreduced pressure region 62 within the primary bypass conduit 52. The second passageway 68 is necked down adjacent the magazine inlet port 48 to form a constriction or nozzle 72 so that Water Lwill venter the magazine 42 in a tine, concentrated stream or jet. The feed rate of water into the magazine 42 may be conveniently controlled by 'the provision of a metering valve 74 threadedly received within the second passageway 68 and -adjustable externally. The metering valve 74 may simply comprise a cylindrical body/"'76 having" ya slotted head 78 projecting from the housing 40. The end and covering the outlet port 50 is a disc-shaped s creen 82 made of plastic or other suitable non-corrosive material. The screen 82 functions both to prevent clogging of the outlet kport 50 with the larger particles which may be dislodged from the dissolving and eroding supply material, and as a spacer to maintain a separation between the supply material and the outlet port 50 to prevent the port from being sealed ot by the supply material during operation.
The magazine 42 may be closed o tf and sealed by a removable cap 84, having a knurled head 85 and hollow interior 86. Thel cap 84 is threadedly secured within the upper, open end of the magazine 42. An O-ring 87 is interposed between the head 85 ,and thetop surfaceof the housing 4 0 to provide the appropriate sealing.
. With the screen 82 in vplace within the magazine 4 2, the magazine is loaded through its open top with chemical-releasing material, preferably'in therform of a number of disc-shaped tabletsl 88 dissolvable at a slow rate upon contact with water to release the chemicals required for the treatment of the pool water. The inlet port 48 is po'sitioned just -above the screen A8.2 so that the stream issuingtherefrom will be directedagainst only the lowest tablet. TheA rate of dissolution of the tablets is a function of the iiow rate of the impinging water as regulated by the metering valve 74; the higher the'ilow rate, theA faster each tablet dissolves andthe more tablets which are consumed within a given time period. Referring to PIG. 1, the outer surface of the housing 40, adjacent the metering valve head 78, maybe provided with a suitable scale 90 to indicate the number of tablets which will dissolve within one filtering cycle. A filtering cycle may typically be taken as eight hours of continuous operation of the pump 22 within a 2li-hour span. The scale 90 comprises a plurality of numbered lines 91 radiating from the metering valve head 78 for cooperation with a pointer 92 mounted on the head 78. It will be obvious that other suitable indicia may be provided for time periods other than eight hours and 'a movable or adjustable scale can be employed to permit the pool owner to select a variety of tablet dissolution rates for any selected filtering cycle period. Other indicia, such as a horizontal line 93 on the exterior wall of the transparent housing 40, may also be provided to show the point at which the tablet supply should be replenished.`This line may be located, for example, in a horizontal plane about four tablet thicknesses above the upper surface of the screen 82.
In the operation of the devicedescribed so far, it will be seen that the flow of water diverted through the primary bypass conduit 52 establishes a low pressure in the region 62 around the eductor discharge 60 which assists the shunting of a portion of the water flowing in the primary bypass 52 around the secondary bypass loop 64. As already stated, the rate of dissolution of the tablets is controlled by the setting of the metering valve 74. The gases and small particles of lmaterial generated and released by the dissolving and eroding tablets 88 are drawn, by the pressure diiferential created by the jet pump eductor '54,' through the screen 82 into the primary bypass conduit 52 and from there they are conveyed intov the return line 26 and to the swimming pool 10. Dangerous fumes are thereby disposed of safely and no hazardous pressure buildups are possible. l
lIn those vpool systems in which there is a high rate of ow in the return pipe 26, there may be a suicient pressure drop or gradient along the return pipe 26 to cause the necessary quantity of water to be diverted through the primary bypass 452 to effect the eductor action. In lower capacity systems, it may be necessary to make the line 38, interconnecting the T fittings 32, of smaller dia-meter piping than the rest of the return line 26. In this way, some -amount of restriction is provided in the return pipe 26 in the portion shunted by the chlorinator `30 with a resulting pressure drop sufficient to create an adequate flow rate in the primary bypass conduit` 52. In one practical example, tl 1e return line `was ll/z'fpipe, the line 38 was 1" y pipe, and the chlorinator feed and discharge lines 34 and 36 were both 3A" hose. As analternative approach to inducing and controlling bypass ilow, an adjustable valve 94 may be provided in the line A38.
To prevent clogging of the output side of the secondary bypass 64 and minimize flow impedance therein, the third passageway 70, leading from the output port 50 of the magazine 42, may be made larger than the first passageway 66 feeding the magazine. In the practical example already mentioned, the third passageway 70 was J/z" diameter while the -first passageway was 1A" diameter.
Periodic` testing of the water -for chlorine concentration and acidity (pH.) may conveniently be accomplished by use of a pair of test tubes 96 and 98 formed integrally within the housing 40'and adapted to be filled from time to time from the input side of the magazine. Thus, a iill line 100 interconnects the test tubes 96 and 98 with the horizontal passageway I68. A valve 102 is provided for controlling -ow into the test tubes 96 and 98. Momentary opening of the valve 102 permits the test tubesl 96 and 98 to -ill and well-known color indicator techniques employing reactants, such as OT O solution (for chlorine) and phenol red (for pH), may be used to determine the chlorine concentration in one of the test tubes and the pH level in the other. After testing, water in the test tubes 96 and 98 may be ushed out and a new charge admitted by again momentarily opening the valve 102.
It has been observed that when the recirculation pump 22 is not in operation, water rises to some extent within the capped magazine 42, thereby covering several of the lowermost tablets 88. This occurs even when the chlorinator 30 is situated higher than the level of the water in the pool 10. It is surmised that this phenomenon results from the partial vacuum formed within the magazine 42 during operation of the chlorinator, due to the jet pump eductor action. In any event, the standing water in the magazine 42 tends to soften the tablets 88 and thereby precondition them for subsequent dissolution and erosion. This is advantageous because the tablets, which are typically highly compacted, are sometimes diicult to dissolve or erode.
lIn connection with the foregoing, as another aspect of the present invention, the preconditioning process is accelerated and made more uniform throughout the tablet, by incorporating a central aperture 104 (FIGS. 2 4) in each tablet. With the annulus-shaped tablet thus created, additional surface area is exposed to the standing water and softening of the tablet interior is accomplished concurrently from both the external and internal surfaces.
According to yet another aspect of the present invention, best shown in FIGS. 2-4, and which is utilized with the aforedescribed apertured tablets, a removable insert 106 is provided for facilitating the loading of the magazine 42 and avoiding the possibility of jamming or wedging of the tablets when they are loaded directly into the maga- `zine. The insert 106 comprises a verticalste'm 108 attached to the center of the screen 82 and lprojecting upwardly therefrom. The insert 106 may be molded as an integral unit from a suitable plastic or other non-corrosive material. When installed in the magazine 42, the upper end of the stem 108 protrudes a short distance above the upper surface of the housing 40 thereby forming a convenient handle for manipulating the insert. It will be noted in FIG. 2, for example, that the hollow interior 87 of the cap 84 accommodates the projecting stern portion and permits loading of the magazine 42 to the very top of the housing. The insert 106 may be easily loaded by running the annular tablets onto the stem 108 for seating against the upper surface of screen 8-2. The loaded insert is then lowered into the magazine 42. Individual tablets may thus be added as necessary or, as an alternative, refill packages, comprising a disposable insert 106 with a vfull supply of tablets, may be provided. It will be appreciated, of course, that the tablet apertures 104 are made somewhat larger than the diameter of the stem 108 to provide ample clearance for the water during the softening process described earlier.
Referring now to FIG. 5, an alternative form of the present invention is shown. Elements identical to those discussed in connection with the first example are designated by the same reference numerals. In the device of FIG. 5, the pressure drop across the magazine 42 and the resulting Water flow from inlet to outlet are produced directly by the pool pump 22. The magazine 42 is defined by a transparent plastic, non-corrosive housing 110 having formed therein an inlet conduit 112, with a nozzle 113 in communication with the magazine inlet port 48, and an outlet conduit 114, in communication with the magazine outlet port 50. A feed line 116 and discharge line 118, coupled Iby fittings 120 and 121 to the inlet and outlet conduits 112 and 114, respectively, connect the magazine 42 across the series combination of the pump 22 and filter 24. It should be noted that by connecting the feed line 116 to the return pipe 26 downstream of the iilter 24, only filtered water circulates through the housing 110 and the possibility of clogging is thereby minimized. A valve 122 may be provided in the feed line 116 for regulating the flow through the chlorinator. The valve 122 may be suitably calibrated to predetermine the number of tablets 88 dissolved within a given time period.
FIGS. 6 and 7 depict a heavy duty or industrial version of the present invention for use with very large swimming pools, such as might be found in city parks, or with municipal process Water systems or waste systems or Waste treatment plants. The following description, however, will be limited to use of the heavy duty unit in a swimming pool system.
The example of FIGS. 6 and 7 comprises basically an auxiliary pump 124, driven by an electric motor 126, and a cylindrically-shaped chlorinator 128. The pump 124 has an inlet 130 and a pair of outlets 132 and 134. A line 136 interconnects the pump inlet 130 with a straight T fitting 138 in the pool return pipe 140. The electric motor 126 may be coupled to a suitable source of electrical power by means of a switched connection. Preferably however, as shown in FIG. 6, the motor 126 is connected to the electrical source through a timer 142 permitting the length of time of motor operation to be pre-set. In this way, the duration of liquid treatment can be appropriately regulated. The pump 124, the motor 126, the chlorinator 128 and the timer 142 are all conveniently mounted on a single base plate 144 adjacent the return pipe 140'.
The chlorinator 128 may be conveniently fabricated in three sections. A central section 146, formed from commercially-available, transparent, plastic tubing, such as Lucite, and defining a magazine 148 for holding a supply of chemical-releasing material, is provided with upper and lower internal threads 150 and 152, respectively. An inlet conduit 154 extends through the wall of the central section 146 and terminates at its inner end at the magazine inlet port 156. The inner portion of the inlet conduit 154 is constricted to form a nozzle section 158 and the outer end of the conduit 154 is threaded at 160 for receiving a hose connection fitting 162.
A cap 164, forming the upper section of the chlorinator 128, is provided for closing off the top of the magazine 148 and is received by the upper threads 150. An O-ring 156 is interposed between the cap 164 and the central section 146 to seal the magazine 148 when the cap 164 is in place.
The lower section, designated by the reference numeral 168, is cylindrically shaped and preferably formed from a single block of transparent plastic, such as Lucite. The section 168 is provided with an upwardly projecting, concentric, threaded boss 170 engaged and held by the lower threads 152 of the central section 146. The lower section 168 further has an upper planar surface 172 which, when the sections 146 and 168 are joined, constitutes the bottom Wall of the magazine 148.
A horizontally disposed bypass conduit 174 is provided in the lower section 168 along a diameter thereof for conducting a portion of the water diverted from the pool return pipe 140. The conduit 174 is internally threaded at each end for receiving hose connection fittings 176 and 178. Inside the bypass conduit 174, there is provided a jet pump eductor 180, of the type already discussed in connection with the first example, for creating a low pressure in the region 182 within the conduit 174 during water ow therein. The eductor comprises a converging nozzle 184 having an inlet opening 186 and a smaller discharge opening 188. A vertical conduit is bored in the lower section 168 for bringing into communication the upper surface 172 of the lower section 168 and the low pressure region 182 Within the bypass conduit 174. The intersection of the conduit 190 with the surface 172 thus defines an outlet port 192 for water flowing through the magazine 128.
A hose 194 interconnects the pump outlet 132 and the fitting 162 for supplying water from the pump to the inlet conduit 154 and magazine inlet port 156. A valve 196 is provided in the hose 194 for regulating the flow rate into the magazine 148 and hence the rate of dissolution of the material held within the magazine. Similarly, a hose 198, connected between the pump outlet 134 and the fitting 176 of the lower section 168, feeds the bypass conduit 174 and jet pump eductor 180. The chlorinator connections are completed with a hose 200 leading from the fiting 178 to a straight T coupling 202 mounted in the return line 140.
As in the examples previously described, a screen 204 is provided over the outlet port 192 for supporting the chemical-releasing supply material and maintaining a space between the supply material and the outlet port 192. The chemical-releasing material, which in this version is in the form of several cylindrical blocks 206, is loaded through the magazine top. As in the case of the tablets already described in connection with the prior examples, the cylindrical blocks 206 may be provided with vertical holes 208 to hasten the preconditioning process and thereby aid subsequent disintegration by the jet of water issuing from the inlet port 156. Further, in accordance with another aspect of the invention already described earlier, an insert, comprising the screen 204 and a stem 210 projecting upwardly therefrom, may be utilized to aid in the loading of the apertured blocks 206.
The system of FIGS. 6 and 7 is devoid of the test tube arrangement provided in the examples already described because other, more accurate techniques are employed by municipal and industrial users to determine the concentration of chemical additives in the water being treated. Since these techniques are not relevant to the present invention, they will not be discussed.
The operation of the `system exemplified by FIGS. 6 and 7 is basically the same as the apparatus in FIGS. l-3. The main distinction is that, in the former, water is supplied to the `magazine and bypass conduit by the auxiliary pump 124, permitting the chlorinator to be operated independently of the pool pumping system.
What is claimed is:
1. A chlorinator for use in a swimming pool water circulating system comprising:
a housing including an internal magazine for receiving water-soluble, chlorine-releasing material;
inlet means including nozzle means communicating with said magazine and directing a stream of said water in the form of a fine, concentrated jet against a small area of the lowermost portion of said chlorine-releasing material to dissolve and erode said material at a substantially uniform rate;
outlet means communicating with said magazine for conducting water along with dissolved and eroded material away from said magazine to said water circulating system; means, coupled to said inlet and outlet means, for pro- 9` viding a pressure diEerential to cause flow through said magazine; valve means mounted in said inlet means and adjustable to preset the ow rate of water into said magazine; f, first indicia included on said housing cooperating with A said valve means for indicating the rate of consumption of said material; and l second indicia included on said housing for indicating when said chlorine-releasing material should be replenished. -f
2. A chlorinator, as definedin claim 1, in which:
said means for providing said pressure differential includes a jet Apump eductor coupled in said circulatf-ing system andconnected to said outlet means for creating a low pressure within said outlet means to veffect withdrawal of said water and dissolved and eroded material fromy said magazine along with any gases and fumes generated during dissolution of said material.
3. A chlorinator, as defined in claim 2, which includes:
pumping means, connected insaid water -circulating system, for supplying said inlet means and said jet pump eductor. 4. An apparatus for continuously treating water flowing in a swimming pool circulation system with chemical additive liberated from a material when said material is contacted by said water, comprising:
a first conduit for conducting at least a portion of said flowing water;
a jet pump eductor disposed within said first conduit for creating a low pressure region in said 'conduit when water flows in said conduit;
a magazine for receiving a supply of said material, said magazine having an inlet port and an outlet port;
a second conduit bringing into communication said magazine inlet port and said first conduit at a point upstream of said eductor; and
' a third conduit bringing into communication said magazine outlet port and said portion of said first conduit in which said low pressure region is created during operation of said eductor, whereby a part of said Water entering into said first conduit is bypassed through said second conduit and magazine for impingement against said material for liberation of said chemical additive and mixing thereof with said water, said jet pump eductor assisting the withdrawal of said water and chemical additive mixture along with any generated gases from said magazine via said third conduit, for entrainment with water issuing from said eductor.
I5. Apparatus, as defined in claim 4, which includes: 'a flow regulating valve, disposed within said second conduit, adjustable to preset the flow rate of water into said magazine and the resulting rate of liberation of said chemical additives; and
nozzle means in said magazine inlet port for directing a concentrated stream of said water into said magazlne.
6. Apparatus, as defined in claim 5, in which: l'
said magazine is oriented vertically for receiving a vertical column of said additive supply material and has a side wall and a bottom wall, said magazine outlet port being located in said bottom wall and said magazine inlet port being located in said side wall near said bottom wall whereby said water entering said magazine impinges upon the lower end of said column of supply material;
said apparatus including: screen means disposed within said magazine over said magazine outlet port for forming a seat for said supply material and maintaining a space between said additive supply material and said outlet port, yet permitting passage of said water and chemical 10 additive mixture, and any generated gases .to said outlet port.
7. An apparatus, as defined in claim 6, which includes: f stem means projecting upwardly from said screen means and protruding from said housing, saidstem means and screen means being formed as an integral insert removable as a 'unit from said magazine to facilitate loading of said supply material.
8. An apparatus, as defined in claim 4, which includes:
means formed in said housing, in valved communication with said conduits, for permitting periodic testing of the chemical additive content of said water.
9. A chlorinator for use in a swimming pool water circulating system comprising: f
a housing including an internal magazine, said magazine having a side wall and bottom wall;
inlet means communicating with said magazine in the lower portion thereof through said side wall for feeding water into said magazine from said circulating system;
outlet means communicating with said magazine through said bottom wall'for withdrawing material from said magazine and conveying said material to said circulating system;
a screen supported by said bottom wall over said outlet means;
a stem, attached to said screen in the central portion of said screen and extending upwardly therefrom, said stem and screen forming a removable insert; and
a plurality of water-soluble tablets supported on said screen, said tablets releasing chlorine upon dissolution and having apertures through which said stem passes, said inlet means being positioned to direct water at the bottom tablet to dissolve and erode said tablets in succession.
10. A chlorinator, as defined in claim 9, which includes:
suction means, communicating with said outlet means, for assisting the withdrawal of water along with dissolved and eroded tablet material.
11. A heavy duty chlorinator, for use in a swimming pool water circulating system or the like in which the pool water is recirculated through a recirculation pipe, comprising:
a housing defining:
a vertical magazine for receiving a column of water-soluble, chlorine-releasing material, said magazine having a side wall, a bottom wall, an inlet port in said side wall near said bottom wall, and an outlet port in said bottom wall;
an inlet conduit communicating with said inlet port;
a bypass conduit extending through said housing `and having an intake end, a discharge end and a ction converging toward said discharge end; an
an outlet conduit connecting said outlet port with said converging section of said bypass conduit;
a screen, over said magazine outlet port, supported by said bottom wall;
a motor-driven pumphaving an outlets;
a first line connecting a first point in said recirculation pipe with said pump inlet;
a second line connecting one of said pump outlets with said inlet conduit in said housing;
a. valve in said second line for. adjusting water ow to said inlet conduit;
a third line connecting the other of said pump outlets with said intake end of said bypass conduit; and
a fourth line connecting said discharge end of said bypass conduit with a second point in said recirculation pipe.
12. A chlorinator, as defined in claim 11, which includes:
a timer, connected to said pump motor, for predeter- 'inlt 'and a pair` of mining the length of time of operation of said chlorinator.
13. A unitary housing, for use in a swimming pool chlorinator connected in the pool water circulating system, said unitary housing defining:
a chamber for receiving a supply of material which releases chlorine upon dissolution by said water, said chamber having an open top, a side wall and a bottom wall;
a bypass conduit extending through said housing below said bottom wall of said chamber for connection to said pool circulating system for conducting a portion of said circulating water;
a converging section formed in said bypass conduit, said section having an intake opening and a discharge opening, said intake opening being larger in crosssection than said discharge opening whereby water iiowing through said section in a direction from intake to discharge createsa low pressure region in said bypass conduit in the vicinity of said discharge opening;
a chamber inlet passageway bringing into communication said bypass conduit, at a point upstream of said intake opening with the interior of said chamber at a point in said chamber sidewall; and
a chamber outlet passageway bringing into communication said chamber interior, at a point in said bottom wall, with said bypass conduit at a point in the vicinity of said discharge opening.
14. A unitary housing, as set forth in claim 13, which further defines:
at least one test tube having an open top and a bottom extremity; and
passage means for bringing into communication said chamber inlet passageway with the interior said test tube at said bottom extremity.
15. For use in a swimming pool water chlorinator, an insert for holding a supply of material -which releases chlorine upon dissolution in said water, said insert comprising:
a substantially fiat screen, in the shape of a circular disk, for supporting said material; and
a stem, in the form of a circular rod, having an end connected to said screen, said stem projecting substantially normally from said screen and positioned concentrically thereof. 16. For use in a swimming pool chlorinator, a refill package comprising:
a substantially fiat screen;
a stem having one end connected to said screen, said stem projecting substantially perpendicular from said screen; and
at least one tablet supported by said screen and formed of water-soluble material which releases chlorine upon dissolution, said tablet having an aperture through which said stem projects, a clearance space being provided between said aperture and said stem.
17. Arefill package, as defined in claim 16, in which:
said screen is in the shape of a circular disk;
said stem comprises a circular rod formed integral with said disk and positioned concentrically thereof;
said tablet is in the shape of a right circular cylinder with an outside diameter less than said screen, said aperture being coaxial of the outer surface of said tablet.
18. A chlorinator for use in a swimming pool water circulating system comprising:
a housing defining a chamber for receiving lWatersoluble, chlorine-releasing material, said chamber having a side Wall and a bottom wall and including an inlet through said side wall in communication with said chamber immediately above said bottom wall and an`outlet in said -bottom wall, said inlet including a `nozzle section for directing a concentrated stream of said water against a small area of the lowermost portion ofl said chlorine-releasing material;
means defining a vfirst passage for bypassing at least a portion of said `water in said circulating system and including jet eductor means for creating a low pressure area in said first passage defining means downstream of said eductor, said first passage defining means including an inlet and an outlet;
means defining ya second passage for interconnecting said chamber outlet and said low pressure area of said first passage defining means;
a pump having an inlet connected to said circulating system and a pair of outlets connected in parallel to said chamber inlet and said inlet of said first passage defining means; and
conduit means interconnecting the outlet of said first passage means and said water circulating system.
19. A chlorinator, as defined in claim 18, including:
a screen supported by said bottom wallover said chamber outlet;
a stem, attached to said screen and extending upwardly therefrom, said stem and screen forming a removable insert, said insert being adapted to support and retain said water-soluble, chlorine-releasing material in the form of a plurality of tablets supported on said screen, said tablets having apertures through Iwhich said stem passes.
References Cited v UNITED STATES PATENTS HENRY T. KLINKSIEK, Primary Examiner R. I. MILLER, Assistant Examiner U.s. o1. X.R.
2253?@ UNITED STATES PATENT oFFICE CERTIFICATE 0F CGRRECTION Patent No. 3,7,8l7 Dated October 28, 1969 Inventor-(s) Wesley V. Bates and Bobby L. Bates It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:
Column 2 line 5, for "trent" read trend; line 2l,
after "supply" strike out This technique provides some control" and insert --is immersed, the release rate Varies as a. Column 4 lines 4 and 5, after "therewith. strike out "The chlorinator 30 connec ted in parallel therewith. Column 7, line 29, after "systems", first occurrence, strike out or was te systems". Column 8 line 28, for "fiting" read -fitting.
SIGNED AND SEALED MAY 19.1970
EdwardlLFMnMllw l. m Attostingofm O-llllonn' of Mlnts.