US 3475865 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov. 4, 1969 L, ARMES 3,475,865
WINDOW. COUNTER-BALANCING CONSTRUCTION Filed Feb. 29, 1968 v 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 24 22 /3 ||llll .3 J, 3+ -w l hI l P l 6.2
A TTORNEV Nov. 4, 1969 L. L, ARMES l3,475,865
WINDOW COUNTER-BALANCING CONSTRUCTION Filed Feb. 29, 1968 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 LVLE L. ARNES ATTORNEY United States Patent O WINDOW COUNTER-BALANCING CONSTRUCTION Lyle L. Ames, 3808 St. Andrews Blvd., Racine, Wis. 53405 Filed Feb. 29, 1968, Ser. No. 709,272 Int. Cl. E05d .T3/12 ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A window counter-balancing construction for vertically movable windows guided at their lateral sides by a Side rail. A pre-stressed constant-force coiled spring is disposed within a pocket in the window sash to yieldingly urge the window upwardly so that the Window can be set in any vertical position and its weight will be counter-balanced, so that the window will remain in any set position, but it will be easy to move it up and down. The window sashes and the side rail are arranged with the spring so that the Background of the invention This invention relates to a Window counter-balancing construction.
It is common knowledge to provide windows for houses or the like, and have the windows vertically slidably mounted and guided on side rails. Vertically slidable windows commonly have counter-balancing means for supporting the weight of the window so that the window can be easily raised, and so that the window will also remain in any set position without tending to fall under its own weight. One very old arrangement of counter-balancing is the application of a rope draped over a pulley, with one end of the rope attached to the window sash and with the other end of the rope carrying a weight. The weight is commonly located between the interi-or and exterior Walls of the building, and when the rope wears out and breaks, it is a difficult task to replace the rope to again attach the weight to the window.
Another very common arrangement of counter-balancing is through the use of various types of springs which are attached at one end of the window sash and which are anchored at the other end. These springs sometimes take the form of spiral springs. However, a spiral spring has the characteristic of exerting a varying force when elongated or contracted. This is undesirable in window counter-balancing since a variable counter-balancing force is thus applied to the window sash in accordance with the position of the window, rather than have a uniform force applied in all adjusted or raised positions of the window.
T o solve the problems of the variable force obtainable through springs, springs of constant force have been known to be applied to windows for supporting or counter-balanc- 3,475,865 Patented Nov. 4, 1969 ing the weight of the window. One example of this type of counter-balancing construction is found in U.S. Patent 2,609,193. However, the spring and the overall construction disclosed in said patent are different from that utilized in the instant invention. The spring shown in the patent is tapered, and it is also secured to the frame by means of a permanent type of attachment, and the spring is exposed to be visible whenit is installed. The permanent attachment of the spring at its free end and to the window frame prevent the easy removal of the window.
`Coiled springs of uniform width and thickness for eX- erting a constant force irrespective of spring extension or contraction, are commonly known. Such springs utilize a variable set along the length of the spring for exerting they constant force desired, regardless of spring extension or contraction.
With regard to counterbalancing a window, even by the use of a spring of constant force, the prior art is confronted With the problems of installing the spring in a manner which is adaptable to mass production of uniformity in different sizes of windows and different installations, and there are the problems of concealment of the spring, removel of the window for replacement, painting, cleaning, and any like functions. In installation and removal of the window and its spring, there is therefore concern with regard to the connection of the spring with the window frame or side rail, and at the same time having the spring concealed from view in the normal position of the spring and in the normal viewing of the window.
Accordingly, objects of this invention include the provision of the window counter-balancing structure which utilizes a constant force type spring but having the spring concealed from view while it is nevertheless accessible for ready and easy removal when it is desired to replace the spring or remove the Window. Still further, the constant force type spring can be used in both the upper and lower sashes of a Window, and both springs are concealed from normal viewing of the window. Still further, the structure is such that there is standardization in the mounting and assembly of the spring with -both the side `rail and the window sash, though the spring itself may be selected to exert a desired constant force in accordance with the weight of the sash to be supported. That is, in the preferred manner disclosed herein, only the force factor of the spring will vary for different Weights of windows. The diameter of the coiled portion of the spring, the width of the spring, and the formation of both the side rail and the window sash are the same in different installations even though the weight of the sash may vary between these different installations.
Also, with respect to the upper sash, the aforementioned problems are overcome, and the aforementioned objects are accomplished, even while the upper sash is held in its closed or upper limit position by the spring under tension. Therefore, the upper sash is not only counterbalanced by the spring, but the spring holds the upper sash in its closed position since the spring is then pre-loaded. Also, the spring is hidden from view, easily installed and removed, and it is accessible for removal, and consequent removal of the window, by being accessible for disconnection from -both the side rail and the window.
Brief description of the drawings FIG. 1 is a front elevational view of a complete window unit.
FIG. 2 is an enlarged sectional view taken on the line 2-2 of FIG. 1.
FIG. 3 is a sectional view taken on the line 3 3 of FIG. 2.
FIG. 4 is an enlarged sectional view taken on the line 4-4 of FIG. 1.
FIG. 5 is a sectional view taken on the line 5-5 of FIG. 4.
FIG. 6 is an elevational view of the end of the spring used with the upper sash.
FIG. 6A is a view of the spring end shown -in FIG. 6, but with the side rail shown related thereto.
FIG. 7 is an elevational view of the end of the spring used with the lower sash.
FIG. 7A is a view of the spring end shown in FIG. 7, but with the side rail shown related thereto.
FIGS. 8-11 are sectional views, similar to FIG. 5 showing the stages of installation and use of the spring with the upper sash.
Detailed description of preferred embodiment A rectangularly shaped window frame 10 and window sill 11 enclose an upper window sash 12 and a lower window sash 13. The sashes 12 and 13 include horizontally extending portions 14 and 16, which are on the upper end of the lower sash 13 and the lower end of the upper sash 12, respectively. FIG. 1 also shows the upper sash 12 to be disposed in vits upper-limit position and the lower sash 13 is disposed in its lower-limit position. It is possible to raise the lower sash 13 to a position comparable to that of the upper sash 12, so that the lower sash is then also in its upper-limit position, which is again referred to later. The entire unit is essentially of a conventional construction, with the upper and lower sashes being vertically slidable with respect to the frame 10.
FIGS. 2 and 4 show two side rails 17 and 18 suitably mounted with respect to the frame 10 for slidably guiding the respective sashes 12 and 13. These side rails 17 and 18 may be of metal stripping, as is common in the art, and they may also be spring-loaded in the horizontal direction so that the windows can be snugly held and so that they can be removed by simply pressing in on the rails 17 and 18 and against a compression spring 19 mounted between the frame 10 and the rails 17 and 18 by means of a screw 21, as is shown in FIG. 4.
Sashes 12 and 13 are slightly guided by the respective side rails 17 and 18 by means of the tongue-and-groove construction shown in FIGS. 2 and 4, as is common in the art. Thus the window sash side rails or portions 22 are mortised at 23 to provide the groove, and the rails 17 and 18 have the projections or tongues 24 extending therealong. Of course rails 17 and 18 extend from the sill 11 and up to the upper-limit line 26 of the frame 10, and the rails 17 and 18 also extend on both lateral sides of the sashes 12 and 13, as is commonly done in the art.
lThe improvement, and the novel features, provided by this invention pertains to the arrangement of a constant force spring 27, applying to the upper sash 12, and a constant force spring 28, applying to the lower sash 13, and connection and disposition of the spring with respect to both the side rails and the sashes. The springs 27 and 28 are coiled springs which exert a constant force in all positions of extension of the springs, so that the springs 27 and 28 will always counterbalance the weights of the sashes 12 and 13, and always with the same counterbalancing force, in all raised or lowered positions of the sashes 12 and 13. The sashes 12 and 13 each have pockets 29 and 31, respectively, -for receiving the springs 27 and 28. The pockets are mortised into the sashes,and they are open downwardly, as shown in FIGS. 3 and 5. Thus the respective springs can be inserted into and removed from the pockets 29 and 31, simply by holding them in ones fingers. FIG. 5 shows the free end 32 of the spring .4 27 to extend into an opening 33 in the side rail 17. The end 32 is formed with a reduced tongue or latch 34 for fitting into the opening 33 shown in FIG. 6A. Also, the width of the spring 27 as seen in FIG. 6A is no greater than the width of the tongue 24 of the rail 17, so the spring 27 can lie along the tongue and be enclosed by the sash itself, so the extended end 32 of the spring 27 will never be seen from the normal view of the window, as the spring is desirably hidden from view. Further, it will be observed that the rail opening 33 is disposed below the lower edge 36 of the sash 12, so the spring latch 34 can be readily inserted into the opening 33 when the sash 12 is in its upper-limit position shown in FIG. 1. That is, the opening 33 is then exposed or accessible when the sash is in its upper-limit position.
FIG. 5 also shows that the spring 27 has a reverse bend 37, and this permits the spring 27 to be connected to the rail 17 at the point below the surface 36, as just described, but still the spring 27 exerts the necessary and desired upward force in counterbalancing the weight of the sash 12. That is, the spring 27 can be readily inserted and removed from both the sash 12 and the rail 17, when the sash 12 is in its upper-limit position, and the spring 27 will also provide the necessary upward force on the sash 12.
Of course the spring end 32 is simply releasably inserted into the rail opening 33, and the spring 27 iS then always under a pre-load, even in the position in FIG. 5, so the spring end 32 remains in the opening 33 until the entire spring 27 is intentionally removed by gripping it with ones fingers, as mentioned. Therefore, the entire installation, removal of the window, replacement of a spring, and like functions are easily achieved without any tools or major dis-assembly and rebuilding of the unit.
FIG. 3 shows the lower sash 13 with its spring 28 disposed in the pocket 31 and extending in the free end 38 to its latch or hook 39. That is, the end 38 with its latch 39 extends through a bend 41 and into the rail 18, and it shows the latch 39 is without spring tension or coiling tendency. FIGS. 7 and 7A show the shape of the latch 39 and the opening 33. That is, the openings 33 are the same shape in the rails 17 and 18, as shown between FIGS. 6A and 7A. There is therefore standardization in piercing the rails 17 and 18 to form the openings 33. FIG. 7A then also shows that the Width of the spring 28 is no greater than the width of the tongue on the rail 18, which tongue is identical to the tongue 24 on rail 17. Therefore, the spring 28 is also fully concealed from view in the normal viewing of the window.
FIG. 3 shows the sash 13 to be slightly lowered from its upper-limit position, and the upper-limit position might be along the dot-dash line designated 42 in FIG. 3, which line represents the bottom surface 43 of the sash 13. Therefore, the rail opening 33 is exposed and located so that the spring hook 39 can be inserted into the opening 33 for mounting the spring with the rail 18, when the window sash 13 is in position. Also, the spring 28 can be readily removed Ifrom the mounted position with the rail 18 when the sash 13 is in its upper-limit position, say to where the surface 43 is level with the dot-dash 42 in FIG. 3. That is, simple maneuvering of the spring 28 will free its hook 39 from the opening 33 so that the spring 28 can be removed, and then the entire sash 13 can be easily removed. Again, no special tools, skill, or dismantling of the unit are required for removal of the sash 13, as is also the case with the sash 12. So, latch 39, like latch 32 in FIG. 8, is free of coiling tendency so it .also extends away from the coil 28 n all positions of the spring 38.
Of course in all positions of sashes 12 and 13, the springs 27 and 28 are arnanged, as described, so lthat the sashes 12 and 13 always have an upward force applied to them by their respective springs. When the sash 13 is in its lower-limit position, as shown in FIG. l, the spring 28 is still exerting only a predetermined constant force upwardly on the sash 13 to counterbalance the weight of the sash 13. Thus when one opens the window to any position between the lower-limit and the upper-limit described, by raising the lower sash 13, then the spring 28 will continue to exert its upward force on the sash 13 so that the window will not fall under its own weight but will remain in the precise selected and set-open position of the sash 13. However, the spring 28 does not in any way impede closing the window by placing the sash 13 in its lower position shown. Also, the upper sash spring 27 is preloaded in the position of upper-limit of the sash 12, so the spring 27 counterbalances the weight of the sash 12 to maintain it in the set-closed position at its upperlimit shown in FIG. 1. If the sash 12 were moved downwardly to the position of the sash 13, that is to where the horizontal portion 16 is level with the sill 11, then the sash 12 would be in its lower-limit position.
FIG. 1 also shows that the lower sash horizontal portion 14 extends over the horizontal portion 16 of the upper sash 12, so that the lower sash 13 conceals the pocket 29 and its spring 27 from normal view of the window.
Also, in addition to the standardization mentioned above, where a weaker or stronger spring is required for counterbalancing the weight of a particular sash, then it is simply accomplished by obtaining a spring 27, or a spring 28, with the same width, such as that shown in FIGS. 6 and 7, respectively, and either the thickness of the spring or the set of the spring can be varied so that the spring will exert the desired counter-balancing force in a constant manner, but the spring will also t into the rail 17 or 18, as well as in the respective pockets in the sashes. That is, the major overall sizes of the spring will be retained, including the spring diameter and the same rails land same formations in `the window sashes can be retained, but the spring characteristic of force will be altered, ias suggested above.
FIGS. 8 through l1 show the installation, operating position extended, and consequently the removal position, all with respect to the upper sash spring 27. Thus FIG. 8 shows the upper sash 12 in its upper-limit position, and the spring end 32 is inserted into the rail opening 33, which opening is accessible and exposed when the sash 12 is in its upper-limit positon shown. The remainder of the spring 27, that is the coiled portion 44, is then pushed to.
where it is received in the pocket 29. FIG. 9 then shows -the movement of the spring from the positon in FIG. 8 to where it is approaching the opening 29. FIG. 10, like FIG. 5, then shows the spring in its operating position, with the sash 12 in its upper-limit position. Finally, FIG. 1l shows the spring 27 and the upper sash 12 in a position where the upper sash is slightly lowered from its upper-limit position. Here it will be noted that the spring 27 has a straight length designated 46 extending from the reverse bend 37 and down to the remaining portion of the spring 27, that is the coiled portion here designated 47. The coiled portions 44 and 47 simply uncoil themselves as the spring is forced down by the lowering of the sash 12. Conversely, the spring 27 automatically coils upon itself when the sash is raised and the spring is free to coil up again. The same action is true with regard to the spring 28. Therefore, the springs themselves need not be mounted on any spool or other means for retaining them in the coiled position or fixed with respect to the respective sashes 12 and 13 and the pockets therein. Also, it will be understood that the spring 27 can be removed from the sash, by simply reversing the installation procedure just described. It is preferred that the coiled portion 44 or 47 of the spring 27 be concealed 'by the horizontal portion 14 of the sash 13 toward the front or near side of the window unit shown in FIG. l, and this would actually be the inside of the window with respect to the building in which it is located. Such concealment is provided by the horizontal portion 14 of the lower sash 13.
What is claimed is:
1. In a counter-balancing construction for a vertically slidable window including an upper sash and |a lower sash with each having a horizontal portion lying adjacent to and overlapping each other in the closed-window position of both said sashes, a Window frame extending around said sashes and limiting the vertical movement of said sashes between an upper-limit and a lower-limit, one of said sashes having a pocket therein, an uprightly disposed rail extending in contact with the lateral sides of each of said sashes for slidably Aguiding the latter, a constant force type of coiled spring connected at one end to said rail and extending therefrom to said one of said sashes and with the remainder of said coiled spring being disposed in said pocket for yieldingly urging upwardly on said one of said sashes, the improvement comprising said rails and said lateral sides of said sashes including a tongue-and-groove mating construction therebetween, said coiled spring extending along the tongue of said mating construction from one of said rails to said one of said sashes and free of said one of said sashes in the direction toward said one rail, said coiled spring being of a width no greater than the width of said tongue and being enclosed by said mating construction for concealment of said coiled spring by said mating construction, and said coiled spring one end being devoid of spring tension and being connected to said one rail by being releasably latched onto said one rail at a location on said rail land with said location being within the reach of said one end of said spring and along said one rail when said remainder of said spring is fully coiled and in its said pocket and while said one of said sashes is raised to its said upper-limit to thereby permit alternate latching and unlatching of said one end of said coiled spring with respect to said on rail, and said pocket is open downwardly in said one of said sashes for insertion and withdrawal of said remainder of said coiled spring from below said one of said sashes.
2. The subject matter of claim 1, wherein said one rail has an opening therein at said location, and a latch extending on said one end of said coiled spring and into said opening for the releasable latching onto said one rail.
3. The subject matter of claim 1, wherein both said sashes have pockets therein, and a coiled spring is disposed in each of said pockets and said one ends of said coiled springs are connected at two different locations to said rails for yieldingly urging upwardly on each of said sashes, said two locations both being disposed to be within the reach of said one ends of said springs rand along said rails when said remainder of said springs are fully coiled and in their said pockets and while said sashes are in their respective said upper-limit positions.
4. The subject matter of claim 3, wherein said pocket in said upper sash is in said horizontal portion thereof, and said location of the connection of said one end of said coiled spring on said upper sash is at a level below that of said horizontal portion of said upper sash when the latter is in its upper-limit position.
5. The subject matter of claim 4, wherein said upper sash and its said coiled spring and said horizontal portion of said lower sash are both arranged to have said horizontal portion of said lower sash extend over the front elevational view of all of the said pocket in said upper sash and also over said one end and also over said remainder of said coiled spring on said upper sash.
6. The subject matter of claim 4, wherein said coiled spring on said upper sash extends upwardly from its said location and to a level above that of at least a portion of said pocket in said upper sash and then extends into a downward bend and into said pocket in said upper sash.
7. The subject matter of claim 6, wherein said coiled spring is pre-loaded when said upper sash is in said upperlimit position, for yieldingly holding said upper sash in said upper-limit position.
8. The subject matter of claim 1, wherein said one nail has an opening therein at said location, and a latch ex.- tending on said one end of said coiled spring into a direc- 7 tion oblique to the plane of the adjacent uncoiled straight portion of said spring, for insertion and removal of said latch with respect to said opening in said rail when said uncoiled straight portion is extending between said rail and said sash.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,609,193 9/ 1952 Foster 49-445 XR 8 2,732,594 1/ 1956 Adams et al 16-197 XR 2,825,090 3/ 1958 Osten 49-445 XR 3,248,821 5/1966 Johnson 49-430 XR KENNETH DOWNEY, Primary Examiner U.S. C1. X.R. 16-197