US 3475844 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov. 4, 1969 s u lc l D ET AL 3,475,844
AUTOMATIC BOOK PAGE TURNING APPARATUS Filed Sept) 20, 1967 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTORS SHUKICHI UDA- YUTARO IGARASHI ATTORNEY FIG-.1
Nov; 4, 1969 SHUKICHI UDA ETAL 3,475,844
AUTOMATIC BOOK PAGE TURNING APPARATUS Filed Sept. 20, 1967 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 FIG. 2A
NOV. 4, 1969 5 u UDA ET AL I Y 3,475,844
AUTOMATIC BOOK PAGE TURNING APPARATUS Filed Sept. 20, 1967 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 FIG. 2B
NOV. 4, 1969 s u c -u D ETAL 3,475,844
AUTOMATIC BOOK PAGE TURNING APPARATUS Filed Sept. 20. 1967 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 r //l I I l/l/ V T: 1 4
a 3 i 4 4 ////Z/ Nov. 4, 1969 SHUKICHI UDA ETAL 3,475,344
wwomuc aoox mas TURNING APPARATUS Filed Sept. 20, 19,67 5 sh ets-sheet 5 United States Patent vs. oi. 40-104 9 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE The swinging arm 6 (FIG. 1) carries an arm extension 29 with fingers 31, 32. As the arm swings from the rest position (FIGS. 1 and 2) to the page pick-up position (FIG. 3), the arm extension 29 swings in to bring the fingers 31, 32 within the radius of the book pages; and the fingers open, as successively shown in FIGS. 5A, 5B, 5C. The adhesive tip of finger 32 then picks up the page as the arm reverses and finger 31 closes (FIG. 5D). As the op eration cycle en'ds, arm extension 29 swings outwardly to release the page from the fingers (FIG. 1).
This invention relates to an improved apparatus for automatically turning the pages of a book.
As used in the specification, the term book is defined broadly to include any combination of paper pages or leaves containing information to be read. Thus, the term is intended to include books, magazines, newspapers, and other documents or papers. It may include musical compositions for instance, and the documents or papers may either be in printed or manuscript form.
There are many situations in which it is very desirable and useful to provide means for automatically turning the pages of a book. For instance, a musician may find that it seriously impairs his performance to interrupt his playing to turn to the next page of his music. An automatic page-turning apparatus is also very useful for persons who are temporarily or permanently disabled and thus unable to turn the pages manually.
Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide an improved automatic page-turning apparatus for individually turning the pages of a book.
It is another object of the invention to provide an improv'edautomatic book page-turning apparatus which is very reliable and efiective for turning only one page at a time.
Another object of the invention is to provide an improved page-turning apparatus in which the speed of the moving-parts changes in a smooth manner, Without sudden accelerations and decelerations, to provide quiet and trouble-free operation.
In carrying out the invention in a preferred embodiment thereof, there is provided an apparatus including an arm arranged for swinging movement from one side of the book to the other. A first finger is carried by the arm which includes a finger tip having pressure sensitive adhesive thereon for engaging the upper side of the book page to be turned. A second finger is carried by the arm and pivotally arranged to swing into engagement with the underside of the page after it has been lifted by the first finger.
In the accompanying drawings:
FIG. 1 is a top view of the apparatus in the rest position, after one page-turning cycle of operation, and before the next cycle of operation.
FIG. 2A is a partial front view of the apparatus of FIG. 1.
FIG. 2B is a partial front view of the apparatus corre- Patented Nov. 4, 1969 sponding to FIG. 2A, but showing the main arm of the apparatus swung over to the page pick-up position.
FIG. 3 is a top view of the finger mechanism in the page pick-up position.
FIG. 4 illustrates part of the mechanism which imparts the swinging motion to the arm.
FIGS. 5A, 5B, 5C and 5D are partial front views which illustrate the operation of the fingers of the apparatus at various parts of the page-turning cycle.
The structure and operation of the apparatus can be very briefly outlined as follows:
When the page-turning operation is desired, an electrical circuit is closed by a conventional electric switch (not shown) which starts an electric motor. The motor causes the rotation of a shaft 5 and the associated main arm 6 shown in FIG. 1. The arm thus rotates in a clockwise direction from the position shown in FIGS. 1 and 2A to the position shown in FIG. 2B. Fingers 31 and 32 are carried through an arm extension 29 by the arm 6. As the arm approaches the extreme rotated position of FIG. 2B, finger 31 pivots open as shown in the successive FIGS. 5A, 5B, 5C.
At the same time, the arm extension 29 swings into a proximately a degree angle with main arm 6 to bring finger 32 within the radius of the page, as illustrated in FIG. 3. Finger 32, as illustrated in FIG. 5C, is an adhesive finger. That is, it has an adhesive tip. To provide this property, this finger may be coated, for instance, with one of the known pressure sensitive adhesive materials. The arm continues its downward travel from the point shown in FIG. 5C until finger 32 touches and adheres to the top page. The arm then reverses its travel, lifting the page. After the page is lifted, the finger 31 swings into the closed position shown in FIG. 5D to engage the underside of the lifted page. At the same time, the finger 32 swings pivotally with respect to the remainder of the structure so that the non-adhesive part 33 is arranged opposite to the tip of finger 31. This serves to, at least partially, disengage the surface of the page from the adhesive portion 32, the page being engaged by and carried between the non-adhesive finger portion 33 and the tip of the finger 31. As the arm returns toward the original position shown in FIGS. 1 and 2A, the outer portion of the arm carrying the fingers 31 and 32 is moved radially outwardly beyond the outermost radial edge of the page to the position shown in FIG. 1 by movement of arm extension 29 with respect to main arm 6. In this manner, the fingers disengage completely from the page during the final portion of the page-turning movement.
Referring particularly to FIG. 1, there is shown a desk 4 which is arranged to support a book 1, the pages of which are to be turned by the apparatus of the invention. The position of the book upon the desk 4 is preferably maintained in a positive manner by a suitable positioning device. This may take the form of a holding device 2 which is illustrated as used with a magazine or newspaper book. With a conventional hardcover book, the holding device 2 may be arranged to slide inside the back of the binding of the book beneath the pages. Beneath the upper surface of desk 4, and forming a part of the structure of the desk there is a gearbox enclosure 3'. Within the gearbox there is provided a conventional electric motor with a reduction gear and a reciprocating motion mechanism which is described more fully in conjunction with FIG. 4. The reciprocating motion mechanismdrives the shaft 5 through a complete rotational oscillation cycle each time a page is to be turned. The maximum angle of rotation is somewhat less than degrees, Stationary cams 7 and 8 are mounted upon a hub surrounding shaft 5 and cooperate with cam rollers 9 and 10 respectively to provide various operating functions of the apparatus in conjunction with the swinging motion of the arm 6. The
cam follower roller 9 operating in conjunction with earn 7 shifts an auxiliary bar 11 radially outwardly against the force of a return spring 18. The bar 11 is positioned and guided upon slotted connections at the support posts 13, 14 and 15 upon the main arm 6. The arm extension 29 is pivotally connected to the main arm 6, and in turn supports the fingers 31 and 32. The angle which the arm extension 29 maintains with the body of the main arm 6 is determined by the bar 11, the end of which bears against the side of the arm extension 29. Thus, when the bar 11 is shifted radially outwardly by the operation of roller 9 upon cam 7, it causes an outward movement of the arm extension 29 and the fingers 31 and 32. Arm extension 29 is spring biased for rotation against the end of bar 11 by a spring 21 illustrated in FIG. 2.
The roller 10 operating in conjunction with fixed cam 8 pushes an auxiliary bar 12 radially outwardly against the force of a return spring 19. Bar 12 is shown more clearly in FIGS, 2A and 2B. It is supported and guided upon the main arm 6 by guide members 16 and 17. At its outer end it is provided with a gear rack 27. Gear rack 27 is arranged to engage with pinion gear 28 when the bar 12 is moved radially outwardly in response to the operation of roller 10. Pinion gear 28 is fixed to and forms a part of, a shaft 30 which is rotatably mounted upon the arm extension 29 and connected to swing the pressing finger 31 as illustrated in FIGS. A, 5B, and 5C.
Referring again to FIG. 1, the shaft 30 is spring-biased for rotation in a direction to cause finger 31 to move to the closed position, as shown in FIG. 5D, whenever the gear rack 27 is disengaged from pinion 28. The main arm 6 is provided with a pivoted latch arm 23 having a latching hook which engages a projection 22 on the auxiliary bar 12 when bar 12 is in the radially extended position, to hold bar 12 in that extended position. The finger 31 is thus held open until the latch 23 is released. The latch 23 is released at the appropriate time by a latch release lever 24. Lever 24 is pivotally mounted at 24A to the main arm 6. Lever 24 is rotated to provide the disengagement of latch 23 at the appropriate time by the engagement of a projection 25 formed at the opposite end of lever 24 with a projection 26 provided on the cam 8. This actuation is provided during the return rotation of arm 6 with respect to the fixed cam 8 and the projection 26 as will be described more fully below.
Referring to FIGS. 2A and 2B, the arm extension 29 is rotationally biased in a clockwise direction (with reference to FIG. 1) by means of a torsion spring 21 having one end connected to the main arm 6, and having the other end connected to the arm extension 29, and having the main body position at the pivotal connection between these two parts.
Attached to the arm 6, as shown in FIG. 2A, there may be provided a small wire tension cable43 extending through an opening in the gearbox 3 and arranged for mechanical connection to an electrical switch. The cable 43 is thus capable of mechanical actuation of the switch to open the circuit to the operating motor whenever the arm 6 returns to the rest position shown in FIG, 2A.
As shown in FIGS. 5A-5D, the adherent finger 32 is pivotally connected to its supporting structure at a pivot 32A. It is spring biased in a counterclockwise direction, as illustrated in FIG. 5A, to place the non-adherent portion 33 opposite to the tip of the finger 31. However, the angle of this finger can be adjusted through movement imparted by means of a small wire cable 35 from a crank member 35A. The crank member 35A is arranged to be rotated clockwise in response to counterclockwise rotation of the finger 31 by means of an arm 34 which is formed as a part of the hub portion of the shaft 30, and rotates therewith. Arm 34 engages the other end of the crank 35A and presses against that crank to cause the rotation in response to rotation of the axle 30. Thus, whenever the finger 31 is open, as shown in FIG. 5C, the adhesive tip of finger 32 is rotated into the operative '4 position. However, when finger 31 is in the closed position, as shown in FIG. 5A, the non-adhesive portion 33 of the finger 32 is rotated into the operative position to cooperate with the tip of finger 31.
FIG. 4 is a sectional inside view of the gearbox 3 illustrating some of the major components of the drive mechanism. The view is one looking outwardly from the inside of the gearbox toward the end of the shaft 5 illustrated in FIG. 1. A drive shaft 37 is driven through suitable reduction gears by a standard. electric motor. Shaft 37 rotates a drive disc 36 to which a connecting rod 38 is connected by a pin 41. Connecting rod 38 is connected at a pin 42 with a crank arm 39 which is fixed to the shaft 5 previously referred to in connection with FIG. 1. When the disc 36 rotates, the connecting pin 42 is caused to move along the guide groove 40 which is formed in the wall of the gearbox. This causes the crank arm 39 and the shaft 5 to swing over, and then back to the original position illustrated in FIG. 4 during each revolution of the drive disc 36. While the guide groove 40 is illustrated as having a substantially constant radius with respect to the center of shaft 5, it will be understood that with this construction the guide groove 40 may be provided with a varying radius. Thus, the effective radius of the crank arm 39 may be varied at different angles of rotation to achieve desired variations in the speed of operation of the arm 6 at different angular stages of rotation.
A detailed explanation of the operation of the apparatus is as follows: An electric switch is closed to start the electric motor within the gearbox 3. The drive disc 36 then rotates in the direction of the arrow (in a counterclockwise direction), driving the crank arm 39 and the shaft 5 through the connecting rod 38. After the disc 36 has rotated nearly 180 degrees from the initial position, the motion of the pin 42 and the crank arm 39 slows down as the pin 41 approaches the over-center position and then the return stroke. Thus, the main arm 6 secured to the shaft 5 turns slowly as the finger portion 32 approaches the surface of the page which is to be engaged. After the rotating disc 36 passes over center, the motion of the pin 42 and the crank arm 39 is reversed to return to the initial position shown at FIG. 4.
The initial rotation of shaft 5 is a clockwise direction to swing the main arm from the position shown in FIG. 2A towards the position shown on FIG. 2B. At the initial position of the arm shown in FIG. 1, the angle formed between the main arm 6 and the arm extension 29 is about 120 degrees, thus positioning the fingers 31 and 32 beyond the outer margin of the book 1 and its pages. However, because the radius of the fixed cam 7 decreases in the portions successively engaged by the associated cam roller 9 during clockwise rotation of the arm 6, the bar 11 is retracted by the return spring 18 and the biasing spring 21 shown in FIG. 2A causes the arm extension 29 to reach a reduced angle of approximately degrees with the main arm 6 some time before the arm completes its clockwise rotation to the page pick-up position illustrated in FIG. 2B. This is illustrated in FIG. 3. This reduction in the angle between the arm 6 and the auxiliary arm 29 preferably occurs fairly early in the cycle of rotation of arm 6 and may actually be substantially completed when arm 6 makes an angle of approximately 60 degrees to the horizontal. The new right angle alignment of the auxiliary arm 29 with the main arm 6 places the pinion gear 28 in the proper position for correct engagement with gear rack 27.
After the arm 6 has rotated in the clockwise direction from the position shown in FIG. 2A toward the position shown in FIG. 2B by an angle of approximately degrees, the cam follower roller 10, operating on fixed cam 8, causes radial outward movement of the auxiliary bar 12, and the gear rack 27, to rotate pinion 28, opening the finger 31 as shown in FIGS. 5B and 5C. At the same time, the arm 34 associated with finger 31 operates upon the crank 35A through the tension cable 35 to rotate the adhesive portion of the finger 32 into parallel alignment with the top page to be lifted and turned, as shown in FIG. 5C. The radial outward movement of the bar 12 also causes the projection 22 of that bar to be engaged and latched in the extended position by the hook of latch member 23. This occurs after the end 25 of the latch trip lever 24 passes the projection 26 during the clockwise rotation of arm 6. This latching of bar 12 maintains the open position of finger 31 and the rotated position of finger 32 as shown in FIG. 5C, until latch 23 is released.
As the finger 32 approaches the page, it slows down and quietly contacts and adheres to the page. As the motion of the main arm reverses, the page is slowly lifted up and the speed of the arm gradually increases. When the arm 6 reaches an angle of about 60 degrees to the level in the reverse direction, the projection 25 of the latch release lever 24 (-FIG. 1) engages the projection 26 upon the fixed cam 8, thus causing the latch 23 to be released, permitting the bar 12 to quickly retract, and causing the finger 31 to quickly close to the position shown in FIG. 5D. At the same time, the tip of the finger 32 is rotated by release of the arm 34 to position the nonadherent portion 33 of the finger 32 opposite to the tip of finger 31. This rotating action tends to, at least, partially, release the page from the adherent surface of finger 32, the page being held then between the non-adherent part 33 and the finger 31. As the arm rotation continues, through the operation of the fixed cam 7 the angle of the arm extension 29 is again increased, moving the fingers 31 and 32 radially outwardly to allow the edge of the page to slip through the fingers and to be released by them in the turned position. As the apparatus approaches the rest position shown in FIG. 2A, the slack condition of the wire cable 43 causes the control switch to be opened, thus stopping the motor and ending the cycle of operation. The apparatus is thus ready for the performance of a new cycle of operation identical to that just described.
In specific embodiments, it has been found useful to provide interchangeable main arm 6 of different lengths to accommodate for books and magazines and pages of other documents which are of dilferent sizes. Typically, three different sizes may be provided.
While the particular embodiment of the invention just described has been discussed with reference to the operation of turning a page from right to left, it is apparent that the parts can be reversed if desired so as to provide for the turning of pages from left to right. The reader may then view the book from the side of the desk opposite to the apparatus. Furthermore, if desired, an identical apparatus may be placed on the opposite side of the book to provide for selective automatic turning of the pages of the book in either direction.
There are many different possible arrangements for the electrical actuating switch for initiating the operation of the apparatus. For instance, a foot actuated switch, or a switchintended to be actuated by some other part of the body such as an elbow or knee may be employed, in addition to a simple finger-operated push button. Furthermore, electrical actuation provides the possibility of a single control for a group of page turning devices. For instance, if a group of the page-turning devices in accordance with the present invention are employed for each member of a musical group, a single electrical control may be provided for actuating all of the page-turning devices. The control may be operated by the musicalconductor of the group.
In a typical switching circuit arrangement, at least two switches may be employed. One of these switches is maintained in an-open position by a slack condition of the wire cable 43 shown in FIG. 2A. Conversely, that switch is maintained in a closed position to energize the motor whenever cable 43 is extended by movement of the arm 6 away from the rest position shown in FIG. 2A. The other switch is the starting switchgand may be a pushbutton "switch. It is wired in parallel with the switch actuated 6 by cable 43 to close the motor circuit and start the operation of the arm. After the arm '6 starts, the cable 43 tightens and the switch controlled by cable 43 closes. The pushbutton switch is then released and the full cycle is carried out until the slack condition of the cable 43 causes that associated switch to open.
From the above description, it is believed to be apparent that the objects of the present invention have been achieved, the invention providing an apparatus which is improved in many respects in terms of lower cost, smaller size and which is particularly notable for quietness in operation.
While this invention has been shown and described in connection with a particular preferred embodiment, it is apparent that various changes and modifications, in addition to those mentioned above, may be made by those who are skilled in the art without departing from the basic features of the invention. Accordingly, it is the intention of the applicants to protect all variations and modifications within the true spirit and valid scope of this invention.
1. An automatic book page turning apparatus comprising an arm arranged for swinging movement from one side of the book to the other, wherein the improvement comprises a first finger carried by said arm and including a finger tip portion having pressure sensitive adhesive thereon for engaging the upper side of the book page to be turned, a second finger carried by said arm and pivotally arranged to swing into engagement with the underside of the page after it has been lifted by said first finger, and separate means associated with said fingers for rotating said first finger with respect to said swinging arm to promote disengagement of the page from said adhesive after the page has been lifted.
2. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1 wherein said first finger is provided with a non-adhesive portion and the rotation of said first finger with respect to said arm causes said non-adhesive portion of said first finger to be positioned opposite to the tip portion of said second finger when said second finger is swung into position to engage the page being turned.
3. Apparatus as claimed in claim 2 including means for moving said fingers radially outwardly with respect to said arm upon the return swing of said arm as the page turning operation is being completed to move said fingers beyond the outer margin of the page being turned to thereby cause said fingers to slip out of engagement with the page.
4. Apparatus as claimed in claim 3 wherein said means for providing radially outward movement of said fingers comprises a push bar mounted upon said arm and having a cam follower roller, and a fixed cam mounted at the rotational hub of said arm arranged for engagement by said roller.
5. Apparatus is claimed in claim 1 wherein means is provided for actuating said second finger to swing said second finger away from said first finger as said arm swings toward a page engaging position, said last-named means comprising a push bar and a cam follower, a fixed cam mounted at the rotational hub of said arm and arranged for engagement by said cam follower, a latching means arranged to latch said push bar in the radially extended position corresponding to the open position of said second finger, and means operable to release said latch to provide fora sudden closing movement of said second finger after the page to be turned has been lifted by said first finger.
6. Apparatus in accordance with claim 5 including means for rotating said first finger with respect to said swinging arm to promote disengagement of the page from said adhesive surface after the page to be turned has been lifted, and drive means for said first finger rotating means, said drive means being connected to said second finger actuating means and operable in association with said second finger for accomplishing the rotation of said first finger in a sudden motion in conjunction with the sudden closing movement of said second finger.
7. Apparatus in accordance with claim 1 wherein said arm swings from one side to the other and then back again to provide a full page turning cycle of operation, drive means for said arm, said drive means being operable to provide for gradual acceleration and deceleration of said arm in said swinging movement.
8. Apparatus'in accordance with claim 7 wherein said drive means comprises a rotatable shaft supporting said arm, a separate crank arm connected to said shaft, a connecting rod pivotally connected to said crank arm, and a motor driven rotatable drive wheel crank pivotally connected to the other end of said connecting rod.
9. Apparatus as claimed in'claijm 8 wherein said crank arm has a variable efiective lengthprovidedby a slotted connection at the pivotal connection to said connecting rod, a pivot pin at said slotted pivotal. connection, and guide means comprising a guide-member having a guide slot for said pivot pin'for controlling the effective length LAWRENCE CHARLES, Primary Examiner