US 3474898 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
OIL 23, 1969 w. H. MONTGOMERY PACKAGE OF REACTABLE COMPONENTS 3 Sheets-Sheet l Filed lay l5. 1967 INVENTOR.
WILL/AM HERBERT MONTGOMERY A T TORNE Y Oct. 28, 1969 w, H. MONTGOMERY 3,474,898"
PACKAGE OF REACTABLE COMPONENTS Filed lay l5, 1967 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Will? NyENToR. w/LL/AM HERBERT MONTGOMERY BY MMM A 7' TQRNE Y o@ 23, 1969 w, H. MONTGOMERY 3,474,898
PACKAGE OF REACTABLE COMPONENTS Filed lay 15, 1967 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 46 i #zig-33:51' 44 TFL- 5' 'JC-7 INVENTOR. w/LL/AM HERBERT Mo/vrGoMERY MWA mi@ United States Patent O U.S. Cl. 206-47 5 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Expansion shell rock bolts are more rmly anchored in rock drill holes by using an ambient-temperature-setting resin to ow around and anchor parts of the shell to each other and to the rock while protecting from moisture loss or oxidative change. A package is used having at least two compartments, each containing part only of a thixotropic resin system; which is preferably overcatalyzed so that thorough mixing is not necessary. In use the packages have compartmental seals which are opened prior to insertion, with preferably some pre-mixing, at least some mixing occurring in the package as the package is placed in the hole in the rock, and additional mixing on discharge of the resin from the package when the bolt is placed into the hole in the rock. The shell is then expanded, with the thixotropic characteristics of the resin holding the resin in place around the expansion shell. The expansion of the shell gives immediate anchorage, and the later hardening of the resin gives a delayed but more permanent anchorage.
The same package is useful in anchoring to masonry and concrete.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Field of the invention This invention relates to stabilizing brittle structures of rock, concrete and masonry, including the walls and roofs of underground passages, including coal mines.
In mines, particularly coal mines, the problem of mine roof bolting is a rigorous, economic problem with both cost and time at a premium. In the mining of coal, the operation is such that the time allowed for roof bolting is small, and accordingly, a simple process that may be used by the relatively unskilled, rapidly and with freedom from error, or the possibility of error, is desired. It is desirable that each bolt have high initial load-carrying characteristics so that the bolt may be placed into a hole and tightened so as to immediately protect the mine roof. It is further desirable that the tensioning and thereby the protection from each rock bolt remain for as long as a particular underground passage is to be in use, which may be months, or years. The same method of fastening is useful in fastening machinery or structural elements to both concrete and masonry.
Description of the prior art U.S. Patent 2,829,502, l. B. Dempsey, Mine Roof Bolt Installation, Apr. 8, 1958, discloses a paper, synthetic plastic, or rubber-like material as the sealed capsule containing a resin which is pushed ahead of a bolt into a rock hole with the cartridge being ruptured to permit the liquid resin to flow over the expansion shell. A washer is used to prevent the resin from flowing away from the expansion shell.
U.S. Patent 2,952,129, I. B. Dempsey, Mine Roof Bolt Installation, Sept. 13, 1960, discloses inserting ahead of the =bolt a fracturable container, such as glass, containing the premixed resin components which glass shell is fractured to permit the liquid to flow around and protect the shell. A washer is used to retain the re'sin.
U.S. Patent 2,690,879, I. R. Snyder, Metal-to-Wood Fastening for Railway Ties, Oct. 5, 1954, in FIGURE 4, shows an outer plastic capsule containing a potentially thermo-setting resin with an inner plastic capsule containing the catalyst material with the dual capsules inserted in a borehole in Wood ahead of a screw spike, which on insertion causes ruptnring of the capsules, mixing of the catalyst with the resin to render the resin thermosetting, and the driving of part of the mixed resins into the Wood to give improved pullout between the metal and the retaining wood. The threads on the spike cut into and engage the wood walls.
U.S. Patent 3,108,443, F. Schuermann et al., Method of Fixing Anchor Bolts in the Drill Holes, Oct. 29, 1963, now Reissue 25,869, Oct. 5, 1965, discloses anchoring a bolt in a drilled hole by inserting frangible cartridges containing the components of a synthetic resin which components are mixed by the rotation of an inserted bolt. The bolt is not expansible, and the bolt is small enough so that its radially extending ribs terminate short of the walls of the drill hole. This patent disclo-ses a sealing element to hold the synthetic resin in the desired location, so the resin will not ow from an overhead hole.
U.S. Patent 3,302,410, dated Feb. 7, 1967, D. C. Mc- Lean, Rock Bolting Package Usage, discloses thixotropic room temperature hardening resins formed by the reaction of storage stable components, which resins are suitable for anchoring rock bolts in rock formations; together with methods of introducing such resins into rock formations. Additional matter disclosed therein is claimed in Patents 3,324,662 and 3,324,663. These patents review certain pertinent prior art.
U.S. Patent 3,283,513, T. W. Kierans et al., Process of Mounting Elongated Members in Drill Holes, Nov. 8, 1966, shows one method of filling a rock drill hole with a self-hardening, thixotropic resin and inserting an elongated reinforcing member.
U.S. Patent 3,082,867, Mar. 26, 1963, Gelpey, Compartmented Package and Divider Therefor, shows a two compartment package, with a removable clip maintaining separation of components until a desired time of use.
An early two compartment package is shown in U.S. Patent 1,332,985, Mar. 9, 1920, Jarrett, Mixing Container.
The -prior art shows many other multiple compartment packages for special usages and components in which two or more compartments store components which are to be mixed at the time of use.
Summary of the invention It has now been found that a rapid, economical and efcient anchoring is achieved by inserting a thixotropic resin ahead of a conventional expansion shell, so that the shell is covered by and protected by the resin, and the resin also protects the rock, and aids in holding the shell in position. It is desirable that the reinforcing and resin anchoring be accomplished using the present conventional rock bolt shells. The use of the rock bolt shells, which shells expand as the bolt in them is tightened by rotation, greatly increases the complexity of rotational mixing in the bore hole. Similarly, the use of washers or otherv sion shell are minimized by the use of a pre-mixed resin package as here described.
The separate components of a mixable, room-temperature hardening-resin are stored in a single package having a divider between compartments. By opening the divider, the components in the separate compartments are mixed by squeezing from one end to the other of the now single compartment, so that mixing is accomplished without rupturing of the outer container. This permits the mixing to be accomplished Without spillage on the user.
Further, an overcatalyzed resin is preferably used which contains more catalyst than usually used to polymerize the resin. The use of the addtiional catalyst is a protective measure and causes the resin to set more rapidly if thoroughly mixed, but also gives complete setting even if complete mixing is not accomplished. This is highly advantageous because the user may inadequately mix the contents of the package or barely mix at all during opening the divider, and the kneading inherent in inserting the package into the drill hole followed by the insertion of the bolt with attendant rupturing of the package gives enough mixing as to insure an adequate bond even if the premixing is minimal.
For longer packages, it is desirable that the resin and the catalyst be packaged in a plurality of compartments so that the physical distance from the catalyst to the farthest corner of a resin compartment is reduced. A central catalyst compartment with a resin compartment on each en d or a plurality of alternating resin and catalyst compartments insures more adequate mixing at the time of use.
Preferably, the package is a foil contianer made of a metallic foil, at least in part. If at least one face of a package is of a metallic foil, such as aluminum foil, or of a metallic foil with a heat-scalable coating layer, such as polyethylene, and which may additionally be reinforced by a polyester layer, the foil of the package tends to retain its integrity when the package is placed in the drill hole. Also, as the bolt is shoved in, the packaging material itself is compressed ahead of the bolt and squeezed into a small plug at the far end of the hole, with all of the resin being squeezed out and mixed as it is squeezed from the package.
Certain packaging foils and certain types of resin and hardener systems are disclosed in the following examples, it being understood that other foils and other resin systems may be used if competitively priced components having similar characteristics are available.
Where not otherwise specied in this speciiication and claims, parts are by Weight.
In the drawings:
FIG. 1 shows a resin bonded expansion shell mine roof bolt in position.
FIG. 2 shows the insertion of a package of hardenable resin into a drill hole in rock using an insertion rod.
FIG. 3 shows a resin package being pushed into a drill hole by a rock bolt without the aid of an insertion rod.
FIG. 4 shows that the resin package being breached, the envelope itself being compressed and the resin contents owing around the expansion shell.
FIG. 5 shows a two-compartment package for two separate components with a removable mechanical retaining clip therebetween.
FIG. 6 shows a three-compartment resin package, two of the compartments of which may contain the same component.
FIG. 7 shows a two-compartment package in which the faces of the package are weakly bonded together, with a diagonal seal.
FIG. 8 shows a two-compartment package for two components in which the rupturable seal extends the full length of the package.
FIG. 9 is a cross section at line 9 9 of FIG. 7, showing the rupturable bond between the foil faces of the package.
FIG. 10 is a closure as shown at section 10-10 of FIG. 5.
FIG. ll is another type of clip closure as shown at section 11-11 of FIG. 61.
FIG. l2 is a closure similar to that shown in FIG. ll but in which the foils are lightly heat-sealed to insure increased leak resistance.
As shown in FIG. 3, a drill hole 21 is formed in rock in an area where additional anchorage and security is desired. Frequently but not necessarily such holes are overhead drill holes in the roof of an underground mine. The problem is particularly acute in coal mines where the loss of life by roof failure is a serious problem. The hole may be formed by an ordinary rock drill, by a melting torch, or a laser beam or other means; but will be referred to hereafter as a drill hole as such is a conventional practice as drilling is the usual method of hole formation. The hole is formed to a depth just slightly greater than the length of the rock bolt assembly, which includes the rock bolt 22 and the expansion shell 23 on the end first inserted in the drill hole. Any of the conventional forms of expansion shells may be used. A typical such shell is shown in FIG. 3 which consists of an expansion wedge 24which lits between two anchoring members 25 which are held during insertion by a bail 26. In accordance with conventional practice the expansion wedge is drawn between the anchoring members on rotation of the rock bolt 22, and expands the anchoring members against the walls of the drill hole.
At the face end 27 of the rock bolt, is a bolt head 28 which rests against a retaining plate 29.
It has been the practice to use such an assembly consistently in mine roof bolting with the bolt head 28 being drawn up against the retaining plate 29, which presses against the face of the rock as tension is applied by tightening the rock bolt. The expansion wedge forces the anchoring members into engaging contact with the walls of the drill hole. In such conventional use, the softness of the rock or oxidative action on the rock or loss of moisture from the rock can in the course of time permit the shell to become loose so that the rock bolt is no longer under tension, and the rock adjacent to drill hole is no longer under compression. It is only when the rock is under compression that the rock has adequate mechanical strength and predictably may be used as a load-bearing member or zone in an engineering structure.
As shown in FIG. 3, a resin package 30 is forced against the far end of the -drill hole by the expansion shell. As shown in FIG. 4, the package is broken so that the resin 31 is` squeezed from the package and flows around the expansion shell. In the complete assembly the resin package is compressed to a small crumpled wad 32 ahead of the expansion shell, so that portions of the material forming the walls of the package are prevented from being trapped between the expansion shell and the drill hole. The package materials could form a zone of weakness at this point and permit the shell to slip on the package material rather than forcibly engage the rock.
The package may have a pocket 33 at the end thereof and an insertion rod 34 may be used for insertion, particularly for very deep holes. Usually the miner can insert the package into the hole by hand Very readily, and shove the package to the far end of the hole as he inserts the expansion shell on the end of the rock bolt. As the package, is compressed between the far end of the hole and the shell, the resin is squeezed from the package, with mixing of the components.
The resin package 30 may be made from two sheets of laminated material, sealed at the side edges, or may Ibe made from a tube cut into segments of appropriate length. The ends of the tube thus formed are sealed to form the resin compartment.
As shown in FIG. 5, the resin package has a hardener compartment 35 and a resin compartment 36. The resin and hardener compositions in these compartments are discussed below.
As shown in FIG. 5, the two compartments are separa.- ted by a mechanical seal consisting of a core member 37 and a clamp member 38. In manufacture it is convenient to heat seal the longitudinal walls of the package together with longitudinal heat seals 39, then place the core member and the clamp member, after which each of the compartments is filled and the ends of the package are sealed.
As shown in FIG. '6, the package may contain two resin compartments 36 and a single hardener compartment 35. For most mine roof bolts which use a 5/6 to Vs bolt, about 6 cubic inches of combined resin components form a convenient size of package. The diameter of the package is small enough so that it may be `conveniently inserted in the drill hole, hence a width of 2-2'1/2 for the flattened package is convenient. It is to be understood that the packages may be much larger or much smaller as the bolt may be 1/2 or less in diameter, and for some purposes a bolt as much as 3" in diameter may be used with a correspondingly large shell, and resin volume.
A quantity of resin which covers the shell only gives a very good anchorage. For example, 6 cubic inchesof resin in a package will protect the shell, and give anchorage to the shell end. Full length resin bonding, where the rock bolt is bonded for the entire length can take from 50 to several hundred cubic inches of resin. The resin ycan be somewhat expensive, and the placement and handling can entail additional expense, so the saving of resin quantity is quite advantageous. For most situations where a tensioned rock bolt is used, the shell anchoring only gives a more than adequate bond, with more economical and rapid placement. The saving in placement time permits the present resin packages to be used in coal mine roofv bolting Without major deviation from the present conventional operating cycles.
The core member 37 conveniently is of an I-shaped cross section so that a C-clamp member 38 can engage and hold the package foils 40 and 41 tightly clamped between the clamp member and the core member, and thus prevent premature mixing of the resin and hardener. The core member may be a core rod 42 as shown in FIG. ll with a C-clamp holding the foils tightly against the rod.
Manufacturing tolerances for the core member and clamp member as Well as the foil are less critical if alight seal 43 is used as shown in FIG. 12 to seal the top foil and the bottom foil together, as by a heat seal, with the clamp furnishing mechanical strength and the light seal giving liquid tightness.
The foils used are conveniently, but not necessarily, a metallic foil 44, which may be aluminum, coated on the outside surface with a polyester layer'45 (such as is sold under the trademark Mylar) and coated on the inside with a heat-sealable layer 46, conveniently of polyethylene. The foil is deformable and when crumped tends to retain such configuration, and ltherefore may -be easily displaced on insertion in the bolt hole. The polyester layer gives additional strength, additional imp'ermeability,l
should the metal foil layer have pin holes, has a high enough melting point that the inner heat-sealable layer may be melted together by a heating clamp applied externally without the outer layer itself becoming softened.
Whereas the seals are referred to as heat seals, obviously the heat may be internally generated by ultrasonic techniques, or dielectric heating, or other sealing methods known to the industry may be used. The characteristics, if not the method of manufacture, are best described to those skilled in the art by the designation heat-sealed.
In addition to the use of external restraining clamp members, the two compartments may be formed by a strippable seal 47 as shown in FIG. 9. Such strippable seals are formed by heating the top and bottom foils sufficiently that a comparatively weak bond is formed between the foil. The bond is strong enough to permit shipment and handling off the package prior to use, but is weak enough that on the application of pressure to the contents of either compartment, the strippable -bond yields, permitting mixing of the resin components. As this seal is weaker than the edge seals, the mixing may be achieved in the package without rupturing of the package.
The strippable seal 47 may be across the package as shown in FIG. 7 or may be longitudinal seal 48 as shown in FIG. 8.
In use the strippable seals are ruptured or the clamps removed and the components of the resin mixed together, at least in part before the package is placed in the drill hole.
For many purposes the mixing achieved by removing the clamp, or breaching the strippable seal together with the agitation achieved by rounding and insertion of the package in the bolt `hole together, with the admixing which occurs as the package is breached, and the resin squeezed therefrom gives adequate intermixing without an undue amount of time being required for in-package mixing prior to insertion.
The amount of mixing required in part depends upon the resin compositions.
For resin compositions of the epoxy or polyurethane type, which harden essentially by stoichiometric reactions, comparatively thorough mixing is advantageous. Preferably, resins of the polyester type are used, in which the hardener component is catalytic in character, so that once initiated, the reaction continues with the more highly catalyzed portions of the resin reacting fastest and the lesser activated portions taking longer, but with reaction occurring throughout the entire resin mass so that a firm anchoring resin results with minimal mechanical mixing.
In use in anchoring the shell to the walls of the drill hole, the resin flows into intimate contact with both, giving full protection of the shell from moisture and oxygen and also full protection of the drill hole walls. As the anchoring is rm, the initial tightening of the rock bolt is adequate yfor the entire life of the fastening, even if it is several years.
For test purposes a more complex rock bolt can be used in which a separate nut is threaded on the face end, or a U-shaped wedge may be forced between the bolt head 28 and the retaining plate 29 to give tightening without rotation at any time after emplacement. Tests 'with such fastenings may be desirable to furnish evidence ofl the integrity of the rock bolt reinforcement throughout the life of an installation. For ordinary rock structures, the initial tightening is all that is ever required, and the more complex bolts permitting a subsequent tensioning are not economically justified.
Y The resin per se.-The resins which lcan be used with the present package include both epoxy and polyurethane resins which contain enough nely divided silica or microcrystalline silicates to give a thixotropic resin which will not flow out of the bolt hole or lfrom the shell during hardening. A group of such resins are described in Kierans et al. 3,283,513, supra.
As a thixotropic composition is non-Newtonian by denition, a conventional viscosity reading is not completelydescriptive unless the shear rate is given. In accordance with conventional practice, the viscosity can =be measured on a Brookfield viscometer. A resin for the present package, when mixed, and when measured with a number 6 spindle, on a RVF model, at 2 revolutions per minute, had a viscosity at 65 F. of 82,500 centipoises, at 10 r.p.m., 21,500, and at 20 r.p.m., 14,000. If the viscosity as measured by a number 4 spindle at 4 r.p.m. is below about 12,000 centipoises, the resin tends to ow from the shell. If the viscosity is above about 150,000, the resin tends to become too thick for convenient handling.
The polyester resins are the preferred resins, as the catalytic nature of the hardening process permits more flexibility in proportions, and in mixing procedures.
Certain polyester resins which give good results are detailed in the patent to McLean, 3,302,410. The polyester resins for the present invention also includes resins in which more conventional polyester resins are mixed with a pyrogenic silica or silicate, such as Cab-O-Sil, or Avibest-C. Preferably about 101% sand is included in the composition-such sand gives tooth to the composition, and prevents the shell from rotating during installation. Examples 35 and 37 of said 3,302,410 disclose compositions containing sand.
The ratio of catalyst is preferably such that at the ternperature of installation of the resin, the composition starts to gel after not less than about minutes, to permit time for installation of the shell in the hole, and tightening, and preferably full hardening occurs in 24 hours. These limits may be exceeded, but a faster gelling resin is diflicult to handle sutl'iciently rapidly, and a slower hardening resin is so slow in hardening that the advantages of resin anchorage of the shell are delayed.
As the resins are set forth in adequate detail in the cited art, a limited number of examples are shown.
EXAMPLE 1 A polyester resin was prepared, following the procedute of Example 1 of Patent 3,091,936, as follows:
Into a suitable reaction vessel equipped with stirrer, thermometer and an air-cooled reux condenser were charged 1910 parts maleic anhydride, 1480 parts of phthalic anhydride and 2540 parts of propylene glycol. With carbon dioxide passing through the reaction mixture at a rate capable of providing an inert atmosphere above the surface of the mixture, the reactive ingredients were heated gradually with stirring to a temperature of 180 C.-200 C. Heating was continued in the indicated esterication temperature range until the acid number had dropped to 38. The time required to achieve this degree of condensation was approximately 12-15I hours. Thereupon, the reaction mixture was cooled to 80 C. and the hot polyester resin was cut with methylstyrene in the proportion of resin to methylstyrene of 70:30, respectively.
To 84.5 parts of the resin was added 0.006 part of hydroquinone as an inhibitor, 0.9 part of Emulphor EL-719, a proprietary hydrophilic, nonionic surfactant, made by polyoxyethylating vegetable oil, 0.004 to 0.04 part of diethylaniline, 1.0 part vinyl toluene, 9.4 parts water and 4 parts of Cab-O-Sil, a proprietary pyrogenic colloidal silica and parts of 66 mesh sand (00). The amount of diethyl aniline is adjusted to give a gel time of l0 to 15 minutes at 75 F. A separate catalyst component was prepared 4by mixing 1.8 parts of portland cement, 9 parts of a peroxide catalyst, containing 5.75% benzoyl peroxide and 92.5% portland cement.
A laminate of 0.35 mil aluminum (0.00035 inch) coated inside with 2 mils of polyethylene and outside with 0.5 mil of Mylar was formed into a package 16 inches long, and 21/2 inches wide, with a 1%; inch outside seal, and divided by a clip as shown in FIG. 9 into a compartment about 6 inches long and another 10 inches long. Into the larger was iilled 132 grams of the resin paste, and into the smaller compartment was lled 64 `grams of the hardener. The package is found to be adequately storage stable, and in use sets rapidly with full anchorage of the shell.
1. A package for storing and mixing reactable resin components comprising a package having a metallic laminate comprising a permanently deformable metallic layer, and an interior layer of a heat sealable plastic, and a layer of a styrene-impermeable polyester; and at least one divider means holding together the walls intermediate of the edges to form at least two separate compartments; and separate reactable resin components, in said compartments, which components are storage stable for at least six months if kept separate in said compartments, at least one of said components having a thickening agent that imparts thixotropic properties to the iinal mixture of both components; whereby on opening of the divider means, the resin components mix, and on mixing in the unopened package form a thixotropic resin, which remains in position when allowed to remain quiescent, and the package walls are of such resilience that when the walls are crumpled or the resin squeezed from the package, the package walls remain in position without substantial elastic recovery.
2. The package of claim 1 in which the divider comprises a clamp member retaining the walls together to give mechanical strength, and the interior heat scalable layers are lightly heat sealed to give a liquid tight readily rupturable seal, which need not have suiicient mechanical strength to permit handling of the package.
3. The package of claim 1 in which the resin components are (l) a polyester resin paste, and (2) a catalyst for said polyester resin paste, and has a viscosity when mixed between about 12,000 centipoises and about 150,000 centipoises, measured at 4 rpm. with a Brookeld viscosimeter, and a number 4 spindle.
4. The package of claim 3 in which the resin components when mixed have snflicient sand so that when inserted in a drill hole, and a rock bolt shell is inserted therein, the sand gives tooth to the composition and prevents the shell from rotating during installation.
5. The package of claim 4 in which the divider comprises a clamp member retaining the walls together to give mechanical strength, and the interior heat scalable layers are lightly heat sealed to give a liquid tight readily rupturable seal, which need not have sufficient mechanical strength to permit handling of the package.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,028,000 4/ 1962 Clements et al. 206-47 3,03 6,894 5/ 1962 Forestiere.
3,082,867 3/1963 Geipey.
3,136,468 6/1964 Keller 229-35 3,266,625 8/1966 Hardman 206-47 X 3,302,410 2/1967 McLean.
3,381,818 5/1968 Cope et al.
MARTHA L. RICE, Primary Examiner U.S. Cl. X.R.